Human Relations Management Theory: Summary, Examples

Patrick Ward

Definition of Human Relations Management Theory

Human Relations management theory is a premise of organizational psychology from the early twentieth century, which suggests that employee productivity and motivation can be increased through positive social bonds in the workplace and acknowledgement of the worker as a unique individual. It holds that improved working conditions (empowerment, participation, positive treatment) lead to increased productivity.

If you’re getting educated on management and leadership theory, you can’t go long without hearing the term Human Relations Theory.

While some aspects of Human Relations Theory show their age since the 1920s, the overall impact of the school of thought is still cited as a source for the popularity of “startup” perks like on-site daycare and employee wellness programs.

  • What “Human Relations Theory” is
  • The history of Human Relations Theory
  • The key principles of Human Relations
  • Which other schools of thought have a relationship with Human Relations Theory
  • The ongoing relevance of Human Relations for startups and tech companies today

A Brief History of Human Relations Theory

Human Relations management theory originated between 1924 and 1932 during experiments conducted at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. 1

These studies were started by scholars from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), but Elton Mayo and Fritz J. Roethlisberger of the Harvard Business School became involved in 1927 and eventually popularized the subject.

Building at MIT campus.

Around that time, Western Electric had begun to look for ways to “inspire company loyalty, discourage high employee turnover and unionization, and present a good face to the public.” 2

They attempted to accomplish these goals by increasing total compensation and improving employee well-being in the workplace. The latter of the two methods, increasing employee well-being in the workplace, is what prompted the Hawthorne Experiments and marked a shift in management theory from strictly scientific to multidisciplinary.

Arial view of Hathorne Plant in the 1920s, illustration.

In fact, the Hawthorne studies were the first to focus on the work life of employees. From then on, companies would have an interest in the applications of behavioral, social, and medical sciences to management and productivity, and scholars (like George Lombard, Paul Lawrence, and others) began to develop the field of Organizational Behavior.

What Are the Key Principles of Human Relations?

During the Hawthorne Experiments, researchers discovered that employee motivation is influenced by many factors.

These factors are categorized in a number of ways, but the simplest for understanding Human Relations is to do it by actor.

Using this method, you can see that four primary categories of actors influence employee motivation:

  • The employee
  • Groups of employees
  • Supervisors and managers
  • The organization

By understanding each actor category’s role in the process, an organization can put in place working conditions that optimize employee motivation and, in turn, productivity.

In each of the following sections, I’ll go over what was discovered about the category and the Human Relations principles that came as a result.

1. Treat employees well as individuals

As we all know intuitively, a large portion of employee motivation comes from each person as an individual. Each individual’s motivation is influenced by their unique personality, experiences, capabilities, circumstance, thoughts, behaviors, and other factors.

As such, a key principle of Human Relations is for organizations to consider individual factors and how they can be influenced to increase motivation. This can include initiatives that look to change/improve an employee’s personal circumstance in and outside the workplace as well as their personal desires, perceptions, and attitudes.

2. Promote positive group values and relationships

Since individuals have social needs and interact together in the workplace, group factors must also play a role in employee motivation.

As discovered during the Hawthorne Experiments, cliques form and establish informal rules within the workplace, in turn exercising power and influence on the attitudes and behaviors of all the individuals involved.

Therefore, a key principle of Human Relations is that an organization must promote positive group values and relationships so that social pressure will produce teamwork and positive employee attitudes and behaviors.

If this can be done, results from the study indicate that group productivity will improve as desired.

3. Ensure effective management and supervision

In addition to individual and group influences, managers and supervisors also impact employee motivation.

In fact, the Hawthorne studies showed that “many worker behaviors, attitudes, and emotions have their genesis in their supervisor’s actions” and that “stress and fatigue can be the result of interactions with supervisors and coworkers.”

As a result, another key principle of Human Relations is that an organization must ensure that managers and supervisors:

  • Understand psychology (including motivation and behavior);
  • Are sensitive to employees’ individual and group needs;
  • Communicate effectively;
  • Are supportive and motivating (including giving positive feedback to employees); and
  • Empower employees and allow for some degree of autonomy/control.

To the other extreme, if managers disagreed with company policies and/or become too closely allied with workers, they were found to limit production and sabotage performance.

Therefore, an organization must also ensure that managers and supervisors fulfill their roles and responsibilities as leaders and work in the best interests of their company as well.

4. Establish effective organizational conditions

As you may have noticed in the previous three categories, the organization is clearly at the center of Human Relations. This is because the organization houses and controls the underlying conditions for all of the aforementioned parties and interactions.

Thus, a key principle of Human Relations is that the organization must create working conditions that allow for/promote increased individual and group attitudes toward work. This includes the organization ensuring that:

  • Physical working conditions are safe and conducive to employee performance;
  • Social and other related working conditions promote employee productivity;
  • Employee compensation and benefits are appropriate and effective;
  • Managers and supervisors have and use appropriate leadership skills;
  • Input from managers, supervisors, and employees is incorporated into the organization’s policies and procedures; and
  • All parties’ interests are aligned.

As was discovered during the Hawthorne Experiments, if an organization can apply these key principles, then it can achieve the original goals of inspiring company loyalty , discouraging high employee turnover and unionization , and presenting a good face to the public .

Schools of Thought Related to Human Relations Theory

The simplest way to determine which schools of thought have a relationship with Human Relations Theory is to examine the theory’s contemporaries.

In the next few sections, we’ll dig deep on the historical context of management theories that took root around Human Relations Theory:

Management Theory Prior to Human Relations

Just prior to Human Relations Theory, in the late 1800s to early 1900s, the management theories of Frederick Winslow Taylor, Max Weber , Henri Fayol, and others were most prominent. They all shared a similarity with Human Relations in that they were a departure from managerial norms in favor of improvement. That said, they did have their differences.

Henry Fayol portrait.

Taylor, who is known as the father of Scientific Management, used science to determine “the most effective and efficient way to accomplish a given task.” Instead of focusing on the performer of the task (i.e. the employee) as in Human Relations, this approach focused primarily on the task itself.

Weber, who is known as the father of Sociology, developed the Principles of the Ideal Bureaucracy, which provide justification of and rules for management decisions. This theory shared a focus on the individual with Human Relations, but approached things from a management and leadership perspective rather than a worker’s perspective.

Fayol, who is known for Fayolism or Administrative Theory, developed the 14 Principles of Management, which detail the responsibilities of managers. This theory considered human needs and relationships between parties in the workplace like Human Relations, but it focused primarily on administrative rather than psychological aspects.

Management Theories Developed Alongside Human Relations

As Human Relations Theory was gaining popularity, the management theories of Chester Barnard and Mary Parker Follett were gaining ground as well.

Barnard is best known for his work called “the zone of indifference.” This work examined what could make a worker disobey orders, thus focusing on the individual like Human Relations. Conversely, unlike Human Relations, his theory promoted logical rather than social or emotional influences on behavior.

Follett is best known for her work on conflict resolution. In particular, she showed that social concerns were important to employee relations and that integrative solutions were paramount. While her work differed by having a more Taylor-like foundation, her work also focused on social and emotional influences like Human Relations.

In What Ways Is Human Relations Theory Relevant Today?

Despite originating in the late 1920s, Human Relations principles are still very relevant .

Henry Fayol portrait.

First , since organizations are still made up of people, understanding how individual factors influence motivation is important. In addition to utilizing the psychology of motivation, caring for employees through internal and external benefits — like parental leave, onsite wellness and healthcare services, fitness centers, personal and professional development, and more at Google — is still effective at improving employee productivity (as many studies 3 have shown).

Second , while the use of remote technology and groups continues to grow internationally 4 , producing in groups is still the norm in business. Thus, it is still true that organizations must foster positive group dynamics in order to produce teamwork and positive employee attitudes and behaviors .

Third , over time, it has become more and more apparent 5 that effective leadership is critical to an organization’s success. This must be true given that managers across industries spend about 75% of their time in verbal interaction, most often with subordinates . Therefore, it is still important that an organization ensures managers and supervisors are equipped to support and motivate employees.

Finally, it is clear that organizations still must create working conditions that allow for/promote increased individual and group attitudes toward work. A great example of establishing positive individual and group working conditions is the work flexibility offered by Cisco . There, you can time swap 20% or 100% of your job on a temporary or permanent basis and work across various business groups within the company.

Through these and other types of initiatives, businesses are certain to have a more fulfilled workforce who will perform better and remain loyal to their company.

Future developments based in Human Relations Theory

While there have been many developments in management theory since, Human Relations Theory is certainly still relevant today.

If you incorporate its principles into your organization and work as a leader, you’ll surely be rewarded with better workplace relationships and employee performance.

Further Reading

  • Baker Library. (n.d.). The Human Relations Movement: Harvard Business School and the Hawthorne Experiments . Harvard Business School.
  • Black, J. S. & Bright, D. S. (2019). Organizational Behavior . OpenStax.
  • Bright, D. S., & Cortes, A. H. (2019). Principles of Management . OpenStax.
  • Gitman, L. J., McDaniel, C., Shah, A., Reece, M., Koffel, L., Talsma, B., & Hyatt, J. C. (2018). Introduction to Business . OpenStax.
  • Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e . OpenStax.–2e   ↩   ↩   ↩   ↩   ↩

Patrick Ward

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human relations theory case study

3.6 Human Relations Movement

  • How did Elton Mayo influence management theory, and how did the human relations movement affect current management theory?

The human relations movement was a natural response to some of the issues related to scientific management and the under-socialized view of the worker that ignored social aspects of work. The key uniting characteristics of Taylor, Weber, and Fayol were the ideas of efficiency produced through either operational, legal, or administrative improvements. One of the principal assumptions was an emphasis on rationality. 48 According to scientific management, there was a logic to actions, and formal and knowledge authority were the principal catalysts of workplace motivation. Scientific management tended to downplay the effects of social pressures on human interactions. 49 The human relations movement enhanced scientific management because it acknowledged that peoples’ attitudes, perceptions, and desires play a role in their workplace performance. With this acknowledgement, for example, managers began to realize that settling disputes was more difficult than the scientific management approach described.

The major difference between scientific management and human relations theory was that human relations theory recognized that social factors were a source of power in the workplace. While Taylor recognized the existence of social pressures in an organization, he sought to diminish them through pay, that is, compensating workers for production even though social pressure forced workers to reduce production. Fayol recognized the existence of social issues as well, but he emphasized commitment to the organization as a management technique rather than commitment of workers to each other or to their supervisor. Weber placed emphasis on the rule of law and believed that laws and regulations would guide society and corporations. Yet he did not spend enough energy recognizing the outcomes that happen when rules break down. Fayol and Weber did not recognize the role of corporate culture in an organization and did not examine more closely why workers do not follow orders. The human relations movement added more of the social element to the study and theory of work. 50

Perhaps no research studies have been as misunderstood as the Hawthorne studies. The Hawthorne studies are the most influential, misunderstood, and criticized research experiment in all of the social sciences. The legend goes that Elton Mayo (1880–1949) researched, theorized, and developed human relations theory based on a 1924–1932 experiment he conducted at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Cicero Illinois. However, there is very little of the legend that is true. The truth is more complicated and difficult to understand. Most textbooks claim that Mayo researched and conducted the studies. Yet this is fiction. The studies were commenced by scholars from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mayo did not become involved until 1927. Nevertheless, it is Mayo’s vision of Hawthorne that has come to dominate the literature.

The first phase of the Hawthorne studies was called the illumination study, and it sought to measure the impact of light upon productivity. The study was inconclusive because there were too many variables other than light that could have affected worker productivity. The researchers had difficulty understanding why productivity increased. The second phase of the study was called the relay-assembly-test-room, and these experiments were carried out in a room where researchers tested the effect that working conditions such as breaks, length of the workday, company-provided lunches, and payment method had on productivity. They selected six young female workers to be part of a team that produced a phone relay switch. Each woman was young and unlikely to be married any time soon. One woman was assigned to gather the parts to make the switch, and each of the other five women was assigned to assemble one component of the phone relay. The researchers found that production increased regardless of what variable was manipulated. Nevertheless, soldiering still occurred during the experiment. After two workers were fired for a health issue and getting married, production increased even more. The results were surprising to the researchers: they had expected to see a reduction but instead saw a consistent increase.

The Hawthorne executives turned to Elton Mayo, an Australian psychologist from Harvard University, to explain the puzzling results. Most of the controversy regarding the Hawthorne studies stems from Mayo’s involvement. Mayo observed that production could be increased if management understood the role of individual workers’ attitudes toward work and also took into account how group attitudes affected behavior. Mayo theorized that social issues and attention paid by the supervisor to these issues played a role in increasing production. The Hawthorne women were granted freedoms at work, including the ability to make suggestions regarding their work conditions. Many of the Hawthorne women felt that they were special and that if they performed well on the relay assembly task, they would be treated better by the company’s management. Additionally, the Hawthorne women became very friendly with each other. Their connection as a team and increased satisfaction in their work appeared to drive the women to greater performance. Yet the study found that financial incentives were a clear driver of performance as well.

A third study, called the bank wiring room study, was conducted between 1931 and 1932. Rather than being selected to form a new group, participants in the bank wiring room study consisted of an already existing group, one that had a number of bad behaviors. Regardless of financial incentives, group members decided that they would only produce 6,000 to 6,600 connections a day. Workers who produced more were ostracized or hit on the arm to lower production. George Homans summarized the difference in the results of the relay assembly and the bank wiring room experiments:

“Both groups developed an informal social organization, but while the Bank Wiremen were organized in opposition to management, the Relay Assemblers were organized in cooperation with management in the pursuit of a common purpose. Finally, the responses of the two groups to their industrial situation were, on the one hand, restriction of output and, on the other, steady and welcome increase of output. These contrasts carry their own lesson.”

Researchers found that cliques were formed that placed informal rules on the workers within a group. According to Homans, the workers also made a connection with one of the managers to control production. The discovery that management could ally themselves with the workforce to limit production was a notable contribution to management thought at the time. It suggests that managerial authority can break down if the manager disagrees with management’s policy toward the workers.

What did the studies mean? On some level, they were meaningless because they proved little. Indeed, they have been called scientifically worthless. There were too many variables being manipulated; the sample size was too small; observations were collected at random; the Hawthorne researchers viewed the experiments through their own ideological lenses. They made mistakes in assuming that that the wage was insignificant to the workers, when in reality the wage was a significant driving force. Yet these criticisms ignore two major facts about the Hawthorne studies. The first is that the Hawthorne studies were the first to focus on the actual work life of the workers. This was a notable change in sociological research. The second fact is that the studies were intended to generate future research, and future research did discover that attitudes play a major role in determining workplace outcomes. Another important finding concerned the role of the supervisor. Many worker behaviors, attitudes, and emotions have their genesis in their supervisor’s actions. Stress and fatigue can be the result of interactions with supervisors and coworkers; they are not just a response to less-than-ideal physical conditions. Finally, the Hawthorne studies showed that work motivation is a function of a wide variety of factors, including pay, social relationships, meaning, interests, and attitudes.

Barnard and the “Zone of Indifference”

Chester Barnard (1886–1961) was president of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. 51 As president, he was given an unusual amount of time to conduct research. Barnard had been a student at Harvard, and through his connections there, he found out about some of the industrial research going on. His notable contribution was a book called The Functions of the Executive . 52 Barnard argued that an executive’s purpose is to gain resources from members within the organization by ensuring that they perform their jobs and that cooperation exists between various groups within the organization. The other notable function of an executive is to hire and retain talented employees. Barnard defined a formal organization as consciously coordinated activities between two or more people but noted that such coordination is not likely to last for very long, a factor that may explain why many companies do not survive for long periods of time.

Barnard believed that executives best exerted authority through communication and the use of incentives. Communication within an organization should include definite channels of communication, and workers should have access to knowledge and information. Communication should be clear, direct, and honest so that members of an organization understand what is expected of them.

Barnard stressed several important outcomes regarding incentives. Some of his incentives reflected the human relations movement’s occupation with social outcomes but tempered that movement’s emphasis with an understanding that workers labored for pay. The first incentive was that there should be monetary and other material inducements to encourage better performance and production. The second incentive was that there should be nonmaterial incentives, such as recognition. The third incentive was that working conditions should be desirable. The fourth and final incentive was that workers should find pride and meaning in the work they do. Barnard believed that a combination of these elements would ensure cooperation and contributions from organizational members.

While his findings on executive functions, communication, and incentives were significant, Barnard’s largest contribution to the study of management involved what he called the “ zone of indifference .” The idea behind the zone of indifference is that workers will comply with orders if they are indifferent to them. This does not mean they have to agree with or support the orders. Rather the zone of indifference suggests that workers need merely to be indifferent to an order to follow it and that workers will follow orders due to an individual’s natural tendency to follow authority. The zone of indifference must be reached through the following factors. First, the workers must have the ability to comply with the order. Second, workers must understand the order. Third, the order must be consistent with organizational goals. For both management and the worker to cooperate, their interests must be aligned. Fourth, the order must not violate an individual’s personal beliefs. Barnard provided an explanation for why workers do not always obey orders.

Follett and Conflict Resolution

Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933) found a way to use the tenets of the human relations movement to solve some of the problems with the scientific management framework. Follett was a political scientist from Harvard. (Her work on the Speaker of the House remains the classic in the field.) After graduating from Harvard, given the limited opportunities for women, she wound up in the field of social work. She continued to publish works on philosophy and political science, but, based on her social work connections, she soon found herself drifting over to the Taylor Society, a group dedicated to the principles of scientific management. Later in her career, she turned toward business. As Wren and Bedeian note, chronologically she belonged to the scientific management era, but intellectually she belonged to the human relations movement era. 53

Follett’s work was largely ignored for years either because it was too original or because she was a woman; it is likely both factors played a role. 54 Her ideas found little acceptance during the period because in her time, management saw workers only as tools. Her focus was on how to reduce conflict. Follett’s contribution was that she pointed out that management should take social concerns into account when dealing with workers. She asked questions of management: How do we create unity of action? How do we help workers live fuller, richer lives? How do we contribute to group success? Her argument was that individual behavior is affected by and affects others in the group. 55 Accordingly, she argued for the need of the principle of coordination to have a continuous interaction of all factors. What she meant was that both management and the worker should be able to understand the other’s viewpoint. She sought to have both management and the worker share power with each other, rather than have power over one another. In addition, unlike Weber and more in line with Taylor, she believed that power should be based on knowledge and expertise.

Follett also argued that there are several ways to resolve conflicts. The first is to have one party dominate the other. In dominance , one party dictates the terms of the arrangement. Follett recognized that very few situations in life allow this to be possible and that, for many companies, this approach is impossible without incurring social costs in terms of a disaffected workforce. The second solution is compromise . In a compromise, neither side gets exactly everything it wants, and the best each side can do is obtain a result that each can agree too. The problem with this approach is that both sides give up what they really want and settle on what they can agree on. In a compromise, neither side is happy. The third way to solve conflict is integration , which occurs when each party states its preferences and attempts to reach an agreement. Follett provided an example of integration:

In the Harvard Library one day, in one of the smaller rooms, someone wanted the window open. I wanted it shut. We opened the window in the next room where no one was sitting. 56

It would appear that this situation is a compromise. But closely look at it; Follett wanted the window closed, and her study partner wanted a window open. It just did not have to be in that room. Because they rearranged the problem, they came up with a solution that was satisfactory to both of them.

Concept Check

  • What did the Hawthorne studies, Barnard, and Fayol contribute to management thought?
  • What did the works of Follett and Mayo contribute to management thought?

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Human Relations

(16 reviews)

human relations theory case study

Laura Portolese Dias, Central Washington University

Copyright Year: 2012

ISBN 13: 9781453349755

Publisher: LibreTexts

Language: English

Formats Available

Conditions of use.


Learn more about reviews.

human relations theory case study

Reviewed by Ben Bryan, Adjunct Faculty, Social Science Department, Rogue Community College on 1/2/22

This text has 13 chapters and appears to adequately cover the subject of Human Relations in the workforce. There are no relevant content areas missing. However, there are references to material not included. Consider the below section, even though... read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less

This text has 13 chapters and appears to adequately cover the subject of Human Relations in the workforce. There are no relevant content areas missing. However, there are references to material not included. Consider the below section, even though ‘White Male Bashing’ is in quotes, it is not further explained anywhere in the chapter:

Another important aspect of power and privilege is the fact that we may have privilege in one area and not another. For example, I am a Caucasian female, which certainly gives me race privilege but not gender privilege. Important to note here is that the idea of power and privilege is not about “white male bashing” but understanding our own stereotypes and systems of advantage so we can be more inclusive with our coworkers, employees, and managers.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

This book covers Human Relations in the workforce accurately and without error. Each section includes real-world examples, all of which accurately reflect the associated theory.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The content in this book is completely up to date, and refreshingly, uses APA format to reference online sources, such as ‘Accessed this day/year’ which gives credibility to its contemporary nature and will be easy to update for future editions.

Clarity rating: 2

Unfortunately, the prose is in this book is difficult to follow and distracting from the content. There are frequent run-on sentences and comma splices which make sentence structure awkward. In addition, the in-text citations are thorough to the point they pollute the content. A glossary or works-cited section would remedy this. As you can see, five of the eight lines of text below relate to the source of the material, but not the subject.

The original researchers of EQ, John Mayer and Peter Salovey, Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.). Handbook of intelligence (pp. 396–420). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. provided the first hint of emotional intelligence in their research, but much of the later research on emotional intelligence was done by Daniel Goleman.Goleman, Daniel. (n.d.). Emotional intelligence. Accessed February 26, 2012, According to Goleman, there are four main aspects to emotional intelligence, which we will discuss later in this section. First, why is emotional intelligence necessary for success?

Consistency rating: 5

This text is consistent, both with its reference to material as well as included researchers. It doesn’t contradict itself or inadvertently provide counter-examples.

Modularity rating: 5

The text is easily and readily divisible into smaller reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course. In addition, the material in this text does not build on itself, and units could therefore be used out of order to match existing content or required course learning outcomes. Although it references itself from other chapters, it does not do so that prior review of the course is required to understand each chapter’s content. One advantage to not using a glossary or bibliography is that all source material is included in each section and therefore could be divided into very small units and used as a supplement to other courses without the entire textbook.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 2

The 13 chapters are presented with clearly differentiated subjects and themes. However, they are not organized in a clear or logical manner. There appears to be no intentional or thematic order to the material (they aren’t organized illogically). Although this supports modularity, it would be helpful if the chapters were delineated into groups, or themes. Something simple like ‘Working with yourself, working with other individuals, working with groups, working with organizations, etc.’ would address this gap.

Interface rating: 5

The text format and technology is relatively simple and doesn’t include a lot of non-text content, embedded media or interactive features. Therefore, the interface works perfectly and there are no concerns.

Grammatical Errors rating: 1

The grammar, sentence structure and word choice are awkward, distracting and undermines understanding of the material. For example, the item below is listed as a learning objective for Chapter 6. The negative tense of implies the material covers work dissatisfaction, and not what makes people satisfied with their employment (which it does):

‘Be able to discuss why you or others may not be satisfied at work.’ ‘Be able to apply work satisfaction theories to yourself and others.’ would better capture the content in the chapter.

Cultural Relevance rating: 4

The text is not culturally insensitive nor dominant majority centric. The majority of cultural references are to agency or career area culture, and not race/ethnicity/gender/socioeconomic differences. Other than the ‘Manage Diversity at Work’ chapter, the word culture is rarely included in other sections. A fascinating and engaging addition would be to include culture of working in businesses in other countries. For example, the challenges a Caucasian male would face in a Muslim agency in Dubai.

Overall, I liked this book and it has a lot of potential. As is, I would include content and small sections in my existing courses. It was mentioned above, but the number of in text references is both helpful and distracting. A good application of this writing style would be a small topic area focusing on something counter-intuitive or controversial could be exported and students could easily identify the sources for further follow up.

Reviewed by Marcie Van Note, Associate Professor, MBA and MSL Programs Director, Mount Mercy University on 12/31/21

The textbook is thorough in the subjects covered. While some of the information is dated, there are case studies that can be adapted at the beginning of each chapter to prepares the reader the opportunity to begin thinking about the chapter... read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

The textbook is thorough in the subjects covered. While some of the information is dated, there are case studies that can be adapted at the beginning of each chapter to prepares the reader the opportunity to begin thinking about the chapter material. The index is helpful, there is no glossary but the, Chapter Summary does a good job reinforcing key concepts and explaining terminology.

Content Accuracy rating: 4

The content was accurate for the time it was written.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 3

Some of the content is out of date with statistics, those statistics will be difficult to update.

Clarity rating: 5

The text is clearly written with many case studies, exercises and key takeaways for beginners. I will not be able to use the text in graduate classes, which I was hoping to be able to do.

Terminology is consistent throughout the book.

Modularity rating: 4

There are good case studies that can be assigned to help solidify key concepts discussed. I thought the chapters were divided in such a way that were helpful to the reader. These sections could be easily used with other readings.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The text has a good flow and builds on concepts of the previous chapters.

Interface rating: 3

I was not able to link to the videos suggested in the book. Many of the resources and links to article were available.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

I did not find any grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

I did not see any issues.

The book was well written with good graphics and case studies. I hope that the book is updated, soon.

Reviewed by Nicole Berger, Adjunct Professor, Barton Community College on 5/18/21

This text focuses on the practical side of human relations. The textbook focuses on 13 different areas in the human relations area. There are many practical applications throughout the textbook that students may appreciate more than studying... read more

This text focuses on the practical side of human relations. The textbook focuses on 13 different areas in the human relations area. There are many practical applications throughout the textbook that students may appreciate more than studying theoretical approaches to the subject matter. The students should be able to apply the concepts to not only their professional environments but also their personal life.

No glaring errors and no biased content from what I can tell.

The concepts presented in this book are relevant to many issues that we see today. The text book includes videos, cases and exercises which can be applied to real world scenarios. I teach an online course and feel that this textbook could be relevant for both in-person and online courses.

The textbook is easy to follow and vocabulary seems to be clear and to the point. Key terms are bold throughout the text which would make it easy for students to determine what the takeaways are for the chapter and throughout the textbook. I also think that the format of the chapters will make it easy for the reader to apply the concepts to life situations.

The book seems to be consistent throughout. As I look back through the textbook, I can easily find the terms and/or concepts that I am looking for. A student can also easily click back through a chapter or certain section of the textbook.

I only teach this course online, but I feel that this textbook would fit well with that format as well as other formats. The introductions and explanation of key terms in the introduction at the beginning of each chapter make it easy to adjust the content to different types of delivery methods.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 4

I love the way the textbook is set up, as mentioned in several sections above, it is set up to make the textbook easy to follow as well as to determine what the key points are throughout the text. The 13 areas that the textbook focuses on don't tend to flow into the next subject very well.

The interface of this textbook is simple but makes the content easy to understand. There are clear visuals throughout the content of the textbook.

I did not encounter any grammatical errors throughout the text.

This textbook is not offensive or insensitive in any way. The examples given in the textbook could be applied to any reader.

The textbook is good quality for being a free source. The content is also easy to read and is formatted to make it easier to read.

Reviewed by Marva Solomon, Instructor, Lane Community College on 6/24/20

This textbook is an easy read for first year college students as well as students in their senior year. As a matter of fact hight school students can also benefit from studying this textbook. this book is relevant to the world of work. Students... read more

This textbook is an easy read for first year college students as well as students in their senior year. As a matter of fact hight school students can also benefit from studying this textbook. this book is relevant to the world of work. Students can learn how to navigate their work environment with professionalism.

The sources referenced in this book is accurate. The content in each chapter is accurate it provides reference to real life business and how they operate. this textbook also provides strategies for being successful in the work of work.

Because can be updated to include current trends in the world of work, it will be relevant for years to come. This is the beautiful thing about using OER.

This textbook has a great quality of transparency. It provides real work life scenarios that allows one to think about how to function in healthy ways in the workplace.

Each chapter of this textbook is consistent and uniform. One of the main themes in each chapter is Emotional Intelligence. Each chapter asks; Why Human Relations? Each chapter has Key Takeaways and Exercises.

The chapters in this textbook can be easily arranged into smaller sections while staying focus on the topic of each chapter.

Indeed the topics are presented in a clear and logical fashion. The first chapter gives an in depth understanding of the topic Human Relations. The following chapters flow well. If the order of the chapters were rearranged this book would still be comprehensive.

for the most part interface was reasonably good. there are some broken links in each chapter that will need updating. Illustrations were good and comprehensible.

Overall there were very few grammatical errors in the chapters of this book.

This textbook is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. Students from all races can benefit from this book.

Reading the chapters the on Being Ethical at Work, Working Effectively in Groups, Handle Conflict and Negotiation stood out for me. I was impressed with the information given in these chapters. The information in these chapters as well as the others chapters are tools each student should keep in their tool box and use on a regular basis.

Reviewed by Reina Daugherty, Instructor, Linn-Benton Community College on 5/30/20

This text covers 13 different important and relevant topics. read more

This text covers 13 different important and relevant topics.

This text provides information from quality sources and is substantially error free. Concepts are presented in an informative way that is educational and does not persuade the reader to take a certain perspective.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

Many of the foundational concepts that are covered cite the original contributor(s), so while dated are necessary for introducing the topic. Other examples and definitions could be from more current perspectives. The book could be easily updated.

It is well written in common language that can be easily understood by most.

The chapters are structured consistently with few exceptions.

Topics are divided into 13 chapters and each chapter has 4-6 sub-topics. Text is broken up with headings, boxes, and images.

The order of the chapters doesn't totally make sense, but is otherwise well organized.

The book is aesthetically appealing with clear visuals and a modern look.

Text is well written without grammatical errors.

The text is inclusive of all backgrounds.

Great quality textbook for a free option.

Reviewed by Douglas Swanson, Coordinator for Labor Studies, University of Missouri St. Louis on 5/21/18

By focusing this textbook on the practical side of human relations the authors have provided a good text that can be used as a foundation for beginning human relations classes. I agree with some of the other reviewers that an index or glossary... read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

By focusing this textbook on the practical side of human relations the authors have provided a good text that can be used as a foundation for beginning human relations classes. I agree with some of the other reviewers that an index or glossary would have been helpful.

Content Accuracy rating: 2

I felt that a few of statements in chapter 11 (A union has two goals, to add new members and to collect dues.) create a bias, which is unfortunate. The fact that it is repeated in two places raises concerns given that the authors also point out in the chapter that at some point during their careers students may have cause to join unions. Elsewhere in the chapter the authors provide more positive statements regarding working with unions which made these statements standout all the more.

The rest of the book appears to be free of any biases and to be accurate.

The book is laid out in such a way that it should be easy to update when new census date or technology for example become available. I hope that the authors plan an update soon, it would be a shame for this textbook to become outdated so quickly.

The writing was clear and easy to follow. The layout of the pages and chapters was done in such a way that helped the delivery of the material flow well. The limited use of technical terms and jargon were well explained when the jargon or technical terms were needed.

The format of this textbook flowed well, is clear and well written. The consistency in formatting between chapters makes it easy for the reader to follow.

By dividing chapters into easily identifiable units the authors were successful in trying to make a textbook on a vast subject easier to utilize. The units or sections create a great deal of instructional flexibility.

The textbook has an easy flow and is well organized. With the authors tone appearing to speak so directly to the reader the text is easy for students to follow.

As other reviewers have noted some of the tables/charts/graphs are missing, or did not open, which creates a distraction and a loss of clarity at times. This coupled with the lack of an index and/or glossary created some challenges.

I did not note any grammatical errors.

No cultural, racial or sexual offensive references were noted.

This is the first open source reference textbook I have reviewed. With the exception of the problems noted regarding not all of the graphics downloading it presents as professional and topical as traditional textbooks. I believe this textbook well suited for a entry level human relations course.

Reviewed by Ben Bryan, Adjunct Faculty, Rogue Community College on 4/11/17

This book seems appropriately comprehensive for a Human Relations textbook related to work and a career. All of the relevant theories are covered in a thorough manner and related well to the context of employment. There was no areas that were... read more

This book seems appropriately comprehensive for a Human Relations textbook related to work and a career. All of the relevant theories are covered in a thorough manner and related well to the context of employment. There was no areas that were missing related to employment.

This doesn't seem to be a gap but perhaps a direction for future versions, but...

The topics are introduced as how the relate to work, but they overlap in people's personal lives. Having consistent formatted examples of how the same theory applies to people's personal lives and then spills over to their job would be helpful.

Overall the accuracy of this book was terrific and I did not notice any errors. One thing I did notice that seemed slightly biased is the section 5.1 An Ethics Framework did not address or refer to any profession specific codes of ethics which apply to any licensed position.

This book has terrific longevity. The self-reflective questions are timeless as they could apply to any career at any time. In addition the sections that provide guidance on incorporating the theories into your life would remain up to date as well. For example, section 4.4 Public Speaking Strategies discusses the "Speaker's Triangle" which will be relevant regardless of year or context.

This book is completely clear. Part of what makes this true is the consistently formatted chapters which are also clearly labeled in a manner that covers the topic of the chapter very well. The introduction explains the formatting and then each section is consistent. For example, the beginning of each chapter includes an example of how the topics relate to you as the reader while the end includes a case study on a specific individual. This makes it possible for students to know what to expect and to skip to that part if they need help with real world examples.

As mentioned above, this book is very consistent. Even during this review online, I was able to quickly find relevant information in each chapter because I knew where to look and how to access it. As is true with any online textbook, being able to click on each chapter or heading makes for consistent access.

This book has great modulatory. Having taught Human Relations in many settings (traditional, online, in seminars and using parts in psycho educational groups) this book would work well for any of those settings. This is true because of the universal introductions and easy to understand explanations of key terms and theories in the introduction or first part of each section. I may use part of this book in my Human Relations class as it is modular (my class is non business human relations).

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 3

As mentioned several times before, the structure of this text is consistent and easy to navigate. One comment is that there does not seem to be a closing for the book as a whole. In addition, there are not many sections which tie into the rest of the book. Although that contributes to the modularity, it reduces the flow.

Interface is terrific. Simple yet effective. I had no questions at all about how to find the information I wanted and I am only using it for a short time period.

Excellent. No grammatical errors nor problems with sentence structure noticed in any of my reading.

This book did a good job of making itself culturally relevant. For example in the Communicate Effectively chapter, the first cultural examples were all generic "people from different cultures would have different standards for personal space". However, this changes and in the end of the chapter the cultural differences are explained through different countries.

This book was terrific! I may ask to teach a Human Relations of Business class just because it seems to user friendly!

Reviewed by Linda Davenport, Program Lead, Business Administration, Klamath Community College on 8/21/16

This textbook appears to cover the content area fully, especially compared to similar texts. It was awkward to not have an index or glossary (though that may be common with open source materials?) and figures did not show up correctly or load... read more

This textbook appears to cover the content area fully, especially compared to similar texts. It was awkward to not have an index or glossary (though that may be common with open source materials?) and figures did not show up correctly or load properly. I am new to open source materials, so, again, this may be typical. Regardless of the reason, those missing components do impact the overall image of the textbook a bit.

This textbook appears very accurate. I spot-checked different points and also compared several references to other textbooks and found them to be completely accurate.

Content appears very up-to-date and has a "contemporary" feel to it. The use of modules or "chunks" within the chapters should allow for easier updating when needed.

Clarity rating: 4

This textbook demonstrates clarity using several effective strategies. For example, the use of bold for key terms is very effective and eliminates the need for word definitions in the margins. The word choice is effective (jargon and technical terms appear to be very well explained), and the prose is easy to follow. There is a comfortable amount of "white space" on most pages, which causes the reader to not feel overwhelmed with content. Again, the lack of supporting figures is a frustration.

This textbook appears to be presented in a very consistent manner. The overall layout of the book creates a consistent flow from the first chapter through to the last using a format that is easy to follow.

The chapters are long, so the use of smaller modules represents an effective design choice! The modules are easy to read and follow, and the related questions help to reinforce the "modular" intent of this text.

The topics are presented in a very effective flow...the layout of each chapter with the consistency of personal examples, clarity of learning objectives and key takeaways, and examples of questions and activities is very sound and would work well in a face-to-face classroom or online setting. The personal tone in which the author appears to be talking directly to the reader is, I believe, especially engaging for this topic and that tone also helps with the structure and flow of the text.

The actual text appears to come through in a very clean and useful manner....unfortunately, as noted earlier, the figures are missing and that is a significant distraction (and reduces opportunity for clarity of particular topics). In regard to navigation, the lack of a glossary or at minimum an index also creates a bit of a challenge as I attempted to look particular terms up and was unable to find them without moving through the entire text.

I could find no issues with grammar in my review of this textbook.

I reviewed several specific examples and did not locate any instances of inappropriate cultural relevance or references.

This is the first open source resource that I have reviewed and it appears as professional and relevant as any traditional textbook that I have used (with the exception of the figures and index). Pending resolution of those concerns, I am anxious to use this book in my upcoming BUS 285 Human Relations in Organizations course!

Reviewed by Genevieve Klam, Instructor, Rogue Community College on 8/21/16

The textbook covers a wide variety of human relations issues and is useful not only for workplace relations but interpersonal as well. The focus of the text is practical rather than theoretical, perfect for a beginning human relations class. Case... read more

The textbook covers a wide variety of human relations issues and is useful not only for workplace relations but interpersonal as well. The focus of the text is practical rather than theoretical, perfect for a beginning human relations class. Case studies are presented throughout, giving the book a relevant, real-world feel.

Content of the book is accurate and unbiased.

Content is relevant to prevailing human relations topics and could be easily updated with additional information.

Text is unambiguous and well organized. Case studies, learning objectives, key takeaways and exercises embedded in each chapter made the book clear and concise.

The framework and terminology of the text are consistent throughout.

This text is easy to read and can be divided into smaller sections to be used for assignments. The learning objectives are clear, headings and sub headings can be utilized in various settings. Questions at the end of each chapter are excellent for review.

The topics are presented in a coherent and logical manner.

Interface rating: 4

Some of the boxes appeared blank but other than that I had no issues with the interface. Video links were functioning fine.

There are no grammatical errors.

The text is culturally sensitive and could be used in multicultural settings.

This textbook will be excellent as supplementary material for my ESL classes. It addresses many topics that will be useful for immigrant students in their transition to a new culture and occupational environment.

Reviewed by Jane Krump, Professor, North Dakota State College of Science on 1/7/16

The text covers all of the relevant topics in human relations as they relate to career success. Today's students will especially appreciate it's practical application focus, rather than theoretical focus. As presented, the concepts will be seen... read more

The text covers all of the relevant topics in human relations as they relate to career success. Today's students will especially appreciate it's practical application focus, rather than theoretical focus. As presented, the concepts will be seen as applicable to the work setting, but the reader will quickly see their usefulness in personal relationships, too.

The content is accurate and unbiased.

While covering the relevant topics in human relations, the author keeps the content up-to-date with links to YouTube videos, exercises, and chapter-ending cases that the instructor could easily use to encourage large or small group discussions. The format of the textbook also lends itself to be useful in the online classroom.

The text is written in concise sentences, using vocabulary appropriate to the discipline, while at the same time drawing in the reader with interesting examples and even occasional humor! Today's students will appreciate that the author swiftly gets to the point, and does so with some flair! Students will also appreciate that key terms are in bold within the text, and are identified in the "key takeaways" at the end of each section within the chapter.

The textbook is consistent in its format and terminology.

Each chapter is divided into "units" that have their own learning objectives, key takeaways, exercises, and references. This allows the instructor to select parts of the textbook to use, or allows the instructor to reorganize topics if they wish.

The topics are presented in a logical order. As I consider the usual preference for teaching introductory topics first in a course, and using them to build on more complex topics, I do agree that stress management and effective communication need to be early in the textbook.

I did not find any navigation issues that would distract the reader.

The text contains no grammatical errors.

I did not find anything culturally, racially, or sexually offensive in the textbook. The examples draw from a variety of backgrounds allowing most readers to find something they can identify with.

This textbook would work well for a wide variety of curricula, both in the career and technical fields and in the liberal arts transfer programs.

Reviewed by Debra McCarthy, instructor, Central Lakes College on 1/7/16

As described in the preface, the textbook is a practical guide to Human Resource Management. The information covered in the textbook is similar to other Human Resource Management textbooks. This is the first Human Resource Management text I... read more

As described in the preface, the textbook is a practical guide to Human Resource Management. The information covered in the textbook is similar to other Human Resource Management textbooks. This is the first Human Resource Management text I have reviewed that has a chapter dedicated to communication. Chapter 9 "Successful Employee Communication" was a good addition.

The author uses credible sources including the Society of Human Resource Management (SHRM), the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Harvard Business Review. The Fortune 500 boxes were a credible addition.

The sources that are used in the text are 2012 and prior. In some of the cases, there may be more current, relevant data available.

The text was clear and concise.

The text had a consistent layout through all fourteen chapters.

In other textbooks, learning objectives are stated in entirety at the beginning of each chapter. In this textbook, learning objectives are arranged by sections within each chapter. Using this format, makes it easier for the reader to comprehend and retain concepts.

The organization of the text was easy to follow and understand. The booked followed the processes used by Human Resources in an organization.

The text was free of interface issues. The display features enhaned and in many cases clarified information for the reader.

Grammatical Errors rating: 4

The only grammatical error I found was in chapter two

Chapter 3 is devoted to "Diversity and Multiculturalism". Section 3.1 defines and explains power and privilege which I have not seen included in other textbooks.

This book was a practical guide to Human Resource Management as stated by the author in the preface. I thought the examples in each chapter clarified chapter concepts and kept the text in a "real world" approach. I thought it was a great idea to break chapter objectives into sections within the chapter. The videos also aid in the clarification of chapter concepts.

Reviewed by Fayetta Robinson, CMA(AAMA) MA Instructor, Treasure Valley Community College on 1/7/16

The text book appropriately and effectively covered numerous topics in regards to human relations and is suitable for a wide variety of audiences. read more

The text book appropriately and effectively covered numerous topics in regards to human relations and is suitable for a wide variety of audiences.

From my perspective, the book was accurate and unbiased, without any noticeable errors.

The content is up to date with todays society without appearing to need updated on a regular basis. If and when they are needed, the could be done without disrupting the majority of the content.

Content is clear, concise, and easy to read. The average student should easily understand any jargon or technical terminology encountered in the text.

The text is consistent throughout, with each chapter being laid out in the same manner.

The text could easily be divided into separate sections without losing valuable information. If an instructor chose to present the information in a different order than it is presented, it could be reorganized without disruption to the content or readability.

The topics are presented in a clear fashion which seems very logical when looking at the whole text. Although the table of contents/index might be better at the beginning of the book rather than the end of the first chapter, it was useful.

While most of the video links and tables were without issues, I found that some of figures and tables were unable to be viewed, even with a different device. Although some of the boxes appeared as blanks, it did not detract from the content.

The text did not have any noticeable grammatical errors.

The text was not offensive or insensitive to race or gender. It could be used for an audience that included a variety of ethnicities and backgrounds.

The variety of examples and scenarios made the text interesting and enjoyable to read. There are several types of exercises at the end of every chapter that could be utilized for different projects or individual needs. These would simplify any customization that may be needed for various settings or abilities.

Reviewed by Ken Kompelien, Academic Dean, Social & Behavioral Sciences Instructor, North Dakota State College of Science on 1/7/16

I found this book to be appropriately comprehensive for an introductory level course on human relations, organizational behavior or or work-place communications. In reviewing this textbook, I compared it to the textbook currently used in our PSYC... read more

I found this book to be appropriately comprehensive for an introductory level course on human relations, organizational behavior or or work-place communications.

In reviewing this textbook, I compared it to the textbook currently used in our PSYC 100: Human Relations in Organizations Course Description. The focus of this course is an examination of human relations in business and industry with emphasis on how people can work effectively in groups to satisfy both organizational and personal goals. Motivation, emotion and mental health, communication techniques, and coping with stress are explored.

I found this book by Linda Dias to effectively cover all of the essential content and student learning outcomes we would expect in our class and then some!

The content of this textbook is accurate and generally error free. I especially liked the focus placed on Emotional Intelligence. EQ is a concept that isn't often covered well (if at all) in most org behavior of human relations classes. Dias does a nice job of infusing EQ into this book.

The content is up-to-date and covers the expected areas of human relations but does so in a way that will not make the text obsolete within a short period of time. The text is written and arranged in such a way that future updates would be relatively easy and straightforward to implement.

I found this textbook to be written at an appropriate reading level of college students and generally avoided the overuse of technical jargon. The writing style and reading level of this text would be accessible to most first year college students - especially those in a career and technical education program of study. The writing style is easily understood and accessible.

Consistency rating: 4

This textbook is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework. The text is well-written and easy to understand. I also found that adequate context is provided when introducing new concepts and numerous real world examples are given.

This textbook was broken up into easily readable sections. Also, chapters are an appropriate length and are broken into reasonable lengths. It would be flexible enough to allow instructors to easily subdivided chapters into smaller reading sections – instructors could assign particular sections within a chapter if they did not wish to cover the entire chapter.

For example, chapter 4 is entitled, "Communicate Effectively." This chapter then is subdivided into subsections such as "4.1 Verbal and Written Communication Strategies" and "4.2 Principles of Nonverbal Communication." Each subsection begins with clearly identified "Learning Objectives" which I have found to be particularly helpful in enabling students to focus on big picture concepts of each subsection. Further, each subsection also concludes with "Key Takeaways" which serves to summarize key concepts and content. In addition to this, each subsection ends with a section entitled "Exercises" which lists several well written and practical discussion questions and/or group or individual activities for further study - nicely done!

i found the topics to be presented in a fairly logical progression. The flow is coherent and would flexible to allow instructors to use alternative orders of chapters and sections. The organization is logical and well laid out, however so an alternative pattern of usage would not be necessary.

For the most part, I did not see any problems in this regard. I did note however that several charts, graphs, or illustrations did not render online or when I printed the pdf. Not sure if this is a glitch in my system or if this is an area to correct in the textbook.

I did not find any spelling or grammatical errors.

This textbook is inclusive and comprehensive and is written in a respectful tone.

I found this textbook to be very well written for use in a first year college human relations course or in an introduction to organizational behavior course. It is clearly written and is well organized. In particular, I believe adopters will appreciate the "Learning Objectives" and "Key Takeaways" provided in each sub-section of the text. Nicely done!

Reviewed by Mercedes Santana, Instructor, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee on 1/7/16

This book provides a good overview of human relations with incorporation of personal self-awareness. It does not have a comprehensive glossary, however all terms and main points are outlined throughout the chapters in an organized and easy to find... read more

This book provides a good overview of human relations with incorporation of personal self-awareness. It does not have a comprehensive glossary, however all terms and main points are outlined throughout the chapters in an organized and easy to find fashion.

The books appears to be unbiased with accurate content. All citations are provided at the end of each chapter.

Since this book focuses heavily on career and labor trends, new census data will require updates to cited information in the near future. Updating information would not seem to interfere with the main points of the text. The book incorporates updated technology and culturally relevant examples.

The text is written with concise clarity of topics. There is a lack of jargon and technical terminology used. This book provides readers with universal definitions.

The format for each chapter is consistent in the opening and closing of each chapter, which provide ease to the reader for following. The language is friendly and invites the reader into each chapter.

Modularity rating: 3

This text is easily and readily prepared for use with modulation.

The topics could use some rearranging. It seems to jump around relevant topics. Instructors should be advised to review chapters before assignment for better flow. The presentation of topics is not completely clear, nor is the layout presented in the beginning of the text.

The interface is clean and information is presented without distractions. Self-assessment questions are highlighted and presented at the end of each chapter.

The text contains no grammatical errors. The text uses language that is appropriate for undergraduate students.

This book does an great job at reviewing relevant contextual factors. It assist the reader to understand fundamental terminology and continues with diversity throughout the text.

I think this book would complement a career exploration course for undergraduate students.

Reviewed by Michele Barber, Faculty Counselor/Instructor, Lane Community College on 1/7/16

The text covered all of the elements of human relations and provided contemporary and useful subject information that can be used in the real world. read more

The text covered all of the elements of human relations and provided contemporary and useful subject information that can be used in the real world.

The content appeared accurate and free of errors. The author used a broad and comprehensive list of resources.

I found the content not only relevant to current human relation issues but also providing appropriate and useful historical background information to the subjects and also incorporating contemporary case studies that reinforced the chapter topic.

The chapters were very clear and well organized. Each chapter provided the reader with a case study, learning objectives, key takeaways and exercises that tied all of the subject information together and enhanced and reinforced the chapter content. The level of diction is readable and appropriate for the chapter topics.

The flow of the textbook was very consistent and provided a clear and easy to read framework for the reader to follow.

I found the chapters to be concise and well organized and therefore, I think an instructor could easily teach chapters in the order they feel most appropriate for their respected classes.

Overall, I think the textbook is very well organized and has a natural flow of the content. The chapters are consistent and provide a clear and understandable framework for the student to follow.

I did not find any problems or interface issues. The graphics were consistent and were easy to understand.

I found no grammatical errors.

I found the text to be culturally sensitive and inclusive; using a variety of appropriate and relevant examples.

I am excited to use the textbook for the first time in my online Human Relations at Work course. I think my students will enjoy and find the textbook useful and easy to understand.

Reviewed by Katie Barwick-Snell, Associate professor, University of Oklahoma on 1/12/15

The text covered all of the organizational side of human relations read more

The text covered all of the organizational side of human relations

The content is unbiased accurate and I did not see any glaring errors .

The content is relevant because it works in many of today's issues. The text looks like it can easily be updated and many of the video clips can be updated if needed.

Very clear and concise I liked the key takeaways. The vocabulary sidebar helps the student remember the technical jargon.

The text is consistent with terminology and framework. Every chapter have the same layout and end notes.

I feel the chapters can be moved easily so that the instructor can make it useful for their classroom. Each chapter has headings, learning objectives and key takeaways that can be moved without disruption.

The chapter topics are presented in a logical and clear manner. Every chapter had learning objectives content key takeaways and exercises.

I did not find any interface issues. I liked the way the sidebar on the right vocabulary words and definitions. This was consistent among the chapters.

I did not spot any grammatical errors.

The booked seemed inclusive for race,gender and sexuality. It did not talk down to The reader.

I was impressed that the chapters had summaries and case studies and the ins and outs were quite helpful.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: What Is Human Relations?
  • Chapter 2: Achieve Personal Success
  • Chapter 3: Manage Your Stress
  • Chapter 4: Communicate Effectively
  • Chapter 5: Be Ethical at Work
  • Chapter 6: Understand Your Motivations
  • Chapter 7: Work Effectively in Groups
  • Chapter 8: Make Good Decisions
  • Chapter 9: Handle Conflict and Negotiation
  • Chapter 10: Manage Diversity at Work
  • Chapter 11: Work with Labor Unions
  • Chapter 12: Be a Leader
  • Chapter 13: Manage Your Career

Ancillary Material

About the book.

Human Relations by Laura Portolese-Dias addresses all of the critical topics to obtain career success as they relate to professional relationships.

Knowing how to get along with others, resolve workplace conflict, manage relationships, communicate well, and make good decisions are all critical skills all students need to succeed in career and in life.

Human Relations is not an organizational behavior; rather, it provides a good baseline of issues students will deal with in their careers on a day-to-day basis. It is also not a professional communications, business English, or professionalism textbook, as its focus is much broader — on general career success and how to effectively maneuver in the workplace.

From communication challenges to focusing on one's own emotional intelligence, the examples throughout Human Relations will help students understand the importance of the human side in their career.

This book's easy-to-understand language and tone is written to convey practical information in an engaging way. Every chapter opens with a realistic example which introduces a concept to be explained in detail later. Each chapter contains relevant examples, YouTube videos, figures, learning objectives, key takeaways, exercises, and a chapter-ending case that offer different ways to promote learning. Many of the end-of-section exercises offer self-assessment quizzes, so students may engage in self-understanding and development.

About the Contributors

Laura Portolese Dias holds a master of business administration from City University and a doctorate of business administration from Argosy University. Laura teaches at Central Washington University in the Department of Information Technology and Administrative Management, part of the College of Education and Professional Studies. 

Before beginning her teaching career, Laura worked for several organizations in management and operations. She’s also an entrepreneur who has performed consulting work for companies such as Microsoft. She is the author of Human Resource Management with Flat World Knowledge and two other textbooks with McGraw-Hill.

Personally, Laura does lots of hiking and backpacking with her two dogs and husband, Alain. They reside in Peshastin, Washington, a small eight-hundred-person town in the Central Cascades of Washington State. When Laura isn’t in Peshastin, she travels extensively, usually wherever there is good scuba diving!

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human relations theory case study

Elton Mayo’s Human Relations Theory For Management

Imagine working for an organization that has a rigid workflow. You aren’t allowed to suggest creative interpretations and there’s only…

Elton Mayo’s Human Relations Theory For Management

Imagine working for an organization that has a rigid workflow. You aren’t allowed to suggest creative interpretations and there’s only one way to perform tasks. Wouldn’t you feel like a cog in a machine?

Everyone has unique needs and expectations. Every successful workplace culture embraces multiple perspectives, accommodates various expectations and fulfills the unique needs of employees. This management approach was first seen in the Human Relations Theory. Read on to see how this management approach changed the world of work.

The Rise Of Human Relations Theory

Defining characteristics of human relations theory, the need for human relations skills, putting the human relations theory into action.

To understand the human relations approach, we must first understand the context it emerged. The human relations movement emerged as a response to some of the limitations of scientific management theory. According to scientific management , there was a logic to actions and knowledge that boosted workplace motivation. In other words, efficiency was a result of operational, legal and administrative improvements.

At the time, Taylorism—scientific management advocated by Frederick W. Taylor—was the prevailing theory, which viewed workers as machines. It suggested that the best way for people (factory workers) to become efficient is to receive proper training and necessary tools. The human relations approach addressed these gaps by taking into consideration the social factors. It acknowledged that people’s perceptions, attitudes and expectations play a critical role in their workplace performance.

Elton Mayo, an Australian psychologist from Harvard University, developed the Human Relations Theory. He conducted a series of experiments, which are now known as Hawthorne Studies or Hawthorne Experiments. He concluded that people have unique preferences and can’t be treated as machines. Here are some of the key takeaways of the Elton Mayo Human Relations Theory:

Humans are complex and different factors influence their behavior

Group dynamics (team relations) influence job performance and output

Managers should understand that employees have unique needs and one size doesn’t fit all; communication is essential between managers and employees

People aren’t solely motivated by compensation; finding meaning in their work is important as well

Employees are more open to change when given the opportunity to participate

Therefore, the Elton Mayo Theory suggested that the workplace is a social system where multiple factors influence an employee’s performance. Most times, it’s psychological and organizations need to pay attention to these aspects for bringing about change.

Defining Characteristics Of Human Relations Theory

There are several characteristics that are common to the Human Relations Theory. Let’s look at them in detail:

Coordinating Process

Efforts are made to eliminate miscommunication so that people can establish trustworthy relationships and achieve organizational targets through greater efficiency. Emotional unity and coordination are instrumental in pursuing and achieving common objectives.

Job Satisfaction

In addition to economic needs, employers need to focus on social and psychological needs and expectations as well. There should be some non-monetary incentives as they not only boost employee morale but also increase employee retention. Such incentives further enhance productivity and efficiency.

Human Aspect

As we’ve already established, the Human Relations Theory was developed as a response to the scientific approach, moving toward the human aspect of management. It suggests that humane treatment is crucial for successful management. This means that employers should prioritize employee well-being within and beyond the workplace.

These characteristics of the human relations approach to management also suggest that employees should be happy and find meaning in the work they do. When employers identify and address basic needs, an individual’s willingness to work improves. This further improves productivity, contributing to business growth and profitability. Let’s see how people can benefit from the human relations approach.

The Elton Mayo Human Relations Theory showed that relationships are highly influential for human productivity. Employers and managers need to have a vast array of skills to effectively carry a human relations-focused workplace culture. Let’s look at the different skills needed for successful human relations:


At the core of the human relations approach to management lies strong communication skills. It ensures that everyone in the organization is on the same page. It encompasses all forms of communication—verbal, non-verbal and written. Whether it’s the eye contact you maintain with your audience during meetings or the emails you send, effective communication skills are a great way to convey your message and connect with others. Managers and team leaders should especially focus on sharpening these skills as it helps them drive teamwork and collaboration.

Conflict Resolution

It’s no secret that employees come from multiple walks of life. This further leads to diverse personality types, outlooks and goals all working together. There may be times when you don’t agree with someone’s perspectives and you have every right to respectfully disagree. This is why conflict resolution skills are important as they help people address and resolve issues in a civil manner. However, people need to keep an open mind and must allow for individual perspectives to be voiced. You must work towards a solution that everyone feels comfortable with and maintain harmony in the process.


One of the most important skills in the human relations approach, organization impacts all areas of work. Whether it’s your workflow or physical workspace, staying organized has several benefits. It helps you prioritize your work and manage your time better. It’s a key element in creating an efficient workflow. This further allows you to meet your deadlines and be productive. Organization is an important quality for team leaders as it allows them to juggle multiple priorities and complete tasks in an organized process.

By employing these skills, managers and team leaders can implement human relations management practices with greater efficiency.

Putting The Human Relations Theory Into Action

While the Elton Mayo Theory received recognition and credit for bringing several fundamental aspects of management to the forefront, it faced several criticisms. Theorists argued that it was another way to maximize business output. Nevertheless, it did emphasize the power of positive treatment of employees. If you want to put the Human Relations Theory into practice, consider these strategies:

Provide Context

Employees are often unable to see the bigger picture. As a result, it’s difficult for them to find meaning in their work. This can negatively impact employee morale and increase the risk of them quitting their jobs. Communicate the organizational mission, vision and objectives to remind employees of their contribution. Help them extract a sense of fulfillment from their tasks.

Collect Feedback

Communication is a two-way street. If you want to strengthen relationships, collaboration and efficiency, you need to hear others out as well. You can actively solicit employee feedback through surveys or one-on-one meetings. More importantly, you need to act on the feedback or insights you gathered. This helps establish trust as employees feel heard.

Identify Unique Needs

One of the core tenets of the Human Relations Theory is that every individual is unique. One size doesn’t fit all, which is why you need to understand individual perspectives and preferences. Understanding their motivation and work styles can help you tailor your management style. Say, for example, someone is a strong team player; help them collaborate with others on projects. In short, play to employee strengths for greater efficiency.

Offer Praise And Recognition

While monetary benefits act as strong motivators, they alone don’t suffice. You need to make your employees feel valued as well. Recognize or celebrate their hard work whenever possible. Effective recognition is honest and authentic, so make sure that you talk about individual achievements. The act of appreciation can be as simple as a congratulatory email or as big as a celebratory lunch.

Make Room For Bonding

We often interact and engage with coworkers because we’re required to. However, interpersonal relationships need not necessarily be transactional. You can explore other topics of conversation that aren’t limited to ‘shop talk’. For example, you can ask someone about their day or their hobbies. Connecting on a more personal level can help you bond better and establish lasting relationships. However, it’s important not to cross any boundaries and only talk about things your team is comfortable with.

As you can see, not only employees but also employers can benefit from the human relations approach.

Although the Elton Mayo theory was groundbreaking at the time, it’s impossible to imagine a workplace without considering social aspects in the modern world. As a manager, if you want to improve workplace performance and prioritize your team’s needs and expectations, Harappa’s  Managing Teamwork course is the solution! This team management course will not only help you collaborate with different team members but also handle conflicts with empathy, maturity and sensitivity. You’ll master the art of giving and receiving feedback and foster a team culture that helps everyone maximize their potential. Try Harappa to grow alongside your team!

Explore Harappa Diaries to learn more about topics such as What Is A  Performance Review ,  Max Weber Theory Of Bureaucracy , What Is  Cooperative Learning  and  Management By Objectives  and foster a team culture that helps everyone maximize their potential.


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Human Relations and Harvard Business School

The subject of human relations in industry is one of the most important things in the whole field of business and one which we must investigate and teach.

Wehe 78

At Harvard Business School, Dean Donham began to shift the focus from scientific management and applied economics to human relations, a growing course of study. Mayo’s 1935 research course “Human Problems of Administration” included readings and discussions on recent developments in physiological and psychopathological studies, the French Sociological School, anthropological studies, and the theories of Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto. Mayo also formed a close partnership and friendship with L. J. Henderson, physiologist and biochemist. Henderson ran the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory, located in the basement of the Business School’s Morgan Hall, where researchers studied human reactions to environment, including the effects of fatigue on productivity.

Together, Donham, Mayo, and Henderson had a lasting influence on the direction of Harvard Business School’s curriculum and research, which embraced applied, empirical-based studies and a multi-disciplinary approach incorporating biology, physics, biochemistry, psychology, sociology, and anthropology. “In Mayo’s time . . . the idea of considering human relations in factories and offices was astonishing,” Abraham Zaleznik, Professor of Leadership, Emeritus, at Harvard Business School, notes. 2 In a letter to Donham in 1939, Mayo expressed his gratitude for Donham’s “steady support through difficult years and the part it played in the development of this work.” 3 Human relations was later integrated into other programs at Harvard and further developed by Business School professors such as George Lombard, a leader in the field of organizational behavior.

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Home » Management Principles » Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Experiment and It’s Contributions to Management

Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Experiment and It’s Contributions to Management

The term “Hawthorne” is a term used within several behavioral management theories and is originally derived from the western electric company’s large factory complex named Hawthorne works. Starting in 1905 and operating until 1983, Hawthorne works had 45,000 employees and it produced a wide variety of consumer products, including telephone equipment, refrigerators and electric fans. As a result, Hawthorne works is well-known for its enormous output of telephone equipment and most importantly for its industrial experiments and studies carried out.

Hawthorne Experiment by Elton Mayo

In 1927, a group of researchers led by Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger of the Harvard Business School were invited to join in the studies at the Hawthorne Works of Western Electric Company, Chicago. The experiment lasted up to 1932. The Hawthorne Experiment brought out that the productivity of the employees is not the function of only physical conditions of work and money wages paid to them. Productivity of employees depends heavily upon the satisfaction of the employees in their work situation. Mayo’s idea was that logical factors were far less important than emotional factors in determining productivity efficiency. Furthermore, of all the human factors influencing employee behavior , the most powerful were those emanating from the worker’s participation in social groups. Thus, Mayo concluded that work arrangements in addition to meeting the objective requirements of production must at the same time satisfy the employee’s subjective requirement of social satisfaction at his work place.

The Hawthorne experiment consists of four parts . These parts are briefly described below:-

  • Illumination Experiment.
  • Relay Assembly Test Room Experiment.
  • Interviewing Programme.
  • Bank Wiring Test Room Experiment.

1. Illumination Experiment:

This experiment was conducted to establish relationship between output and illumination. When the intensity of light was increased, the output also increased. The output showed an upward trend even when the illumination was gradually brought down to the normal level. Therefore, it was concluded that there is no consistent relationship between output of workers and illumination in the factory. There must be some other factor which affected productivity.

Elton Mayo's Hawthorne experiment - Illumination Experiment

2. Relay Assembly Test Room Experiment:

This phase aimed at knowing not only the impact of illumination on production but also other factors like length of the working day, rest hours, and other physical conditions. In this experiment, a small homogeneous work-group of six girls was constituted. These girls were friendly to each other and were asked to work in a very informal atmosphere under the supervision of a researcher. Productivity and morale increased considerably during the period of the experiment. Productivity went on increasing and stabilized at a high level even when all the improvements were taken away and the pre-test conditions were reintroduced. The researchers concluded that socio-psychological factors such as feeling of being important, recognition, attention, participation, cohesive work-group, and non-directive supervision held the key for higher productivity.

Elton Mayo's Hawthorne experiment - Relay Assembly Room Experiment

3. Mass Interview Programme:

The objective of this programme was to make a systematic study of the employees attitudes which would reveal the meaning which their “working situation” has for them. The researchers interviewed a large number of workers with regard to their opinions on work, working conditions and supervision. Initially, a direct approach was used whereby interviews asked questions considered important by managers and researchers. The researchers observed that the replies of the workmen were guarded. Therefore, this approach was replaced by an indirect technique, where the interviewer simply listened to what the workmen had to say. The findings confirmed the importance of social factors at work in the total work environment.

4. Bank Wiring Test Room Experiment:

This experiment was conducted by Roethlisberger and Dickson with a view to develop a new method of observation and obtaining more exact information about social groups within a company and also finding out the causes which restrict output. The experiment was conducted to study a group of workers under conditions which were as close as possible to normal. This group comprised of 14 workers. After the experiment, the production records of this group were compared with their earlier production records. It was observed that the group evolved its own production norms for each individual worker, which was made lower than those set by the management. Because of this, workers would produce only that much, thereby defeating the incentive system. Those workers who tried to produce more than the group norms were isolated, harassed or punished by the group. The findings of the study are:-

  • Each individual was restricting output.
  • The group had its own “unofficial” standards of performance.
  • Individual output remained fairly constant over a period of time.
  • Informal groups play an important role in the working of an organization.

Effect of Monotony and Fatigue on Productivity

Using a study group other experiments were conducted to examine what effect of monotony and fatigue on productivity and how to control those using variables such as rest breaks, work hours and incentives.

At normal conditions the work week was of 48 hours, including Saturdays, with no rest pauses. On the first experiment workers were put on piece-work salary where they were paid on each part they produced, as a result the output increased. On the second experiment the workers were given 2 rest pauses of 5 minutes each for 5 weeks and again output went up. The third experiment further increased the pauses to 10 min and the output went up sharply. For the fourth experiments a 6, 5 min breaks were given and output fell slightly as the workers complained that the work rhythm was broken. On the fifth experiments conditions for experiment three were repeated but this time a free hot meal was given by the company and output wen up the sixth experiment, workers were dismissed at 4.30p.m. Instead of 5.00p.m were an output increase was recorded.

The seventh experiment had the same results as experiments six even though the workers were dismissed at 4.00 p.m. on the eighth and final experiment, all improvements were taken away and workers returned to their original working conditions. Surprisingly, results concluded that output was the highest ever recorded!

Contributions of the Hawthorne Experiment to Management

Elton Mayo and his associates conducted their studies in the Hawthorne plant of the western electrical company, U.S.A., between 1927 and 1930. According to them, behavioral science methods have many areas of application in management. The important features of the Hawthorne Experiment are:

  • A business organization is basically a social system . It is not just a techno-economic system.
  • The employer can be motivated by psychological and social wants because his behavior is also influenced by feelings, emotions and attitudes. Thus economic incentives are not the only method to motivate people.
  • Management must learn to develop co-operative attitudes and not rely merely on command.
  • Participation becomes an important instrument in human relations movement. In order to achieve participation , effective two-way communication network is essential.
  • Productivity is linked with employee satisfaction in any business organization. Therefore management must take greater interest in employee satisfaction.
  • Group psychology plays an important role in any business organization. We must therefore rely more on informal group effort.
  • The neo-classical theory emphasizes that man is a living machine and he is far more important than the inanimate machine. Hence, the key to higher productivity lies in employee morale . High morale results in higher output.

A new milestone in organisational behavior was set and Elton Mayo and his team found a way to improve productivity by creating a healthy team spirit environment between workers and supervisors labeling it as The Hawthorne Effect .

The Hawthorne effect is a physiological phenomenon that produces an improvement in human behavior or performance as a result of increased attention of superiors and colleagues. As a combined effort, the effect can enhance results by creating sense of teamwork and a common purpose. As in many ways the Hawthorne effect is interpreted, it generates new ideas concerning importance of work groups and leadership , communication, motivation and job design , which brought forward emphasis on personnel management and human relations.

Although the Hawthorne effect tends to be an ideal contributor to organizational management, it contains a few flaws which such a study is criticized upon. Having the experiments being conducted in controlled environments, lack of validity may exist as the workers knew they were observed hence produced better performances. The human aspect in the Hawthorne experiments was given too much importance were it alone cannot improve production as other factors are a must. Group decision making might also evolve in a flaw as on occasions individual decision making is vital as it might be the way to prevent failures within a system. Another flaw contributes to the freedom given to the workers by the Hawthorne effect. The important constructive role of supervisors may be lost with excess informality within the groups and in fact such a flaw may result in lowering the performance and productivity.

The Hawthorne experiments marked a significant step forward in human behavior and are regarded as one of the most important social science investigations and said to be the foundations of relations approach to management and the development of organizational behavior. Managers are to be aware of the criticism evolved through years on such a study before adopting it. In my opinion, the Hawthorne effect is a validated theory and could be applied within the organisation, though care is to be taken and a limit is to be set. The use of team groups is acceptable as it creates a caring factor between workers and competitively amongst other teams. Supervisors are to keep their role and limit socializing with staff on the shop floor to always keep their role and hence standards are always kept to the maximum. Team meeting are to be held which allows the worker to give out his opinion and feel important by contributing his ideas to the organisation.

Whichever management structure an organisation is to adopt, regular reviews are to be carried out in order to keep a stable output and good standard in quality. Such a strategy will ensure continuous evolution of the organizational management and a successful organization producing maximum efficiency in its produce.

External Links about Hawthorne Experiment:

  • A New Vision  (Harvard Business School)
  • Elton Mayo  (British Library)

Related posts:

  • 4 Phases of Hawthorne Experiment – Explained
  • The Hawthorne Studies
  • Case Study: Henry Ford’s Contributions to Organizational Behavior and Leadership
  • Contingency Approach to Management
  • Scientific Management Theory
  • Steps in Management by Objectives (MBO) Process
  • Comparison of Classical and Behavioral Approaches to Management
  • Criticism of Scientific Management Theory (Taylorism)
  • The Cultural Web – Johnson and Scholes’s Model of Organizational Culture
  • Span of Management

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human relations theory case study

Case Studies in Human Relations

  • © 1971
  • Kenneth V. Porter

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Part of the book series: Business Case Studies (BCS)

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Table of contents (6 chapters)

Front matter, the management trainee scheme, the new duplicating machines, the safety officer, the disappearing cigarettes, the insubordinate seaman, back matter, bibliographic information.

Book Title : Case Studies in Human Relations

Authors : Kenneth V. Porter

Series Title : Business Case Studies


Publisher : Palgrave Macmillan London

eBook Packages : Palgrave Business & Management Collection , Business and Management (R0)

Copyright Information : Kenneth V. Porter 1971

Softcover ISBN : 978-0-333-12352-2 Published: 18 June 1971

eBook ISBN : 978-1-349-01145-2 Published: 18 June 1971

Series ISSN : 2947-0226

Series E-ISSN : 2947-0234

Edition Number : 1

Number of Pages : XII, 116

Topics : Human Resource Management

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Analysis of human relations theory of management: A quest to re-enact people’s management towards peace in university system

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2020, SA Journal of Human Resource Management ISSN: (Online) 2071-078X, (Print) 1683-7584

Orientation Research Purpose: In response to social unrest that has eaten deep into the fabric of the University system in Nigeria, this theoretical paper is positioned to respond by examining the Human Relations Theory of Management (HRTM) as a suggestible solution to the management of the incessant students' oriented crisis in the system. The theory was argued towards exposing the dividends enjoy by organisational stakeholders emanating from the outcome of the Hawthorne study. Research approach and Finding: The study adopted literature and observations as a research approach, while theoretical analysis was employed to interpret and make sense of HRTM. The analysis was considered from its evolutionary point of view; the development of Human Relation Theory of Management, the contributions of Jacob Moreno’s stoichiometry and McGregor’s Theory X and Y. I further argued and justified that the assumptions of the theory such as; belongingness, inclusiveness and recognition, an informal or formal social group within a workplace, development of affinity in workplace, motivation, and communication are the roadmap to the people’s management. In the same vein, it becomes a useful tool for managing students’ unrest in Universities. The relevant of the theory to crisis management was equally exemplified, coupled with the development of a theoretical model to better simplify the nexus between HRTM and crisis management. Implication for Management: Observations were made based on the assumptions of the theory to respond to the vacuum HRTM supposed to have filled. The study conclusively recommends that; inclusive decision making, the committee system, motivation and communication should be paramount in managing the system to enable amicable relationships for better productivity, peace and relative tranquility.

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The university system in Nigeria has been characterised by persistent social unrest traceable to strained relationships between students and the university authorities. Observations, reports and literature confirm that students' unrest in the universities has become a clog in the wheel of development and speedy actualisation of university goals and objectives. The need to manage and maintain the social space for relative peace and tranquillity thereof is expedient. This study aims at redefining students and university authority relationships as a tool to deconstructing students' unrest in Nigerian universities. Human Relations Theory of Management (HRTM) was used to theorise this study while Transformative Paradigm (TP), which was adopted as a stance to forestall existing and future unrest was used to lens the study. Participatory Action Research (PAR) was adopted as a research design for the study. The sample size for this study consists of 10 participants: three student leaders, three university management members, two lecturers and two security personnel were selected using expert sampling techniques. Focused Group Discussion (FGD) was used to collect data from the participants, and the data collected were analysed using Socio-thematic Analysis (StA). This study reveals that inadequate funding is a significant challenge resulting in students' unrest. Contrarily, the provision of student personnel services along with modern maintenance culture, transparency and accountability were found to be the dimension of peaceful university operation devoid of social unrest and therefore becomes a tool to deconstruct the strained relationship between students and the university authorities.

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human relations theory case study

Strategies for navigating a new kind of communication landscape: the “echoverse.”

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human relations theory case study

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  1. Human Relations Case Study Definition Essay Example

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  2. Human Relation Theory

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  3. The Human Relations Theory 1

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  5. Human Relations Theory

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  6. Human Relations Theory

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  1. Human Relations Theory: It's Criticisms

  2. what is human relations theory of organizations/@Preface130

  3. Human Relations Theory

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  6. Human Relations Theory |मानव संबन्ध सिद्धान्त


  1. Human Relations Management Theory: Summary, Examples

    A Brief History of Human Relations Theory. Human Relations management theory originated between 1924 and 1932 during experiments conducted at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. 1 These studies were started by scholars from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), but Elton Mayo and Fritz J. Roethlisberger of the Harvard Business School became ...

  2. The "Hawthorne Effect"

    The experiments remain a telling case study of ... experiments gave rise to the modern application of social science to organization life and lay the foundation for the human relations movement and the field of organizational behavior (the study of organizations as social systems) pioneered by George Lombard, Paul Lawrence, and others ...

  3. (PDF) Analysis of human relations theory of management: A quest to re

    In the case of . university system, which is the hallmark of this study, it is . ... On the other hand, human relations theory which this study will rely on, contends that workers are regarded ...

  4. PDF Human Relations Theory and People Management

    Human relations theory (HRT) is normally thought of as having its roots in the Hawthorne Studies conducted in the 1920s and 1930s at the Hawthorne works of the Western Electric Company, near Chicago in the United States. These studies have now taken on an almost mythological status within the study of organization, so that the details of what hap-

  5. 3.6 Human Relations Movement

    The human relations movement added more of the social element to the study and theory of work. 50. Perhaps no research studies have been as misunderstood as the Hawthorne studies. The Hawthorne studies are the most influential, misunderstood, and criticized research experiment in all of the social sciences.

  6. Introduction

    A New Vision An Essay by Professors Michel Anteby and Rakesh Khurana; Next Introduction; The Human Relations Movement: Harvard Business School and the Hawthorne Experiments (1924-1933) In the 1920s Elton Mayo, a professor of Industrial Management at Harvard Business School, and his protégé Fritz J. Roethlisberger led a landmark study of worker behavior at Western Electric, the manufacturing ...

  7. Human Relations

    The textbook covers a wide variety of human relations issues and is useful not only for workplace relations but interpersonal as well. The focus of the text is practical rather than theoretical, perfect for a beginning human relations class. Case studies are presented throughout, giving the book a relevant, real-world feel. Content Accuracy ...

  8. Human Relations Theory of Organizations

    The human relations theory of organizations has three main components. First, the theory places an emphasis on the importance of the individual. A worker is not simply a cog in a machine but an idiosyncratic individual who responds to his or her environment. Maximizing the productivity of workers requires taking these individual characteristics ...

  9. Elton Mayo's Human Relations Theory

    The human relations approach addressed these gaps by taking into consideration the social factors. It acknowledged that people's perceptions, attitudes and expectations play a critical role in their workplace performance. Elton Mayo, an Australian psychologist from Harvard University, developed the Human Relations Theory.

  10. Human Relations

    He has published papers on the historiography of Scientific Management and Human Relations, institutional theory in economics, organization studies and international business, US interwar business history, the history of US economic and management thought, and evolutionary economics, strategy, and the theory of the firm.

  11. Human Relations Era: Behavioural Theories of Leadership

    A significant component of the Human Relations Theory is the search for what motivates employees. Various theories developed from the studies under the Human Relations Theory postulated several drivers of the motivation of employees. Theories X and Y (McGregor 1960) categorised employees based on their inclinations to work. Theory X postulates ...

  12. The Politics of Management Thought: a

    a management theory and practice, as he ap-plied psychological theories and techniques to the workplace. It shows Mayo as the social the-orist he was. Mayo constructed the HRS as a set of psychological theories and psychotherapeu-tic techniques to achieve the social and political adjustment of the "agitated" (maladjusted) indi-vidual.

  13. Human Relations: Sage Journals

    Human Relations is an international peer reviewed journal publishing the highest quality original research to advance our understanding of social relationships at and around work.Human Relations encourages strong empirical contributions that develop and extend theory as well as more conceptual papers that integrate, critique and expand existing theory.

  14. Human Relations and Harvard Business School

    The subject of human relations in industry is one of the most important things in the whole field of business and one which we must investigate and teach. ... Dean Donham began to shift the focus from scientific management and applied economics to human relations, a growing course of study. Mayo's 1935 research course "Human Problems of ...

  15. (Pdf) Evaluate the Influence of Classical and Human Relations

    The Human Relation Movement theory coined by Maslow 's (1908-1970) Theory of Human Needs is based on the assumpti on that human needs cannot be completely satisfied, irresp ective

  16. Editorial: Crafting review and essay articles for Human Relations

    Human Relations has long welcomed different types of reviews - systematic reviews, meta-analyses, conceptual reviews, narrative reviews, historical reviews - and critical essays that are original, innovative, of high-quality and contribute to theory building in the social sciences. The main purpose of this essay is to sketch out our current broad expectations for reviews and essays as a ...

  17. Roethlisberger, Fritz J.: A Curious Scholar Who Discovered Human Relations

    This is a pity since J. F. Roethlisberger is, by all accounts, a fascinating figure and a great change thinker. Often, when organizational behavior scholars or practitioners hear the name Roethlisberger, they think of the Hawthorne studies that lead to the foundation of human relations theory and the Hawthorne effect.

  18. Human Relations Theory: Implications for Effective Human Resource

    Human Relations Theory (HRT), a key framework in organisational behaviour, emerged in response to the limitations of classical management theories that overlooked the human element in workplaces ...

  19. Elton Mayo's Hawthorne Experiment and It's Contributions to Management

    Participation becomes an important instrument in human relations movement. In order to achieve participation, ... the Hawthorne effect is a validated theory and could be applied within the organisation, though care is to be taken and a limit is to be set. ... Case Study of Wrigley's Orbit: Product Innovation with Market Trends for Success ...

  20. Historical Search in Human Relations

    the possibility of industrial human relations study in historical depth. Evidence can be presented to spur further research into developing a unified time theory of human relations in management theory. The Missing Links A new dimension, or at least a new emphasis, is needed if the integration of ... Case studies, role playing, sensitivity ...

  21. Case Studies in Human Relations

    Case Studies in Human Relations Download book PDF. Overview Authors: Kenneth V. Porter; Kenneth V. Porter. View author publications ... Part of the book series: Business Case Studies (BCS) 77 Accesses. 1 Citations. Buy print copy. Softcover Book USD 54.99 . Price excludes VAT (USA) Compact, lightweight edition;

  22. (PDF) Analysis of human relations theory of management: A quest to re

    Evolutionary development of Human Relations Theory of Management Human Relations Theory of Management was developed from an empirical study of Elton Mayo and his associates such as Roethlisberger, Dixon and Follett who carried out the study at the Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric near Chicago, United States between 1920s and 1930s (Ajayi ...

  23. Free Case Studys On Human Relations

    This HRM case study is free of cost and can be considered as a sample case study which will be useful for interviews. exams for MBA & MPM students. This free HRM case study with questions ans solution hint is given with a motive to help the students. The HRM case study is basically on introducing a …. Case study — Addressing mental health ...

  24. The New Rules of Marketing Across Channels

    The Internet and AI tools are transforming marketing communications within a complex, interactive landscape called the echoverse. While marketing has evolved since the proliferation of the ...