Spectre mitigations in MSVC
January 15th, 2018 0 1
Update 20 April 2018 With Visual Studio 2017 version 15.7 Preview 4 we have added a new warning, C5045, that shows what patterns in your code would have caused a mitigation to be inserted. See this post for more details.
Update 4 April 2018 With Visual Studio 2017 version 15.7 Preview 3 we have two new features to announce with regards to our Spectre mitigations. First, the /Qspectre switch is now supported regardless of the selected optimization level. Second, we have provided Spectre-mitigated implementations of the Microsoft Visual C++ libraries. See below for details.
Microsoft is aware of a new publicly disclosed class of vulnerabilities, called “speculative execution side-channel attacks,” that affect many operating systems and modern processors, including processors from Intel, AMD, and ARM. On the MSVC team, we’ve reviewed information in detail and conducted extensive tests, which showed the performance impact of the new /Qspectre switch to be negligible. This post is intended as a follow-up to Terry Myerson’s recent Windows System post with a focus on the assessment for MSVC. If you haven’t had a chance to read Terry’s post you should take a moment to read it before reading this one. For a more complete explanation of these vulnerabilities, please see this TechNet post on Mitigating speculative execution side channel hardware attacks .
The Spectre and Meltdown vulnerabilities
The security researchers that discovered these vulnerabilities identified three variants that could enable speculative execution side-channel attacks. The following table from Terry’s blog provides the decoder ring for each of these variants:
The mitigations for variant 2 and variant 3 are outside the scope of this post but are explained in Terry’s post . In this post, we’ll provide an overview of variant 1 and describe the steps that we’ve taken with the MSVC compiler to provide mitigation assistance.
What actions do developers need to take?
If you are a developer whose code operates on data that crosses a trust boundary then you should consider downloading an updated version of the MSVC compiler, recompiling your code with the /Qspectre switch enabled, and redeploying your code to your customers as soon as possible. Examples of code that operates on data that crosses a trust boundary include code that loads untrusted input that can affect execution such as remote procedure calls, parsing untrusted input for files, and other local inter-process communication (IPC) interfaces. Standard sandboxing techniques may not be sufficient: you should investigate your sandboxing carefully before deciding that your code does not cross a trust boundary.
We’re also adding Spectre-mitigated implementations of the Microsoft Visual C++ libraries. Visual Studio 2017 version 15.7 Preview 3 includes runtime libraries with mitigation enabled for a subset of the Visual C++ runtimes: VC++ start-up code, vcruntime140, msvcp140, concrt140, and vcamp140. We also include static library equivalents of those libraries. We are providing static linking support and App Local deployment only; the contents of the Visual C++ 2017 Runtime Libraries Redistributable have not been modified.
You must select these libraries for installation in the VS Installer under the Individual Components tab:
To enable Spectre mitigations for both your code and library code, simply select “Enabled” under the “Code Generation” section of the project Property Pages:
The C5045 diagnostic, added in Visual Studio 2017 version 15.7 Preview 4, shows where the compiler would insert a mitigation if the /Qspectre switch were enabled. Please see this post for more details.
In current versions of the MSVC compiler, the /Qspectre switch only works on optimized code . You should make sure to compile your code with any of the optimization switches (e.g., /O2 or /O1 but NOT /Od ) to have the mitigation applied. Similarly, inspect any code that uses #pragma optimize([stg], off) . Work is ongoing now to make the /Qspectre mitigation work on unoptimized code.
The MSVC team is evaluating the Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributables to make certain that any necessary mitigations are applied.
What versions of MSVC support the /Qspectre switch?
All versions of Visual Studio 2017 version 15.5 and all Previews of Visual Studio version 15.6 already include an undocumented switch, /d2guardspecload , that is currently equivalent to /Qspectre . You can use /d2guardspecload to apply the same mitigations to your code. Please update to using /Qspectre as soon as you get a compiler that supports the switch as the /Qspectre switch will be maintained with new mitigations going forward.
The /Qspectre switch will be available in MSVC toolsets included in all future releases of Visual Studio (including Previews). We will also release updates to some existing versions of Visual Studio to include support for /Qspectre . Releases of Visual Studio and Previews are announced on the Visual Studio Blog ; update notifications are included in the Notification Hub . Visual Studio updates that include support for /Qspectre will be announced on the Visual C++ Team Blog and the @visualc Twitter feed .
We initially plan to include support for /Qspectre in the following:
- Visual Studio 2017 version 15.6 Preview 4
- An upcoming servicing update to Visual Studio 2017 version 15.5
- A servicing update to Visual Studio 2017 “RTW”
- A servicing update to Visual Studio 2015 Update 3
If you’re using an older version of MSVC we strongly encourage you to upgrade to a more recent compiler for this and other security improvements that have been developed in the last few years. Additionally, you’ll benefit from increased conformance, code quality, and faster compile times as well as many productivity improvements in Visual Studio.
The following table shows the status of supported features in the versions of Visual Studio with Spectre mitigations available in the MSVC toolset:
What’s the performance impact?
Our tests show the performance impact of /Qspectre to be negligible. We have built all of Windows with /Qspectre enabled and did not notice any performance regressions of concern. Performance gains from speculative execution are lost where the mitigation is applied but the mitigation was needed in a relatively small number of instances across the large codebases that we recompiled. Codebases vary greatly so we advise all developers to evaluate the impact of /Qspectre in the context of their applications and workloads.
If you know that a particular block of your code is performance-critical (say, in a tight loop) and does not need the mitigation applied, you can selectively disable the mitigation with __declspec(spectre(nomitigation)) . Note that the __declspec is not available in compilers that only support the /d2guardspecload switch.
Understanding variant 1
Variant 1 represents a new vulnerability class that software developers did not previously realize they needed to defend against. To better understand the issue, it’s helpful to consider the following example code:
In the above example, the code performs an array-bounds check to ensure that untrusted_index is less than the length of array1 . This is needed to ensure that the program does not read beyond the bounds of the array. While this appears to be sound as written, it does not take into account microarchitectural behaviors of the CPU involving speculative execution. In short, it is possible that the CPU may mispredict the conditional branch when untrusted_index is greater than or equal to length . This can cause the CPU to speculatively execute the body of the if statement. As a consequence of this, the CPU may perform a speculative out-of-bounds read of array1 and then use the value loaded from array1 as an index into array2 . This can create observable side effects in the CPU cache that reveal information about the value that has been read out-of-bounds. While the CPU will eventually recognize that it mispredicted the conditional branch and discard the speculatively executed state, it does not discard the residual side effects in the cache which will remain. This is why variant 1 exposes a speculative execution side-channel.
For a deeper explanation of variant 1, we encourage you to read the excellent research by Google Project Zero and the authors of the Spectre paper.
Mitigating variant 1
Software changes are required to mitigate variant 1 on all currently affected CPUs. This can be accomplished by employing instructions that act as a speculation barrier. For Intel and similar processors (including AMD) the recommended instruction is LFENCE . ARM recommends a conditional move (ARM) or conditional selection instruction (AArch64) on some architectures and the use of a new instruction known as CSDB on others. These instructions ensure that speculative execution down an unsafe path cannot proceed beyond the barrier. However, applying this guidance correctly requires developers to determine the appropriate places to make use of these instructions such as by identifying instances of variant 1.
In order to help developers mitigate this new issue, the MSVC compiler has been updated with support for the /Qspectre switch which will automatically insert one of these speculation barriers when the compiler detects instances of variant 1. In this case the compiler detects that a range-checked integer is used as an index to load a value that is used to compute the address of a subsequent load. If you compile the example above with and without /Qspectre , you will see the following code generation difference on x86:
As the above shows, the compiled code under /Qspectre now contains the explicit speculation barrier instruction on line 6 which will prevent speculation from going down the unsafe path, thus mitigating the issue. (For clarity, the left hand side includes a comment, introduced with a ; in assembly.)
It is important to note that there are limits to the analysis that MSVC and compilers in general can perform when attempting to identify instances of variant 1. As such, there is no guarantee that all possible instances of variant 1 will be instrumented under /Qspectre .
For more details please see the official Microsoft Security Advisory ADV180002, Guidance to mitigate speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities . Guidance is also available from Intel, Speculative Execution Side Channel Mitigations , and ARM, Cache Speculation Side-channels . We’ll update this blog post as other official guidance is published.
We on the MSVC team are committed to the continuous improvement and security of your Windows software which is why we have taken steps to enable developers to help mitigate variant 1 under the new /Qspectre flag.
We encourage you to recompile and redeploy your vulnerable software as soon as possible. Continue watching this blog and the @visualc Twitter feed for updates on this topic.
If you have any questions, please feel free to ask us below. You can also send us your comments through e-mail at [email protected] , through Twitter @visualc , or Facebook at Microsoft Visual Cpp . Thank you.
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Specifies compiler generation of instructions to mitigate certain Spectre variant 1 security vulnerabilities.
The /Qspectre option causes the compiler to insert instructions to mitigate certain Spectre security vulnerabilities . These vulnerabilities are called speculative execution side-channel attacks . They affect many operating systems and modern processors, including processors from Intel, AMD, and ARM.
The /Qspectre option is available starting in Visual Studio 2017 version 15.5.5 and all later versions. It's available in Visual Studio 2015 Update 3 through KB 4338871 .
The /Qspectre option is off by default.
In its initial release, the /Qspectre option only worked on optimized code. Starting in Visual Studio 2017 version 15.7, the /Qspectre option is supported at all optimization levels.
Several Microsoft C++ libraries are also available in versions with Spectre mitigation. The Spectre-mitigated libraries for Visual Studio can be downloaded in the Visual Studio Installer. They're found in the Individual Components tab under Compilers, build tools, and runtimes , and have "Libs for Spectre" in the name. Both DLL and static runtime libraries with mitigation enabled are available for a subset of the Visual C++ runtimes: VC++ start-up code, vcruntime140, msvcp140, concrt140, and vcamp140. The DLLs are supported for application-local deployment only. The contents of the Visual C++ Runtime Libraries Redistributable haven't been modified.
You can also install Spectre-mitigated libraries for MFC and ATL. They're found in the Individual Components tab under SDKs, libraries, and frameworks .
There are no versions of Spectre-mitigated libraries for Universal Windows (UWP) apps or components. App-local deployment of such libraries isn't possible.
If your code operates on data that crosses a trust boundary, then we recommend you use the /Qspectre option to rebuild and redeploy your code to mitigate this issue as soon as possible. An example of such code is code that loads untrusted input that can affect execution. For example, code that makes remote procedure calls, parses untrusted input or files, or uses other local inter-process communication (IPC) interfaces. Standard sandboxing techniques may not be sufficient. Investigate your sandboxes carefully before you decide your code doesn't cross a trust boundary.
The /Qspectre option is available starting in Visual Studio 2017 version 15.5.5, and in all updates to Microsoft C/C++ compilers (MSVC) made on or after January 23, 2018. Use the Visual Studio Installer to update the compiler, and to install the Spectre-mitigated libraries as individual components. The /Qspectre option is also available in Visual Studio 2015 Update 3 through a patch. For more information, see KB 4338871 .
All versions of Visual Studio 2017 version 15.5, and all Previews of Visual Studio 2017 version 15.6. include an undocumented option, / d2guardspecload . It's equivalent to the initial behavior of /Qspectre . You can use /d2guardspecload to apply the same mitigations to your code in these versions of the compiler. We recommend you update your build to use /Qspectre in compilers that support the option. The /Qspectre option may also support new mitigations in later versions of the compiler.
The /Qspectre option outputs code to mitigate Specter variant 1, Bounds Check Bypass, CVE-2017-5753 . It works by insertion of instructions that act as a speculative code execution barrier. The specific instructions used to mitigate processor speculation depend upon the processor and its micro-architecture, and may change in future versions of the compiler.
When you enable the /Qspectre option, the compiler attempts to identify instances where speculative execution may bypass bounds checks. That's where it inserts the barrier instructions. It's important to be aware of the limits to the analysis that a compiler can do to identify instances of variant 1. As such, there's no guarantee that all possible instances of variant 1 are instrumented under /Qspectre .
The effect of /Qspectre on performance appeared to be negligible in several sizable code bases. However, there are no guarantees that performance of your code under /Qspectre remains unaffected. You should benchmark your code to determine the effect of the option on performance. If you know that the mitigation isn't required in a performance-critical block or loop, you can selectively disable the mitigation by use of a __declspec(spectre(nomitigation)) directive. This directive isn't available in compilers that only support the /d2guardspecload option.
The /Qspectre compiler option mitigates issues in your own code. For greater protection, we strongly recommend you also use libraries built to provide Spectre mitigations. Several of the Microsoft runtime libraries are available with Spectre mitigations.
These libraries are optional components that must be installed by using the Visual Studio Installer:
- MSVC version version_numbers Libs for Spectre [(x86 and x64) | (ARM) | (ARM64)]
- Visual C++ ATL for [(x86/x64) | ARM | ARM64] with Spectre Mitigations
- Visual C++ MFC for [x86/x64 | ARM | ARM64] with Spectre Mitigations
The default MSBuild-based project system in the Visual Studio IDE lets you specify a Spectre Mitigation property for your projects. This property sets the /Qspectre compiler option and changes the library paths to link the Spectre-mitigated runtime libraries. If these libraries aren't installed when you build your code, the build system reports warning MSB8040 . If your MFC or ATL code fails to build, and the linker reports an error such as "fatal error LNK1104: cannot open file 'oldnames.lib'", these missing libraries may be the cause.
The default MSBuild-based project system in the Visual Studio IDE lets you specify a Spectre Mitigation property for your projects. This property sets the /Qspectre compiler option and changes the library paths to link the Spectre-mitigated runtime libraries. If these libraries aren't installed when you build your code, the build system reports warning MSB8038: "Spectre mitigation is enabled but Spectre mitigated libraries are not found". If your MFC or ATL code fails to build, and the linker reports an error such as "fatal error LNK1104: cannot open file 'oldnames.lib'", these missing libraries may be the cause.
There are several ways to specify the Spectre-mitigated libraries to the build command line. You can specify the path to the Spectre-mitigated libraries by using the /LIBPATH linker option to make them the default libraries. You can use the /NODEFAULTLIB linker option and explicitly link the Spectre-mitigated libraries. Or, you can set the LIBPATH environment variable to include the path to the Spectre-mitigated libraries for your target platform. One way to set this path in the environment is to use a developer command prompt set up by using the spectre_mode option. For more information, see Use the developer tools in an existing command window .
Spectre-mitigated runtime libraries for x86, x64 and ARM platforms are available as part of the patch available through KB 4338871 . By default, these libraries are installed in the following directories:
- x86: C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 14.0\VC\lib\spectre
- x64: C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 14.0\VC\lib\spectre\amd64
- ARM: C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 14.0\VC\lib\spectre\arm
There are several ways to specify the Spectre-mitigated libraries to the build command line. You can specify the path to the Spectre-mitigated libraries by using the /LIBPATH linker option to make them the default libraries. You can use the /NODEFAULTLIB linker option and explicitly link the Spectre-mitigated libraries. Or, you can set the LIBPATH environment variable to include the path to the Spectre-mitigated libraries for your target architecture. For more information, see Use the Microsoft C++ toolset from the command line .
For more information, see the official Microsoft Security Advisory ADV180002, Guidance to mitigate speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities . Guidance is also available from Intel, Speculative Execution Side Channel Mitigations , and ARM, Cache Speculation Side-channels .
For a Windows-specific overview of Spectre and Meltdown mitigations, see Understanding the performance impact of Spectre and Meltdown mitigations on Windows Systems .
For an overview of Spectre vulnerabilities addressed by the MSVC mitigations, see Spectre mitigations in MSVC on the C++ Team Blog.
To set this compiler option in the Visual Studio development environment
Open the project's Property Pages dialog box. For details, see Set C++ compiler and build properties in Visual Studio .
Select the Configuration Properties > C/C++ > Code Generation property page.
Select a new value for the Spectre Mitigation property. Choose OK to apply the change.
Select the Configuration Properties > C/C++ > Command Line property page.
Enter the /Qspectre compiler option in the Additional Options box. Choose Apply to apply the change.
Select the Configuration Properties > Linker > General property page.
For each Platform in your project properties, edit the Additional Library Directories property. Set the path to the Spectre-mitigated runtime library directory for the target platform, and then choose Apply to apply the change. When done, choose OK .
To set this compiler option programmatically
- See AdditionalOptions .
/Q options (Low-level operations) MSVC compiler options MSVC compiler command-line syntax
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Getting msbuild error MSB8040 even after disabling spectre in driver
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[Solved]-Error every time I start a new VS project "Spectre-mitigated libraries are required for this project."-C++
ok thanks to @dxiv i managed to solve this issue, i.e. now my new c++ projects on visual studio have spectre mitigations off by default and i don't have to manually disable it every time i create a new project.
first i uninstalled wdk, it did not solve the issue.
then on visual studio installer > modify > under individual components > untick box that says wdk (3mb) > modify. this will remove that wdk component. and now the spectre mitigation is off by default.
the solution could be due to both of the steps i mentioned but probably it was enough to just remove that component from visual studio installer.
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How to Disable Intel’s Spectre Mitigation on Windows. (Manually and Automatically)
Spectre and Meltdown are two of the biggest security flaws to hit the tech scene in a very long time. In a scramble to fix the issue, both Microsoft and Intel rolled out patches to plug the Spectre leaks. Unfortunately, as these patches were rushed, a lot of systems are having major issues. If you are having any major problems after updating Windows recently, this guide will show you two different ways to disable Spectre Mitigation.
How to Stop Google Chrome Blocking Websites and Downloads.
If you have recently updated your Windows devices and are now suffering near crippling performance issues, like constant restarts, restart cycles, boot issues, and generally sluggish performance, you may need to disable Intel’s Spectre patch. Microsoft has released update KB4078130 for Windows 10 which disables the microcode update from Intel that was supposed to fix Spectre (variant 2 CVE-2017-5715 – “Branch target injection vulnerability.”) processor vulnerability. Update KB4078130 is available for all versions of Windows 7, 8 and 10.
If for some reason you can’t automatically update your system to KB4078130 or the update just doesn’t appear, below you will find out how to manually download and install the update. Alternatively, you’ll also learn how to disable Intel’s Spectre Mitigation from the Windows Registry.
How to Remove Intel’s Spectre Mitigation Code With Windows Update KB4078130. (variant 2 CVE-2017-5715 – “Branch target injection vulnerability.”)
If your computer won’t automatically update to KB4078130 when you go to Settings > Update and Security, you will have to manually download and install the update from the Microsoft Windows Catalog website.
Download Windows Update KB4078130.
The above link will take you directly to the download page, when you get to the page, download the file and install it to your computer. The file is super small and only takes a second to activate on your system, it’s basically just a registry tweak, so don’t be surprised if it seems very uneventful.
How to Remove Intel’s Spectre Mitigation Manually. (Registry Tweak Via CMD)
If you are experienced with using Command Prompt and the Windows Registry, you don’t have to download the update to disable the Spectre patch, you can simply disable it in the registry using some simple commands. However, as this process will require you to changes to the Window Registry using Command, it’s important to create a Restore Point .
If you don’t know how to create a restore point, open the start menu, type Restore , then select Create a Restore Point when it appears on the list. From the new window that appears, click Create in the bottom right section of the screen, then follow the instructions given by Windows. Once you have successfully made a restore point, you can continue with the steps shown below.
Open Command Prompt (as admin) , then enter the following commands:
Once both commands finish running, Restart your computer for the changes to take effect.
How to Re-Enable Intel’s Spectre Mitigation Manually. (Registry Tweak Via CMD)
If for some particular reason you wish to re-enable the bugged Spectre fix, enter the following commands:
Again, Restart your device for the change to take effect.
windows , windows update , meltdown , spectre
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Turn off spectre mitigation, mitigation intel enable or disable, windows spectre registry mitigation disable.
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VS: Cannot disable "/Qspectre" flag using "/Qspectre-"
I tried to disable this flag with "/Qspectre-" but it did not work. Since Microsoft has enabled it as default this would be great to be able to override it.