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case study reflection essay

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How to write a reflective practice case study, bob price independent health services training consultant, surrey, england.

As evidence and experience play an important role in underpinning primary healthcare, combining them in a reflective practice case study has significant potential for purposes of publication and revalidation of professional practice.

Reflective practice case studies have the potential to help other nurses in the community re-examine care challenges and the opportunities before them. Nurses writing about a clinical case experience can add to the relevant evidence, as can discussion of the insights and issues that emerge. While research and reflective practice are regularly written about more generally in the press, there remains scope for nurses to combine them in a more analytical and pertinent way.

This article guides the reader through the process of identifying suitable case studies to write about and structuring the work they produce. Clear distinctions are made between case study as research methodology and case study as reflective practice process.

Primary Health Care . 27, 9, 35-42. doi: 10.7748/phc.2017.e1328

This article has been subject to external double-blind peer review and checked for plagiarism using automated software

None declared

Prepare for revalidation: read this CPD article, answer the questionnaire and write a reflective account: rcni.com/reflective-account

Please email [email protected] . Guidelines on writing for publication are available at: rcni.com/writeforus

For information about writing for RCNi journals, contact [email protected]

For author guidelines, go to rcni.com/writeforus

Received: 13 June 2017

Accepted: 22 August 2017

case study - evidence review - reflective practice - revalidation - writing for publication

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case study reflection essay

30 October 2017 / Vol 27 issue 9




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case study reflection essay

Guide on How to Write a Reflection Paper with Free Tips and Example

case study reflection essay

A reflection paper is a very common type of paper among college students. Almost any subject you enroll in requires you to express your opinion on certain matters. In this article, we will explain how to write a reflection paper and provide examples and useful tips to make the essay writing process easier.

Reflection papers should have an academic tone yet be personal and subjective. In this paper, you should analyze and reflect upon how an experience, academic task, article, or lecture shaped your perception and thoughts on a subject.

Here is what you need to know about writing an effective critical reflection paper. Stick around until the end of our guide to get some useful writing tips from the writing team at EssayPro — a research paper writing service

What Is a Reflection Paper

A reflection paper is a type of paper that requires you to write your opinion on a topic, supporting it with your observations and personal experiences. As opposed to presenting your reader with the views of other academics and writers, in this essay, you get an opportunity to write your point of view—and the best part is that there is no wrong answer. It is YOUR opinion, and it is your job to express your thoughts in a manner that will be understandable and clear for all readers that will read your paper. The topic range is endless. Here are some examples: whether or not you think aliens exist, your favorite TV show, or your opinion on the outcome of WWII. You can write about pretty much anything.

There are three types of reflection paper; depending on which one you end up with, the tone you write with can be slightly different. The first type is the educational reflective paper. Here your job is to write feedback about a book, movie, or seminar you attended—in a manner that teaches the reader about it. The second is the professional paper. Usually, it is written by people who study or work in education or psychology. For example, it can be a reflection of someone’s behavior. And the last is the personal type, which explores your thoughts and feelings about an individual subject.

However, reflection paper writing will stop eventually with one very important final paper to write - your resume. This is where you will need to reflect on your entire life leading up to that moment. To learn how to list education on resume perfectly, follow the link on our dissertation writing services .

Unlock the potential of your thoughts with EssayPro . Order a reflection paper and explore a range of other academic services tailored to your needs. Dive deep into your experiences, analyze them with expert guidance, and turn your insights into an impactful reflection paper.

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Free Reflection Paper Example

Now that we went over all of the essentials about a reflection paper and how to approach it, we would like to show you some examples that will definitely help you with getting started on your paper.

Reflection Paper Format

Reflection papers typically do not follow any specific format. Since it is your opinion, professors usually let you handle them in any comfortable way. It is best to write your thoughts freely, without guideline constraints. If a personal reflection paper was assigned to you, the format of your paper might depend on the criteria set by your professor. College reflection papers (also known as reflection essays) can typically range from about 400-800 words in length.

Here’s how we can suggest you format your reflection paper:

common reflection paper format

How to Start a Reflection Paper

The first thing to do when beginning to work on a reflection essay is to read your article thoroughly while taking notes. Whether you are reflecting on, for example, an activity, book/newspaper, or academic essay, you want to highlight key ideas and concepts.

You can start writing your reflection paper by summarizing the main concept of your notes to see if your essay includes all the information needed for your readers. It is helpful to add charts, diagrams, and lists to deliver your ideas to the audience in a better fashion.

After you have finished reading your article, it’s time to brainstorm. We’ve got a simple brainstorming technique for writing reflection papers. Just answer some of the basic questions below:

  • How did the article affect you?
  • How does this article catch the reader’s attention (or does it all)?
  • Has the article changed your mind about something? If so, explain how.
  • Has the article left you with any questions?
  • Were there any unaddressed critical issues that didn’t appear in the article?
  • Does the article relate to anything from your past reading experiences?
  • Does the article agree with any of your past reading experiences?

Here are some reflection paper topic examples for you to keep in mind before preparing to write your own:

  • How my views on rap music have changed over time
  • My reflection and interpretation of Moby Dick by Herman Melville
  • Why my theory about the size of the universe has changed over time
  • How my observations for clinical psychological studies have developed in the last year

The result of your brainstorming should be a written outline of the contents of your future paper. Do not skip this step, as it will ensure that your essay will have a proper flow and appropriate organization.

Another good way to organize your ideas is to write them down in a 3-column chart or table.

how to write a reflection paper

Do you want your task look awesome?

If you would like your reflection paper to look professional, feel free to check out one of our articles on how to format MLA, APA or Chicago style

Writing a Reflection Paper Outline

Reflection paper should contain few key elements:


Your introduction should specify what you’re reflecting upon. Make sure that your thesis informs your reader about your general position, or opinion, toward your subject.

  • State what you are analyzing: a passage, a lecture, an academic article, an experience, etc...)
  • Briefly summarize the work.
  • Write a thesis statement stating how your subject has affected you.

One way you can start your thesis is to write:

Example: “After reading/experiencing (your chosen topic), I gained the knowledge of…”

Body Paragraphs

The body paragraphs should examine your ideas and experiences in context to your topic. Make sure each new body paragraph starts with a topic sentence.

Your reflection may include quotes and passages if you are writing about a book or an academic paper. They give your reader a point of reference to fully understand your feedback. Feel free to describe what you saw, what you heard, and how you felt.

Example: “I saw many people participating in our weight experiment. The atmosphere felt nervous yet inspiring. I was amazed by the excitement of the event.”

As with any conclusion, you should summarize what you’ve learned from the experience. Next, tell the reader how your newfound knowledge has affected your understanding of the subject in general. Finally, describe the feeling and overall lesson you had from the reading or experience.

There are a few good ways to conclude a reflection paper:

  • Tie all the ideas from your body paragraphs together, and generalize the major insights you’ve experienced.
  • Restate your thesis and summarize the content of your paper.

We have a separate blog post dedicated to writing a great conclusion. Be sure to check it out for an in-depth look at how to make a good final impression on your reader.

Need a hand? Get help from our writers. Edit, proofread or buy essay .

How to Write a Reflection Paper: Step-by-Step Guide

Step 1: create a main theme.

After you choose your topic, write a short summary about what you have learned about your experience with that topic. Then, let readers know how you feel about your case — and be honest. Chances are that your readers will likely be able to relate to your opinion or at least the way you form your perspective, which will help them better understand your reflection.

For example: After watching a TEDx episode on Wim Hof, I was able to reevaluate my preconceived notions about the negative effects of cold exposure.

Step 2: Brainstorm Ideas and Experiences You’ve Had Related to Your Topic

You can write down specific quotes, predispositions you have, things that influenced you, or anything memorable. Be personal and explain, in simple words, how you felt.

For example: • A lot of people think that even a small amount of carbohydrates will make people gain weight • A specific moment when I struggled with an excess weight where I avoided carbohydrates entirely • The consequences of my actions that gave rise to my research • The evidence and studies of nutritional science that claim carbohydrates alone are to blame for making people obese • My new experience with having a healthy diet with a well-balanced intake of nutrients • The influence of other people’s perceptions on the harm of carbohydrates, and the role their influence has had on me • New ideas I’ve created as a result of my shift in perspective

Step 3: Analyze How and Why These Ideas and Experiences Have Affected Your Interpretation of Your Theme

Pick an idea or experience you had from the last step, and analyze it further. Then, write your reasoning for agreeing or disagreeing with it.

For example, Idea: I was raised to think that carbohydrates make people gain weight.

Analysis: Most people think that if they eat any carbohydrates, such as bread, cereal, and sugar, they will gain weight. I believe in this misconception to such a great extent that I avoided carbohydrates entirely. As a result, my blood glucose levels were very low. I needed to do a lot of research to overcome my beliefs finally. Afterward, I adopted the philosophy of “everything in moderation” as a key to a healthy lifestyle.

For example: Idea: I was brought up to think that carbohydrates make people gain weight. Analysis: Most people think that if they eat any carbohydrates, such as bread, cereal, and sugar, they will gain weight. I believe in this misconception to such a great extent that I avoided carbohydrates entirely. As a result, my blood glucose levels were very low. I needed to do a lot of my own research to finally overcome my beliefs. After, I adopted the philosophy of “everything in moderation” as a key for having a healthy lifestyle.

Step 4: Make Connections Between Your Observations, Experiences, and Opinions

Try to connect your ideas and insights to form a cohesive picture for your theme. You can also try to recognize and break down your assumptions, which you may challenge in the future.

There are some subjects for reflection papers that are most commonly written about. They include:

  • Book – Start by writing some information about the author’s biography and summarize the plot—without revealing the ending to keep your readers interested. Make sure to include the names of the characters, the main themes, and any issues mentioned in the book. Finally, express your thoughts and reflect on the book itself.
  • Course – Including the course name and description is a good place to start. Then, you can write about the course flow, explain why you took this course, and tell readers what you learned from it. Since it is a reflection paper, express your opinion, supporting it with examples from the course.
  • Project – The structure for a reflection paper about a project has identical guidelines to that of a course. One of the things you might want to add would be the pros and cons of the course. Also, mention some changes you might want to see, and evaluate how relevant the skills you acquired are to real life.
  • Interview – First, introduce the person and briefly mention the discussion. Touch on the main points, controversies, and your opinion of that person.

Writing Tips

Everyone has their style of writing a reflective essay – and that's the beauty of it; you have plenty of leeway with this type of paper – but there are still a few tips everyone should incorporate.

Before you start your piece, read some examples of other papers; they will likely help you better understand what they are and how to approach yours. When picking your subject, try to write about something unusual and memorable — it is more likely to capture your readers' attention. Never write the whole essay at once. Space out the time slots when you work on your reflection paper to at least a day apart. This will allow your brain to generate new thoughts and reflections.

  • Short and Sweet – Most reflection papers are between 250 and 750 words. Don't go off on tangents. Only include relevant information.
  • Clear and Concise – Make your paper as clear and concise as possible. Use a strong thesis statement so your essay can follow it with the same strength.
  • Maintain the Right Tone – Use a professional and academic tone—even though the writing is personal.
  • Cite Your Sources – Try to cite authoritative sources and experts to back up your personal opinions.
  • Proofreading – Not only should you proofread for spelling and grammatical errors, but you should proofread to focus on your organization as well. Answer the question presented in the introduction.

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Daniel Parker

Daniel Parker

is a seasoned educational writer focusing on scholarship guidance, research papers, and various forms of academic essays including reflective and narrative essays. His expertise also extends to detailed case studies. A scholar with a background in English Literature and Education, Daniel’s work on EssayPro blog aims to support students in achieving academic excellence and securing scholarships. His hobbies include reading classic literature and participating in academic forums.

case study reflection essay

is an expert in nursing and healthcare, with a strong background in history, law, and literature. Holding advanced degrees in nursing and public health, his analytical approach and comprehensive knowledge help students navigate complex topics. On EssayPro blog, Adam provides insightful articles on everything from historical analysis to the intricacies of healthcare policies. In his downtime, he enjoys historical documentaries and volunteering at local clinics.

How to Write a 5 Paragraph Essay

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Case studies and template

Case studies to help you to reflect on your practice.

These case studies will help you to reflect on your practice, and provide a summary of reflective models that can help aid your reflections and make them more effective.

Templates are also provided to guide your own activities. Remember, there is no set way to reflect and you can adapt these activities to suit your learning style and your role.

Your reflection should be about learning and improving your practice. If you’d like to see how reflection has impacted the practice of some of our registrants, watch this short video.

Getting started

Here are some tips to think about when you set out to reflect.

case study reflection essay

Sole practitioners' group

Case study: Carl is a podiatrist working in independent practise. He is a sole practitioner and has run his business for 10 years

case study reflection essay

Group reflection within a team

Case study: Munira is a physiotherapist working in private practice. She has treated her service user Russel for the last three months after he was involved in a fall at home.

case study reflection essay

Reflecting by yourself

Case study: Emily is a dietitian working in an NHS Trust hospital. She also volunteers at a local charity that raises awareness about diabetes at events and conferences

case study reflection essay

Reflective practice template

Template to help you guide your own activities

WS1006 Self in Professional Helping Guide: Reflective Writing Exemplar

  • 1. Getting Started
  • 2. Finding Information
  • 3. Effective Reading
  • 4. Reflective Writing
  • 5. Referencing
  • Reflective Writing Exemplar
  • Case Study Response

Warning: This is a past WS1006 critically reflective writing task essay. Assignment task requirements may have changed since this was written, but it continues to provide a good example of what a critically reflective writing task response could look like.

Instructions: Mouse over the text below to see annotations giving explanations and information on the writing process, parts of a blog post, in-text citations and referencing.

An exercise of critial reflection in informal helping


Action Plan

References Some good information sources have been used in this essay. The author is clearly trying hard with his/her APA references and in-text citations – still some work to do to get them right.

Grade: High Distinction

  • << Previous: 5. Referencing
  • Next: Case Study Response >>
  • Last Updated: Apr 3, 2024 11:31 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.jcu.edu.au/WS1006

Acknowledgement of Country

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Analyzing a Scholarly Journal Article
  • Group Presentations
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • Types of Structured Group Activities
  • Group Project Survival Skills
  • Leading a Class Discussion
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Works
  • Writing a Case Analysis Paper
  • Writing a Case Study
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
  • Writing a Reflective Paper
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • Acknowledgments

Definition and Introduction

Case analysis is a problem-based teaching and learning method that involves critically analyzing complex scenarios within an organizational setting for the purpose of placing the student in a “real world” situation and applying reflection and critical thinking skills to contemplate appropriate solutions, decisions, or recommended courses of action. It is considered a more effective teaching technique than in-class role playing or simulation activities. The analytical process is often guided by questions provided by the instructor that ask students to contemplate relationships between the facts and critical incidents described in the case.

Cases generally include both descriptive and statistical elements and rely on students applying abductive reasoning to develop and argue for preferred or best outcomes [i.e., case scenarios rarely have a single correct or perfect answer based on the evidence provided]. Rather than emphasizing theories or concepts, case analysis assignments emphasize building a bridge of relevancy between abstract thinking and practical application and, by so doing, teaches the value of both within a specific area of professional practice.

Given this, the purpose of a case analysis paper is to present a structured and logically organized format for analyzing the case situation. It can be assigned to students individually or as a small group assignment and it may include an in-class presentation component. Case analysis is predominately taught in economics and business-related courses, but it is also a method of teaching and learning found in other applied social sciences disciplines, such as, social work, public relations, education, journalism, and public administration.

Ellet, William. The Case Study Handbook: A Student's Guide . Revised Edition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2018; Christoph Rasche and Achim Seisreiner. Guidelines for Business Case Analysis . University of Potsdam; Writing a Case Analysis . Writing Center, Baruch College; Volpe, Guglielmo. "Case Teaching in Economics: History, Practice and Evidence." Cogent Economics and Finance 3 (December 2015). doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/23322039.2015.1120977.

How to Approach Writing a Case Analysis Paper

The organization and structure of a case analysis paper can vary depending on the organizational setting, the situation, and how your professor wants you to approach the assignment. Nevertheless, preparing to write a case analysis paper involves several important steps. As Hawes notes, a case analysis assignment “...is useful in developing the ability to get to the heart of a problem, analyze it thoroughly, and to indicate the appropriate solution as well as how it should be implemented” [p.48]. This statement encapsulates how you should approach preparing to write a case analysis paper.

Before you begin to write your paper, consider the following analytical procedures:

  • Review the case to get an overview of the situation . A case can be only a few pages in length, however, it is most often very lengthy and contains a significant amount of detailed background information and statistics, with multilayered descriptions of the scenario, the roles and behaviors of various stakeholder groups, and situational events. Therefore, a quick reading of the case will help you gain an overall sense of the situation and illuminate the types of issues and problems that you will need to address in your paper. If your professor has provided questions intended to help frame your analysis, use them to guide your initial reading of the case.
  • Read the case thoroughly . After gaining a general overview of the case, carefully read the content again with the purpose of understanding key circumstances, events, and behaviors among stakeholder groups. Look for information or data that appears contradictory, extraneous, or misleading. At this point, you should be taking notes as you read because this will help you develop a general outline of your paper. The aim is to obtain a complete understanding of the situation so that you can begin contemplating tentative answers to any questions your professor has provided or, if they have not provided, developing answers to your own questions about the case scenario and its connection to the course readings,lectures, and class discussions.
  • Determine key stakeholder groups, issues, and events and the relationships they all have to each other . As you analyze the content, pay particular attention to identifying individuals, groups, or organizations described in the case and identify evidence of any problems or issues of concern that impact the situation in a negative way. Other things to look for include identifying any assumptions being made by or about each stakeholder, potential biased explanations or actions, explicit demands or ultimatums , and the underlying concerns that motivate these behaviors among stakeholders. The goal at this stage is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the situational and behavioral dynamics of the case and the explicit and implicit consequences of each of these actions.
  • Identify the core problems . The next step in most case analysis assignments is to discern what the core [i.e., most damaging, detrimental, injurious] problems are within the organizational setting and to determine their implications. The purpose at this stage of preparing to write your analysis paper is to distinguish between the symptoms of core problems and the core problems themselves and to decide which of these must be addressed immediately and which problems do not appear critical but may escalate over time. Identify evidence from the case to support your decisions by determining what information or data is essential to addressing the core problems and what information is not relevant or is misleading.
  • Explore alternative solutions . As noted, case analysis scenarios rarely have only one correct answer. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that the process of analyzing the case and diagnosing core problems, while based on evidence, is a subjective process open to various avenues of interpretation. This means that you must consider alternative solutions or courses of action by critically examining strengths and weaknesses, risk factors, and the differences between short and long-term solutions. For each possible solution or course of action, consider the consequences they may have related to their implementation and how these recommendations might lead to new problems. Also, consider thinking about your recommended solutions or courses of action in relation to issues of fairness, equity, and inclusion.
  • Decide on a final set of recommendations . The last stage in preparing to write a case analysis paper is to assert an opinion or viewpoint about the recommendations needed to help resolve the core problems as you see them and to make a persuasive argument for supporting this point of view. Prepare a clear rationale for your recommendations based on examining each element of your analysis. Anticipate possible obstacles that could derail their implementation. Consider any counter-arguments that could be made concerning the validity of your recommended actions. Finally, describe a set of criteria and measurable indicators that could be applied to evaluating the effectiveness of your implementation plan.

Use these steps as the framework for writing your paper. Remember that the more detailed you are in taking notes as you critically examine each element of the case, the more information you will have to draw from when you begin to write. This will save you time.

NOTE : If the process of preparing to write a case analysis paper is assigned as a student group project, consider having each member of the group analyze a specific element of the case, including drafting answers to the corresponding questions used by your professor to frame the analysis. This will help make the analytical process more efficient and ensure that the distribution of work is equitable. This can also facilitate who is responsible for drafting each part of the final case analysis paper and, if applicable, the in-class presentation.

Framework for Case Analysis . College of Management. University of Massachusetts; Hawes, Jon M. "Teaching is Not Telling: The Case Method as a Form of Interactive Learning." Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education 5 (Winter 2004): 47-54; Rasche, Christoph and Achim Seisreiner. Guidelines for Business Case Analysis . University of Potsdam; Writing a Case Study Analysis . University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center; Van Ness, Raymond K. A Guide to Case Analysis . School of Business. State University of New York, Albany; Writing a Case Analysis . Business School, University of New South Wales.

Structure and Writing Style

A case analysis paper should be detailed, concise, persuasive, clearly written, and professional in tone and in the use of language . As with other forms of college-level academic writing, declarative statements that convey information, provide a fact, or offer an explanation or any recommended courses of action should be based on evidence. If allowed by your professor, any external sources used to support your analysis, such as course readings, should be properly cited under a list of references. The organization and structure of case analysis papers can vary depending on your professor’s preferred format, but its structure generally follows the steps used for analyzing the case.


The introduction should provide a succinct but thorough descriptive overview of the main facts, issues, and core problems of the case . The introduction should also include a brief summary of the most relevant details about the situation and organizational setting. This includes defining the theoretical framework or conceptual model on which any questions were used to frame your analysis.

Following the rules of most college-level research papers, the introduction should then inform the reader how the paper will be organized. This includes describing the major sections of the paper and the order in which they will be presented. Unless you are told to do so by your professor, you do not need to preview your final recommendations in the introduction. U nlike most college-level research papers , the introduction does not include a statement about the significance of your findings because a case analysis assignment does not involve contributing new knowledge about a research problem.

Background Analysis

Background analysis can vary depending on any guiding questions provided by your professor and the underlying concept or theory that the case is based upon. In general, however, this section of your paper should focus on:

  • Providing an overarching analysis of problems identified from the case scenario, including identifying events that stakeholders find challenging or troublesome,
  • Identifying assumptions made by each stakeholder and any apparent biases they may exhibit,
  • Describing any demands or claims made by or forced upon key stakeholders, and
  • Highlighting any issues of concern or complaints expressed by stakeholders in response to those demands or claims.

These aspects of the case are often in the form of behavioral responses expressed by individuals or groups within the organizational setting. However, note that problems in a case situation can also be reflected in data [or the lack thereof] and in the decision-making, operational, cultural, or institutional structure of the organization. Additionally, demands or claims can be either internal and external to the organization [e.g., a case analysis involving a president considering arms sales to Saudi Arabia could include managing internal demands from White House advisors as well as demands from members of Congress].

Throughout this section, present all relevant evidence from the case that supports your analysis. Do not simply claim there is a problem, an assumption, a demand, or a concern; tell the reader what part of the case informed how you identified these background elements.

Identification of Problems

In most case analysis assignments, there are problems, and then there are problems . Each problem can reflect a multitude of underlying symptoms that are detrimental to the interests of the organization. The purpose of identifying problems is to teach students how to differentiate between problems that vary in severity, impact, and relative importance. Given this, problems can be described in three general forms: those that must be addressed immediately, those that should be addressed but the impact is not severe, and those that do not require immediate attention and can be set aside for the time being.

All of the problems you identify from the case should be identified in this section of your paper, with a description based on evidence explaining the problem variances. If the assignment asks you to conduct research to further support your assessment of the problems, include this in your explanation. Remember to cite those sources in a list of references. Use specific evidence from the case and apply appropriate concepts, theories, and models discussed in class or in relevant course readings to highlight and explain the key problems [or problem] that you believe must be solved immediately and describe the underlying symptoms and why they are so critical.

Alternative Solutions

This section is where you provide specific, realistic, and evidence-based solutions to the problems you have identified and make recommendations about how to alleviate the underlying symptomatic conditions impacting the organizational setting. For each solution, you must explain why it was chosen and provide clear evidence to support your reasoning. This can include, for example, course readings and class discussions as well as research resources, such as, books, journal articles, research reports, or government documents. In some cases, your professor may encourage you to include personal, anecdotal experiences as evidence to support why you chose a particular solution or set of solutions. Using anecdotal evidence helps promote reflective thinking about the process of determining what qualifies as a core problem and relevant solution .

Throughout this part of the paper, keep in mind the entire array of problems that must be addressed and describe in detail the solutions that might be implemented to resolve these problems.

Recommended Courses of Action

In some case analysis assignments, your professor may ask you to combine the alternative solutions section with your recommended courses of action. However, it is important to know the difference between the two. A solution refers to the answer to a problem. A course of action refers to a procedure or deliberate sequence of activities adopted to proactively confront a situation, often in the context of accomplishing a goal. In this context, proposed courses of action are based on your analysis of alternative solutions. Your description and justification for pursuing each course of action should represent the overall plan for implementing your recommendations.

For each course of action, you need to explain the rationale for your recommendation in a way that confronts challenges, explains risks, and anticipates any counter-arguments from stakeholders. Do this by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each course of action framed in relation to how the action is expected to resolve the core problems presented, the possible ways the action may affect remaining problems, and how the recommended action will be perceived by each stakeholder.

In addition, you should describe the criteria needed to measure how well the implementation of these actions is working and explain which individuals or groups are responsible for ensuring your recommendations are successful. In addition, always consider the law of unintended consequences. Outline difficulties that may arise in implementing each course of action and describe how implementing the proposed courses of action [either individually or collectively] may lead to new problems [both large and small].

Throughout this section, you must consider the costs and benefits of recommending your courses of action in relation to uncertainties or missing information and the negative consequences of success.

The conclusion should be brief and introspective. Unlike a research paper, the conclusion in a case analysis paper does not include a summary of key findings and their significance, a statement about how the study contributed to existing knowledge, or indicate opportunities for future research.

Begin by synthesizing the core problems presented in the case and the relevance of your recommended solutions. This can include an explanation of what you have learned about the case in the context of your answers to the questions provided by your professor. The conclusion is also where you link what you learned from analyzing the case with the course readings or class discussions. This can further demonstrate your understanding of the relationships between the practical case situation and the theoretical and abstract content of assigned readings and other course content.

Problems to Avoid

The literature on case analysis assignments often includes examples of difficulties students have with applying methods of critical analysis and effectively reporting the results of their assessment of the situation. A common reason cited by scholars is that the application of this type of teaching and learning method is limited to applied fields of social and behavioral sciences and, as a result, writing a case analysis paper can be unfamiliar to most students entering college.

After you have drafted your paper, proofread the narrative flow and revise any of these common errors:

  • Unnecessary detail in the background section . The background section should highlight the essential elements of the case based on your analysis. Focus on summarizing the facts and highlighting the key factors that become relevant in the other sections of the paper by eliminating any unnecessary information.
  • Analysis relies too much on opinion . Your analysis is interpretive, but the narrative must be connected clearly to evidence from the case and any models and theories discussed in class or in course readings. Any positions or arguments you make should be supported by evidence.
  • Analysis does not focus on the most important elements of the case . Your paper should provide a thorough overview of the case. However, the analysis should focus on providing evidence about what you identify are the key events, stakeholders, issues, and problems. Emphasize what you identify as the most critical aspects of the case to be developed throughout your analysis. Be thorough but succinct.
  • Writing is too descriptive . A paper with too much descriptive information detracts from your analysis of the complexities of the case situation. Questions about what happened, where, when, and by whom should only be included as essential information leading to your examination of questions related to why, how, and for what purpose.
  • Inadequate definition of a core problem and associated symptoms . A common error found in case analysis papers is recommending a solution or course of action without adequately defining or demonstrating that you understand the problem. Make sure you have clearly described the problem and its impact and scope within the organizational setting. Ensure that you have adequately described the root causes w hen describing the symptoms of the problem.
  • Recommendations lack specificity . Identify any use of vague statements and indeterminate terminology, such as, “A particular experience” or “a large increase to the budget.” These statements cannot be measured and, as a result, there is no way to evaluate their successful implementation. Provide specific data and use direct language in describing recommended actions.
  • Unrealistic, exaggerated, or unattainable recommendations . Review your recommendations to ensure that they are based on the situational facts of the case. Your recommended solutions and courses of action must be based on realistic assumptions and fit within the constraints of the situation. Also note that the case scenario has already happened, therefore, any speculation or arguments about what could have occurred if the circumstances were different should be revised or eliminated.

Bee, Lian Song et al. "Business Students' Perspectives on Case Method Coaching for Problem-Based Learning: Impacts on Student Engagement and Learning Performance in Higher Education." Education & Training 64 (2022): 416-432; The Case Analysis . Fred Meijer Center for Writing and Michigan Authors. Grand Valley State University; Georgallis, Panikos and Kayleigh Bruijn. "Sustainability Teaching using Case-Based Debates." Journal of International Education in Business 15 (2022): 147-163; Hawes, Jon M. "Teaching is Not Telling: The Case Method as a Form of Interactive Learning." Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education 5 (Winter 2004): 47-54; Georgallis, Panikos, and Kayleigh Bruijn. "Sustainability Teaching Using Case-based Debates." Journal of International Education in Business 15 (2022): 147-163; .Dean,  Kathy Lund and Charles J. Fornaciari. "How to Create and Use Experiential Case-Based Exercises in a Management Classroom." Journal of Management Education 26 (October 2002): 586-603; Klebba, Joanne M. and Janet G. Hamilton. "Structured Case Analysis: Developing Critical Thinking Skills in a Marketing Case Course." Journal of Marketing Education 29 (August 2007): 132-137, 139; Klein, Norman. "The Case Discussion Method Revisited: Some Questions about Student Skills." Exchange: The Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal 6 (November 1981): 30-32; Mukherjee, Arup. "Effective Use of In-Class Mini Case Analysis for Discovery Learning in an Undergraduate MIS Course." The Journal of Computer Information Systems 40 (Spring 2000): 15-23; Pessoa, Silviaet al. "Scaffolding the Case Analysis in an Organizational Behavior Course: Making Analytical Language Explicit." Journal of Management Education 46 (2022): 226-251: Ramsey, V. J. and L. D. Dodge. "Case Analysis: A Structured Approach." Exchange: The Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal 6 (November 1981): 27-29; Schweitzer, Karen. "How to Write and Format a Business Case Study." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/how-to-write-and-format-a-business-case-study-466324 (accessed December 5, 2022); Reddy, C. D. "Teaching Research Methodology: Everything's a Case." Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods 18 (December 2020): 178-188; Volpe, Guglielmo. "Case Teaching in Economics: History, Practice and Evidence." Cogent Economics and Finance 3 (December 2015). doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/23322039.2015.1120977.

Writing Tip

Ca se Study and Case Analysis Are Not the Same!

Confusion often exists between what it means to write a paper that uses a case study research design and writing a paper that analyzes a case; they are two different types of approaches to learning in the social and behavioral sciences. Professors as well as educational researchers contribute to this confusion because they often use the term "case study" when describing the subject of analysis for a case analysis paper. But you are not studying a case for the purpose of generating a comprehensive, multi-faceted understanding of a research problem. R ather, you are critically analyzing a specific scenario to argue logically for recommended solutions and courses of action that lead to optimal outcomes applicable to professional practice.

To avoid any confusion, here are twelve characteristics that delineate the differences between writing a paper using the case study research method and writing a case analysis paper:

  • Case study is a method of in-depth research and rigorous inquiry ; case analysis is a reliable method of teaching and learning . A case study is a modality of research that investigates a phenomenon for the purpose of creating new knowledge, solving a problem, or testing a hypothesis using empirical evidence derived from the case being studied. Often, the results are used to generalize about a larger population or within a wider context. The writing adheres to the traditional standards of a scholarly research study. A case analysis is a pedagogical tool used to teach students how to reflect and think critically about a practical, real-life problem in an organizational setting.
  • The researcher is responsible for identifying the case to study; a case analysis is assigned by your professor . As the researcher, you choose the case study to investigate in support of obtaining new knowledge and understanding about the research problem. The case in a case analysis assignment is almost always provided, and sometimes written, by your professor and either given to every student in class to analyze individually or to a small group of students, or students select a case to analyze from a predetermined list.
  • A case study is indeterminate and boundless; a case analysis is predetermined and confined . A case study can be almost anything [see item 9 below] as long as it relates directly to examining the research problem. This relationship is the only limit to what a researcher can choose as the subject of their case study. The content of a case analysis is determined by your professor and its parameters are well-defined and limited to elucidating insights of practical value applied to practice.
  • Case study is fact-based and describes actual events or situations; case analysis can be entirely fictional or adapted from an actual situation . The entire content of a case study must be grounded in reality to be a valid subject of investigation in an empirical research study. A case analysis only needs to set the stage for critically examining a situation in practice and, therefore, can be entirely fictional or adapted, all or in-part, from an actual situation.
  • Research using a case study method must adhere to principles of intellectual honesty and academic integrity; a case analysis scenario can include misleading or false information . A case study paper must report research objectively and factually to ensure that any findings are understood to be logically correct and trustworthy. A case analysis scenario may include misleading or false information intended to deliberately distract from the central issues of the case. The purpose is to teach students how to sort through conflicting or useless information in order to come up with the preferred solution. Any use of misleading or false information in academic research is considered unethical.
  • Case study is linked to a research problem; case analysis is linked to a practical situation or scenario . In the social sciences, the subject of an investigation is most often framed as a problem that must be researched in order to generate new knowledge leading to a solution. Case analysis narratives are grounded in real life scenarios for the purpose of examining the realities of decision-making behavior and processes within organizational settings. A case analysis assignments include a problem or set of problems to be analyzed. However, the goal is centered around the act of identifying and evaluating courses of action leading to best possible outcomes.
  • The purpose of a case study is to create new knowledge through research; the purpose of a case analysis is to teach new understanding . Case studies are a choice of methodological design intended to create new knowledge about resolving a research problem. A case analysis is a mode of teaching and learning intended to create new understanding and an awareness of uncertainty applied to practice through acts of critical thinking and reflection.
  • A case study seeks to identify the best possible solution to a research problem; case analysis can have an indeterminate set of solutions or outcomes . Your role in studying a case is to discover the most logical, evidence-based ways to address a research problem. A case analysis assignment rarely has a single correct answer because one of the goals is to force students to confront the real life dynamics of uncertainly, ambiguity, and missing or conflicting information within professional practice. Under these conditions, a perfect outcome or solution almost never exists.
  • Case study is unbounded and relies on gathering external information; case analysis is a self-contained subject of analysis . The scope of a case study chosen as a method of research is bounded. However, the researcher is free to gather whatever information and data is necessary to investigate its relevance to understanding the research problem. For a case analysis assignment, your professor will often ask you to examine solutions or recommended courses of action based solely on facts and information from the case.
  • Case study can be a person, place, object, issue, event, condition, or phenomenon; a case analysis is a carefully constructed synopsis of events, situations, and behaviors . The research problem dictates the type of case being studied and, therefore, the design can encompass almost anything tangible as long as it fulfills the objective of generating new knowledge and understanding. A case analysis is in the form of a narrative containing descriptions of facts, situations, processes, rules, and behaviors within a particular setting and under a specific set of circumstances.
  • Case study can represent an open-ended subject of inquiry; a case analysis is a narrative about something that has happened in the past . A case study is not restricted by time and can encompass an event or issue with no temporal limit or end. For example, the current war in Ukraine can be used as a case study of how medical personnel help civilians during a large military conflict, even though circumstances around this event are still evolving. A case analysis can be used to elicit critical thinking about current or future situations in practice, but the case itself is a narrative about something finite and that has taken place in the past.
  • Multiple case studies can be used in a research study; case analysis involves examining a single scenario . Case study research can use two or more cases to examine a problem, often for the purpose of conducting a comparative investigation intended to discover hidden relationships, document emerging trends, or determine variations among different examples. A case analysis assignment typically describes a stand-alone, self-contained situation and any comparisons among cases are conducted during in-class discussions and/or student presentations.

The Case Analysis . Fred Meijer Center for Writing and Michigan Authors. Grand Valley State University; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Ramsey, V. J. and L. D. Dodge. "Case Analysis: A Structured Approach." Exchange: The Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal 6 (November 1981): 27-29; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods . 6th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2017; Crowe, Sarah et al. “The Case Study Approach.” BMC Medical Research Methodology 11 (2011):  doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-100; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . 4th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing; 1994.

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Reflective essays

Reflective essays are academic essays; what makes an essay "good" will work for a reflective essay. What is different about a reflective essay is that the essay is about you and your thinking. However, you will need evidence from your course to back up your reflections.

You should structure a reflective essay as an essay, that is write to persuade your reader of your key reflections (or argument). The diagram above, details how to stucture your reflections through the essay. To find out more see the section on essay writing .

Business example

The following example comes from business. Thanks to Dr Colleen Hayes for the three samples.

Students were asked to write a reflective essay on their learning in the course by responding to the following question:

What key thing have you learned about corporate social responsibility in the course?

Example 1: Retelling

This writing is (1) descriptive/listing of content, not reflective and (2) not properly referenced (the definition of stakeholders is directly copied from Freeman in the lecture slides.

Example 2: Relating

One of the most important things I have learned so far is the stakeholder view of the firm. I was very interested to learn that Australia is more of a shareholder-oriented country (similar to UK/US). I come from country X, and I believe that it is also very shareholder-oriented. For example the company I used to work for did not seem to have much concern for its stakeholders. As staff, we were worked extremely hard in poor conditions without overtime pay or paid leave (employees are a stakeholder group), and the company did not care at all about its impact on the environment. The company was just so concerned with cutting costs and making more profit for shareholders - usually at the expense of other stakeholders.

This writing involves relating to personal experience and has some integration of course concepts (stakeholders).

Example 3: Reflecting

The notion of the stakeholder challenged many of the assumptions I have about the role of corporations in society. I hope to run my own business one day, and the distinction between stakeholders and shareholders really makes me think about what responsible leadership might look like. What I appreciate about Friedman's view is its simplicity - the idea that companies pursuing their own profits creates the best outcomes for society (ref included). Adopting a stakeholder orientation (consistent with Freidman), and managing multifarious accountabilities and balancing trade-offs between them, would seem to be much more complex and a far greater challenge for leaders to navigate. However, today's internet age allows stakeholders to have global reach and a powerful voice, so I'm not sure that it would be so easy to silence or ignore them in pursuit of profit. 

More reflective (forward-looking), better citation and integration of multiple course concepts, and reflection that links with personal experience.

An anthropology marking rubric

For this assessment, students were required to write a 1500-1800 word essay building on the themes of the course to address the question "We are all pirates". Attached under reference documents is the rubric used to mark the essay (thanks to Dr Caroline Schuster). Notice that it requires both the reflection (reflect, relate and retell) as well as the poor traditional requirements of an essay (Writing and organisation, Supporting claims with scholarly sources).

Reflective writing

Learning journals

Reference Documents

  • Sample rubric from Anthropology (PDF, 243.24 KB)

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Generating Situated Reflection Triggers About Alternative Solution Paths: A Case Study of Generative AI for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

  • Conference paper
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case study reflection essay

  • Atharva Naik 6 ,
  • Jessica Ruhan Yin 6 ,
  • Anusha Kamath 6 ,
  • Qianou Ma 6 ,
  • Sherry Tongshuang Wu 6 ,
  • Charles Murray 6 ,
  • Christopher Bogart 6 ,
  • Majd Sakr 6 &
  • Carolyn P. Rose 6  

Part of the book series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science ((LNAI,volume 14829))

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  • International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education

An advantage of Large Language Models (LLMs) is their contextualization capability – providing different responses based on student inputs like solution strategy or prior discussion, to potentially better engage students than standard feedback. We present a design and evaluation of a proof-of-concept LLM application to offer students dynamic and contextualized feedback. Specifically, we augment an Online Programming Exercise bot for a college-level Cloud Computing course with ChatGPT, which offers students contextualized reflection triggers during a collaborative query optimization task in database design. We demonstrate that LLMs can be used to generate highly situated reflection triggers that incorporate details of the collaborative discussion happening in context. We discuss in depth the exploration of the design space of the triggers and their correspondence with the learning objectives as well as the impact on student learning in a pilot study with 34 students.

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Naik, A. et al. (2024). Generating Situated Reflection Triggers About Alternative Solution Paths: A Case Study of Generative AI for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. In: Olney, A.M., Chounta, IA., Liu, Z., Santos, O.C., Bittencourt, I.I. (eds) Artificial Intelligence in Education. AIED 2024. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 14829. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-64302-6_4

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Deaths Linked to Japanese Supplement Suddenly Rise to 80

The case, involving a supplement intended to reduce cholesterol, has put attention on how companies are allowed to self-report claims about their products.

Four men in dark suits bowing in apology at a news conference in Osaka, Japan.

By River Akira Davis and Hisako Ueno

Reporting from Tokyo

A Japanese pharmaceutical company is investigating 80 deaths possibly linked to a yeast-containing supplement it sells in Japan, the country’s health ministry said Friday, in a shocking increase from an earlier revelation that is focusing attention on how supplements are regulated.

The company, Kobayashi Pharmaceutical, in March had reported five deaths potentially linked to its CholesteHelp rice and red-yeast pills. Japanese government health officials said the supplement, which claimed to help reduce cholesterol, contained puberulic acid, a highly toxic compound that is a product of mold.

In response to the sudden surge in reported deaths, Health Minister Keizo Takemi said it was “extremely regrettable” that Kobayashi Pharmaceutical had not updated the ministry sooner. The company, which is based in Osaka, had not provided new information on deaths potentially linked to CholesteHelp since March.

Since then, Kobayashi Pharmaceutical has received reports that 1,656 people sought medical advice for CholesteHelp-related health concerns, and 289 people have been hospitalized, the company reported. CholesteHelp has been recalled in Japan and China, the only countries the supplement was sold in, according to a spokeswoman for Kobayashi Pharmaceutical.

Mr. Takemi said the government would step in to take a more active role in investigating, after allowing the company to self-report its findings. “We cannot leave Kobayashi Pharmaceutical alone to handle it anymore,” he said.

Kobayashi Pharmaceutical was founded in 1919. While it is not one of Japan’s top pharmaceutical companies, it produces a variety of supplements and health products such as hand warmers and air fresheners, some of which are sold in the United States and elsewhere in Asia.

Quality-control guidelines related to supplements and other products making health claims were established in Japan in 2015. Those regulations are perceived to be less stringent than Japan’s rules governing prescription medications. Companies are typically responsible for self-reporting compliance rather than undergoing state screenings.

In the United States, where the dietary supplement market is booming , organizations like the American Medical Association have urged the Food and Drug Administration to introduce stricter rules to ensure supplement safety. Dietary supplements marketed for weight loss and muscle building have been linked with a number of deaths in the United States.

At a news conference in March when the potentially CholesteHelp-related deaths were first disclosed, the president of Kobayashi Pharmaceutical, Akihiro Kobayashi, apologized for not providing information sooner and said he had “no words.”

River Akira Davis covers Japan, including its economy and businesses, and is based in Tokyo. More about River Akira Davis

Hisako Ueno is a reporter and researcher based in Tokyo, writing on Japanese politics, business, labor, gender and culture. More about Hisako Ueno


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Role of policy-supported hog insurance in promoting green total factor productivity: the case of china during 2005–2021.

case study reflection essay

1. Introduction

2. literature review, 2.1. research on agricultural insurance, 2.2. research on gtfp, 2.3. research on the impact of agricultural insurance on gtfp, 3. policy background and theoretical analysis, 3.1. policy background on china’s policy-supported hog insurance, 3.2. theoretical analyses and research hypotheses, 3.2.1. impact analysis of hog insurance on gtfp in farming, 3.2.2. mechanism analysis of hog insurance for gtfp in farming, 4. materials and methods, 4.1. model settings, 4.1.1. sbm-ddf model with undesirable outputs, 4.1.2. multiple-time-point difference-in-differences model, 4.2. data, variables, and descriptive statistics, 5.1. parallel trend test, 5.2. baseline regression: impact of hog insurance policy on gtfp, 5.3. robustness checks, 5.3.1. placebo test, 5.3.2. preceding and lagging policy by three years, 5.3.3. lagging of control variables by one period, 6. mechanism analysis, 6.1. scale effects test, 6.2. structural effects test, 6.3. technological effects test, 7. heterogeneity analysis, 7.1. economic heterogeneity, 7.2. scale heterogeneity, 8. discussion, 9. concluding remarks and policy implications, author contributions, data availability statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest.

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Click here to enlarge figure

Policy Establishment Phase
(2007) “Opinions on Promoting the Work of Policy-supported Agricultural Insurance”: Initially proposed the establishment of agricultural insurance and introduced a pioneering initiative for hog insurance, with a focus on bolstering the development of agricultural insurance.
(2007) “Urgent Notice on Establishing the Hog Insurance System to Promote the Development of farming Production”: Explicitly defined the coverage responsibilities, insurance amounts, rates, and subsidy ratios for insuring breeding sows by governmental entities at various levels.
(2008) “Notice on Matters Related to the Pilot Work of Subsidizing the Premium of Fattened Hog Insurance”: Selected Hunan, Sichuan, and Jilin provinces as pilot provinces to carry out the subsidy work for fattened hog insurance premiums.
Policy Promotion Phase
(2012) “Guiding Opinions on Accelerating the Development of Agricultural Insurance”: Explicitly defined the responsibilities of governments at all levels and promoted the expansion of the coverage of hog insurance.
(2013) “Administrative Measures for Subsidies on Agricultural Insurance Premiums”: Clearly defined the operational procedures and subsidy standards for hog insurance, standardized operational procedures, and ensured the interests of insurance companies and farmers.
(2013) “Notice on Matters Related to the Central Financial Subsidies for Agricultural Insurance Premiums in 2013”: Expanded the pilot area for premium subsidies of fattened hog insurance and increased the government’s premium subsidy ratio.
Policy Adjustment Phase
(2016) “Opinions on Deepening the Reform of Agricultural Insurance”: Proposed deepening the reform of hog insurance, optimizing the design of insurance products, and improving the level of protection.
(2019) “Notice on Supporting the Stability of Hog Production and Ensuring Market Supply”: Increased the insurance amount, raising the insurance amount for breeding sows from CNY 1000–1200 to 1500, and for fattened pigs, from CNY 500–600 to CNY 800.
Policy Enhancement Phase
(2021) “Opinions on Promoting the Continuous and Healthy Development of the Farming Industry”: Further advanced the livestock insurance, stabilized the insurance amount, dynamically adjusted the amount according to changes in production costs, enhanced the attractiveness of insurance products, and achieved the goal that all farms willing to be insured are insured.
(2023) “Guiding Opinions on Financial Support for Comprehensively Promoting Rural Revitalization and Accelerating the Construction of a Strong Agricultural Country”: Improved the level of insurance protection and explored the development of income insurance products for livestock such as pigs and dairy cows.
IndicatorCalculation Formula
Input elementsCapital inputs (CNY)Total cost of piglets, water, fuel and power, death loss, technical services, tools and materials, repair and maintenance, taxes, depreciation, premiums, management, finances, sales, and other expenses
Feed inputs (CNY)Total cost of concentrate feed, coarse fodder, and feed processing
Labor inputs (CNY)Sum of discount for domestic labor and cost of hired labor
Medical and epidemic prevention inputs (CNY)Total cost of medical care and vaccination
Desirable outputsNet weight of hogs (kg)Difference between slaughter weight and piglet weight
Undesirable outputsTP (t)Elemental emission coefficient × finisher weight/reference weight × days of feeding
TN (t)
COD (t)
Variable DefinitionObs.MeanStd. Dev.Min.Max.
Green total factor productivity (GTFP)Measured by SBM-DDF3060.8798 0.0860 0.6181 1.0000
Hog insurance policy implementation (DID)Implemented = 1; unimplemented = 03060.61440.48750.00001.0000
GDP per capita (RGDP)GDP/total population3064.00602.32320.520113.8028
Agricultural fiscal expenditure (AFE)Government fiscal expenditure on agriculture/total fiscal expenditure3060.1042 0.0283 0.0218 0.1897
Government intervention intensity (GI)Government fiscal expenditure on agriculture/GDP of primary industry3060.1208 0.0544 0.0088 0.2687
Research and development expenditure (RD)Fiscal expenditure on science and technology/GDP3060.0035 0.0020 0.0003 0.0108
Environmental regulation (ER)Investment in environmental pollution control/GDP3060.0059 0.0031 0.0008 0.0162
Level of agricultural financial development (AFD)Agricultural loans/GDP of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries3062.0132 1.9803 0.2148 13.4106
Level of agricultural openness to the outside world (Aopen)Export of agricultural products by region/GDP of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fisheries3060.0401 0.0394 0.0014 0.1557
Transport accessibility (Trans)Mileage of railways, inland waterways and roads3061.0360 0.4530 0.1647 2.3167
Average years of schooling of people living in rural areas (Edu)(number of people not attending school × 0 + number of people in primary school × 6 + number of people in junior high school × 9 + number of people in senior high school × 12 + number of people in tertiary education and above × 16)/population over 6 years old3068.6810 0.7507 6.3778 10.1894
Livestock production price index (PPI)Livestock production price index306106.7288 16.5354 71.4000 157.4000
Farmland carrying capacity (FCC)Cultivated land area in each province/national total cultivated land area3060.0419 0.0222 0.0101 0.1345
Feed resources (FR)Corn production by province/national corn production3060.0427 0.0439 0.0003 0.1615
Scale of farming (Scale)Total annual stock of hogs3065451.5800 2630.0880 1183.350012849.7900
Planting–breeding structure (PL)Number of farming/area of arable land for food crops3060.4611 0.2295 0.0600 1.1700
Mechanical power of farming (MP)Power of farming machinery30682.0207 45.9551 12.7900 277.8300
Explained Variable: GTFP
DID0.019 ***0.017 **
pre8 −0.003
pre7 0.004
pre6 0.029 *
pre5 0.012
pre4 0.005
pre3 0.016
pre2 0.007
current 0.006
post1 0.038 ***
post2 0.037 ***
post3 0.044 ***
post4 0.050 ***
post5 0.050 ***
post6 0.047 ***
post7 0.047 **
_cons0.618 ***0.701 **0.759 ***
Control variableNOYESYES
Time-fixed effectsYESYESYES
Province-fixed effectsYESYESYES
Explained Variable: GTFP
DID_delay 0.020 ***
DID 0.019 ***
_cons0.712 **0.781 ***0.783 **
Control variableYESYESYES
Time-fixed effectsYESYESYES
Province-fixed effectsYESYESYES
DID0.061 ***0.023 ***0.176 ***
_cons4.501 ***−0.3544.505 **
Control variableYESYESYES
Time-fixed effectsYESYESYES
Province-fixed effectsYESYESYES
Explained Variable: GTFP
DID0.023 **0.029 **0.016 ***0.024 ***0.011 **0.007
_cons0.931 **0.4310.400 *0.675 ***0.865 ***0.848 ***
Province-fixed effectsYESYESYESYESYESYES
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Share and Cite

Wu, D.; He, S.; Qin, L.; Feng, J.; Gao, Y. Role of Policy-Supported Hog Insurance in Promoting Green Total Factor Productivity: The Case of China during 2005–2021. Agriculture 2024 , 14 , 1051. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14071051

Wu D, He S, Qin L, Feng J, Gao Y. Role of Policy-Supported Hog Insurance in Promoting Green Total Factor Productivity: The Case of China during 2005–2021. Agriculture . 2024; 14(7):1051. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14071051

Wu, Dongli, Shan He, Lingui Qin, Jingyue Feng, and Yu Gao. 2024. "Role of Policy-Supported Hog Insurance in Promoting Green Total Factor Productivity: The Case of China during 2005–2021" Agriculture 14, no. 7: 1051. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14071051

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    To avoid any confusion, here are twelve characteristics that delineate the differences between writing a paper using the case study research method and writing a case analysis paper: Case study is a method of in-depth research and rigorous inquiry; case analysis is a reliable method of teaching and learning. A case study is a modality of ...

  13. Reflective essays

    Reflective essays are academic essays; what makes an essay "good" will work for a reflective essay. What is different about a reflective essay is that the essay is about you and your thinking. However, you will need evidence from your course to back up your reflections. You should structure a reflective essay as an essay, that is write to ...

  14. Case study

    The case can refer to a real-life or hypothetical event, organisation, individual or group of people and/or issue. Depending upon your assignment, you will be asked to develop solutions to problems or recommendations for future action. Generally, a case study is either formatted as an essay or a report. If it is the latter, your assignment is ...

  15. Reflective Essay

    Learn the purpose of writing a reflective essay, and see reflective essay examples. Discover how to format and how to start writing a reflective essay. Updated: 11/21/2023

  16. Case Study Reflection Essay

    Reflection 5 1. Group Development There are five stages of group development in which a team passes through: Forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. The group for this case study is currently, 1 week before the due date, in both the norming stage and performing stage. They have adapted to the absence of Mike.

  17. PDF Reflective Essay

    Inclusivity. essment overviewA reflective essay is a piece of writing, where students are expected to describe and reflect on their experiences regarding a module's activities and learning outcomes, based on t. eir experiences. B&E students are expected to submit a 3,000-word limit essay, while USE students have to submit a 1,000-word limit ...

  18. The Value of Reflective Practice: A Student Case Study

    College of Occupational Therapists (2000) Code of ethics and professional conduct for occupational therapists. London: COT, 13. Errington E, Robertson L (1998) Promoting staff development in occupational therapy: A reflective group approach. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61 (11), 497-503.

  19. 'How would you feel …?': a reflective case study

    Paul, a young man aged 18 years, was admitted to the critical care unit with chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. While his cancer was terminal, cardiomyopathy now posed an imminent threat. He was an only child and oncology staff reported finding his parents 'difficult'. Paul was weak but had strong views on how things should be done for him.

  20. Essay on Reflective Nursing Case Study

    Essay on Reflective Nursing Case Study. Decent Essays. 708 Words. 3 Pages. Open Document. Case Study One. In this case study I will use Gibbs (1988) model of reflection to write a personal account of an abdominal examination carried out in general practice under the supervision of my mentor, utilising the skills taught during the module thus far.

  21. (PDF) A Case Study on Reflective Writing

    A case study on reflective writing. Abstract: Reflective writing is a student-centered approach widely used in science. and engineering courses which helps students develop a holistic scientific ...

  22. Essay 5 Case Study Reflection Paper

    Case Study Reflection Paper Elizabeth Rubin Touro Graduate School of Education. While conducting and observing an individual who displayed characteristics of having a. 1 stuttering disorder, I have gained a new perspective on students who display behaviors that affect their reading and language fluency abilities.

  23. Generating Situated Reflection Triggers About Alternative ...

    These past studies focused on manipulating the timing of the reflection triggers or the proportion of time dedicated to reflection versus programming. Recent advances in Generative AI (GenAI) and Large Language Models (LLMs) have enhanced AI capabilities for the evaluation of multimodal student input and real-time feedback, which has provoked ...

  24. Trade policies to promote the circular economy: A case study of the

    Plastic products present several environmental, health, social and economic challenges that span from the extraction of raw materials to primary and final plastics production, to their distribution and use, and to the collection and sorting of plastic waste.

  25. Deaths Linked to Japanese Supplement Suddenly Rise to 80

    The case, involving a supplement intended to reduce cholesterol, has put attention on how companies are allowed to self-report claims about their products. Listen to this article · 2:57 min Learn ...

  26. Aligning development co-operation to the SDGs in lower middle ...

    A case study of Bangladesh. This case study explores whether the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can be used as a shared framework by all actors to manage development co-operation for results in lower middle-income countries, taking Bangladesh as a case study.

  27. AI, data governance and privacy

    Research and working papers with deep dives and findings. Policy papers and briefs. Policy recommendations and case studies. Featured publications. Environment at a Glance Indicators. Creative minds, creative schools. Society at a Glance 2024. OECD Social Indicators. PISA 2022 Results (Volume II)

  28. Agriculture

    Hog insurance and rural environmental protection are complementary to each other. Studying the environmental effects of hog insurance is imperative for safeguarding food safety and promoting the long-term development of the agricultural insurance industry. Informed by the risk management theory and sustainable development theory, this paper constructs a theoretical framework for the impact of ...