Strategies for reducing youth unemployment in South Africa

Jubane, Marvelous, Strategies for Reducing Youth Unemployment in South Africa (April 28, 2021). Available at SSRN:

15 Pages Posted: 29 Apr 2021

Marvelous Jubane

University of Johannesburg; University of Johannesburg

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Date Written: July 24, 2020

Youth unemployment is one of the major challenges that the majority of countries worldwide are faced with currently. In South Africa, youth unemployment has been escalating, despite the introduction of initiatives by the government to reduce unemployment. This study aims to identify the root causes of youth unemployment in South Africa and suggesting solutions to reduce youth unemployment. The researcher utilized secondary data obtained from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey by Statistics South Africa, time-series data from the South African Reserve Bank and the Department of Higher Education and Training websites for conducting data analysis. The type of research methodology utilized by the researcher is a Quantitative research method. The findings of the study indicate that the root causes of youth unemployment include the poor education system resulting in a skills-mismatch, a shift of the economy from being driven by primary sectors which are labour intensive towards Tertiary sectors which are skills intensive, geographic migration and trade unions bargaining for wage increases. An econometric regression model was conducted by the researcher in Eviews 8 a statistical data analysis software using time series data from the South African Reserve Bank, with youth unemployment being the dependent variable. The results of the econometric regression model indicated that the variables inflation rate, Gross value added a proxy for Gross Domestic Product and the Total loan debt of the nation were statistically significant at a 5% level of significance. This means that youth unemployment is influenced by the inflation rate, Gross Domestic Product and the Total loan debt of the nation or government debt. Whenever there is an increase in the government debt that deprives the youth because there is no funding available for the government to invest in youth empowerment programmes. The researcher concludes by giving policy recommendations on possible solutions to youth unemployment.

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Marvelous Jubane (Contact Author)

University of johannesburg ( email ).

PO Box 524 Auckland Park Johannesburg, GA Gauteng 2006 South Africa 0631941632 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://

Aucklandpark Johanneburg, GA Gauteng 2006 South Africa

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Youth Unemployment Project Proposal Assignment.pdf

Profile image of Omer M O H A M E D Abdillahi

2018, Youth Unemployment project proposal sample-Somaliland.

The Somali-land Government are however cognizant of the compounding problems contributing to the rate of unemployment among youth in the Somali-land. These problems range from inadequate basic formal education resulting in high level of unemployment particularly for girls, inadequate access to credit and micro-finance facilities, attitudinal problems of young people towards certain categories of jobs, high incidence mis allocation, and inadequate training in informal jobs to help create self employment., These problems coupled with the problems militating against agricultural development left a lot of young people unemployed in the country. To address these problems a holistic approach will be adopted. This project targets the development of all sectors that are relevant for creating employment opportunities to the young people. The project will intervene in the following areas: - this paper is just a sample, not a primary data.

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The objective of the paper was to assess the progress made using the agriculture employment intervention programs to reduce youth unemployment. The study was conducted in three local government areas of Edo State, Nigeria. The methodology included qualitative research that used focus group discussions to generate data, which was then analysed and interpreted. The subsequent results were positive, recommending both a continuation and further application of the program. Policy improvements were also identified in relation to the difficulties found in increasing participation among urban dwellers who negatively associated the work with hard, physically demanding and stressful labour. This common viewpoint indicated that the selection of youth participants should include the criteria of rural resilience and coping abilities. The results also highlighted that the implementation of the program at times did not follow the natural production cycle for cropping and that system support was limited for the beneficiaries. It was also recommended that future programs must be well articulated, designed, resourced and piloted before full implementation, for sustainable results. Supervision and monitoring must be closely done and performance compared against expectation and the resourcing of the participants in the program must be adequate and timely. While insightful, there did exist factors that impacted the quality of the study. Most of the participants in the study had close links with the government as employee or beneficiaries of the scheme. The need to protect their employment and income left them often reserved in their opinions and comments.

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This paper aims at exploring the Dynamics of Youth Unemployment Outlook in South Sudan through a case study approach by assessing the nature and extent of youth unemployment problem, the major factors contributing to youth unemployment, the impact of the various policies, legal frameworks and programs that have been implemented for purposes of addressing youth unemployment, and recommendations of the alternatives policies and programs that can address youth unemployment in South Sudan. As this paper asserts, there is a growing global concern about youth unemployment as the global economy is being threatened by the challenge of creating productive jobs in a bid to sustain economic growth and maintain social cohesion. Further, the implications of youth unemployment are both social economic and political and as such ignoring the roles played by the youth in the society amounts to threatening the very survival of a country like South Sudan. The problem of youth unemployment is also one of the few development and policy concerns that are common to both developing and developed countries, especially during this period when the study is undertaken. The study is also concerned with the concept of the youth bulge which has been seen as a common phenomenon in many developing countries. In South Sudan it has been established that unemployment levels are higher among the youth. The prevalence of youth unemployment in South Sudan with its associate factors continues to entangle the South Sudanese society. Its negative impact is posing complex economic, political, environmental, social and moral policy issues for South Sudan. Addressing youth employment will mean better utilization of human capital, reduction in the growing social problems and improving the diminishing economic growth for South Sudan. Key conceptual framework issues for addressing unemployment in South Sudan are; employment creation, employability, entrepreneurship, and equal opportunity and acceleration of inclusive economic growth.

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This paper provides an overview of the size of youth unemployment in Zambia and its effect on national economic development. The paper also offers recommendations on the enhancement of youth empowerment in Zambia. This paper is based on a study conducted for the National Economic Advisory Council of Zambia. The paper contains 6 sections: Section one is the introduction; Section two gives an overview of Zambia's labour market; Section three outlines youth empowerment initiatives in Anglophone African countries with the aim of providing a proper model of youth empowerment programs for Zambia; Section four presents the analysis of Zambia's job creation strategies and policies currently being implemented on the one hand and the existing or foreseeable impediments on the other; Sections five discusses the legal and regulatory challenges relating to the employment of youths in Zambia; and section six which gives recommendations and the way forward in resolving the unemployment dilemma in Zambia.

Khalid Xusen

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Golden state's unemployment surge blamed on minimum wage increase

Beacon Economics reported that California’s unemployment rate remained the highest in the nation, mainly due to the recent minimum wage increases.

A new state law, which went into effect on April 1, raised the minimum wage for most fast-food workers to $20 per hour. 

The California Business and Industrial Alliance reported on June 6, nearly 10,000 jobs had been cut across fast food restaurants since Gov. Gavin Newsom signed California Assembly Bill 1228 into law last year. 

To highlight what it says are the unintended consequences of the law, the industrial alliance took out an advertisement in a statewide edition of USA Today with mock "obituaries" of popular fast-food brands. Some of the fast-food companies included Rubio's Coastal Grill, Foster's Freeze, Pizza Hut, Subway, Burger King, McDonald's and El Pollo Loco.

Marco Salazar, 19, told the Daily Press that before April 1, he frequently worked 20 to 30 hours a week at one popular fast-food restaurant in Apple Valley.

"After we got raises, I checked my schedule and saw that my hours were cut to about 15 hours a week," Salazar said. "My store also let two people go."

Short-changing youth

The Beacon report shows that 90% of newly unemployed workers in the state over the past 1.5 years are under 35, with the hardest hit group being teens.

Christopher Thornberg , founding partner of Beacon Economics and co-author of the new analysis, said the loss of youth work opportunities carries with it real long-run harm.

"It not only denies younger workers a critical source of income, it deprives them of work experience that has been empirically shown to improve their chances of long-run success,” Thornberg said.

While the recent rise in unemployment in California has occurred in tandem with the state's minimum wage hikes, the relationship likely extends beyond mere correlation, he stated.

According to the analysis, the jump in unemployment is not in step with other measures of the state’s economy, which have continued to expand at a respectable rate, Thornberg said.

“In fact, both output and household income in the state are robust and growing either faster than or similar to the nation overall,” Beacon stated. “Yet, the unemployment rate in the United States as a whole has barely budged in the past 24 months.”

Thornberg also points to another “anomaly,” which includes no corresponding increase in unemployment insurance claims throughout the recent rise in unemployment.

If laid-off tech and entertainment industry workers were driving California's higher unemployment rate, it would almost certainly be reflected, at least to some degree, in unemployment insurance claims, according to the analysis.

"For far too long, researchers and advocates alike have held up the minimum wage as a harmless and effective policy remedy for poverty and income inequality, but it is neither of those things," Thornberg said. "Evidence has shown us that minimum wages don't do much to address the ills they are intended to correct, but carry a substantial cost, particularly for our state's future workers."

Although well-intentioned, Thornberg, and co-author Niree Kodaverdian, argue that higher minimum wages cause prices to increase, which end up reducing real incomes for lower-skilled workers. 

The negative impacts of minimum wages are shouldered by some of the state’s most vulnerable citizens—younger workers who need both income and work experience as they find their way in the world. 

Southern California job gains

Regionally, job gains were led by Southern California, with Los Angeles seeing the largest increase, where payrolls grew by 8,300 during the month. 

The Inland Empire grew by 3,800, Orange County by 1,500, San Diego by 1,500, Ventura by 1,000 and El Centro by 200.

Over the past year, Ventura grew by 1.5%, the fastest job growth in the region, followed by the Inland Empire at 1.4%, El Centro at 1.2%, Orange County at 0.8%), Los Angeles at 0.7%, and San Diego at 0.6%.

Beacon Economics is an independent economic research and consulting firm in Los Angeles.

Daily Press reporter Rene Ray De La Cruz may be reached at [email protected]. Follow him on X @DP_ReneDeLaCruz


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Elektrostal Localisation : Country Russia , Oblast Moscow Oblast . Available Information : Geographical coordinates , Population, Area, Altitude, Weather and Hotel . Nearby cities and villages : Noginsk , Pavlovsky Posad and Staraya Kupavna .


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Elektrostal Demography

Information on the people and the population of Elektrostal.

Elektrostal Population157,409 inhabitants
Elektrostal Population Density3,179.3 /km² (8,234.4 /sq mi)

Elektrostal Geography

Geographic Information regarding City of Elektrostal .

Elektrostal Geographical coordinatesLatitude: , Longitude:
55° 48′ 0″ North, 38° 27′ 0″ East
Elektrostal Area4,951 hectares
49.51 km² (19.12 sq mi)
Elektrostal Altitude164 m (538 ft)
Elektrostal ClimateHumid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb)

Elektrostal Distance

Distance (in kilometers) between Elektrostal and the biggest cities of Russia.

Elektrostal Map

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Elektrostal Nearby cities and villages

Elektrostal Weather

Weather forecast for the next coming days and current time of Elektrostal.

Elektrostal Sunrise and sunset

Find below the times of sunrise and sunset calculated 7 days to Elektrostal.

DaySunrise and sunsetTwilightNautical twilightAstronomical twilight
23 June02:41 - 11:28 - 20:1501:40 - 21:1701:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
24 June02:41 - 11:28 - 20:1501:40 - 21:1601:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
25 June02:42 - 11:28 - 20:1501:41 - 21:1601:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
26 June02:42 - 11:29 - 20:1501:41 - 21:1601:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
27 June02:43 - 11:29 - 20:1501:42 - 21:1601:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
28 June02:44 - 11:29 - 20:1401:43 - 21:1501:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
29 June02:44 - 11:29 - 20:1401:44 - 21:1501:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00

Elektrostal Hotel

Our team has selected for you a list of hotel in Elektrostal classified by value for money. Book your hotel room at the best price.

Located next to Noginskoye Highway in Electrostal, Apelsin Hotel offers comfortable rooms with free Wi-Fi. Free parking is available. The elegant rooms are air conditioned and feature a flat-screen satellite TV and fridge...

Located in the green area Yamskiye Woods, 5 km from Elektrostal city centre, this hotel features a sauna and a restaurant. It offers rooms with a kitchen...

Ekotel Bogorodsk Hotel is located in a picturesque park near Chernogolovsky Pond. It features an indoor swimming pool and a wellness centre. Free Wi-Fi and private parking are provided...

Surrounded by 420,000 m² of parkland and overlooking Kovershi Lake, this hotel outside Moscow offers spa and fitness facilities, and a private beach area with volleyball court and loungers...

Surrounded by green parklands, this hotel in the Moscow region features 2 restaurants, a bowling alley with bar, and several spa and fitness facilities. Moscow Ring Road is 17 km away...

Elektrostal Nearby

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40 Facts About Elektrostal

Lanette Mayes

Written by Lanette Mayes

Modified & Updated: 01 Jun 2024

Jessica Corbett

Reviewed by Jessica Corbett


Elektrostal is a vibrant city located in the Moscow Oblast region of Russia. With a rich history, stunning architecture, and a thriving community, Elektrostal is a city that has much to offer. Whether you are a history buff, nature enthusiast, or simply curious about different cultures, Elektrostal is sure to captivate you.

This article will provide you with 40 fascinating facts about Elektrostal, giving you a better understanding of why this city is worth exploring. From its origins as an industrial hub to its modern-day charm, we will delve into the various aspects that make Elektrostal a unique and must-visit destination.

So, join us as we uncover the hidden treasures of Elektrostal and discover what makes this city a true gem in the heart of Russia.

Key Takeaways:

  • Elektrostal, known as the “Motor City of Russia,” is a vibrant and growing city with a rich industrial history, offering diverse cultural experiences and a strong commitment to environmental sustainability.
  • With its convenient location near Moscow, Elektrostal provides a picturesque landscape, vibrant nightlife, and a range of recreational activities, making it an ideal destination for residents and visitors alike.

Known as the “Motor City of Russia.”

Elektrostal, a city located in the Moscow Oblast region of Russia, earned the nickname “Motor City” due to its significant involvement in the automotive industry.

Home to the Elektrostal Metallurgical Plant.

Elektrostal is renowned for its metallurgical plant, which has been producing high-quality steel and alloys since its establishment in 1916.

Boasts a rich industrial heritage.

Elektrostal has a long history of industrial development, contributing to the growth and progress of the region.

Founded in 1916.

The city of Elektrostal was founded in 1916 as a result of the construction of the Elektrostal Metallurgical Plant.

Located approximately 50 kilometers east of Moscow.

Elektrostal is situated in close proximity to the Russian capital, making it easily accessible for both residents and visitors.

Known for its vibrant cultural scene.

Elektrostal is home to several cultural institutions, including museums, theaters, and art galleries that showcase the city’s rich artistic heritage.

A popular destination for nature lovers.

Surrounded by picturesque landscapes and forests, Elektrostal offers ample opportunities for outdoor activities such as hiking, camping, and birdwatching.

Hosts the annual Elektrostal City Day celebrations.

Every year, Elektrostal organizes festive events and activities to celebrate its founding, bringing together residents and visitors in a spirit of unity and joy.

Has a population of approximately 160,000 people.

Elektrostal is home to a diverse and vibrant community of around 160,000 residents, contributing to its dynamic atmosphere.

Boasts excellent education facilities.

The city is known for its well-established educational institutions, providing quality education to students of all ages.

A center for scientific research and innovation.

Elektrostal serves as an important hub for scientific research, particularly in the fields of metallurgy , materials science, and engineering.

Surrounded by picturesque lakes.

The city is blessed with numerous beautiful lakes , offering scenic views and recreational opportunities for locals and visitors alike.

Well-connected transportation system.

Elektrostal benefits from an efficient transportation network, including highways, railways, and public transportation options, ensuring convenient travel within and beyond the city.

Famous for its traditional Russian cuisine.

Food enthusiasts can indulge in authentic Russian dishes at numerous restaurants and cafes scattered throughout Elektrostal.

Home to notable architectural landmarks.

Elektrostal boasts impressive architecture, including the Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord and the Elektrostal Palace of Culture.

Offers a wide range of recreational facilities.

Residents and visitors can enjoy various recreational activities, such as sports complexes, swimming pools, and fitness centers, enhancing the overall quality of life.

Provides a high standard of healthcare.

Elektrostal is equipped with modern medical facilities, ensuring residents have access to quality healthcare services.

Home to the Elektrostal History Museum.

The Elektrostal History Museum showcases the city’s fascinating past through exhibitions and displays.

A hub for sports enthusiasts.

Elektrostal is passionate about sports, with numerous stadiums, arenas, and sports clubs offering opportunities for athletes and spectators.

Celebrates diverse cultural festivals.

Throughout the year, Elektrostal hosts a variety of cultural festivals, celebrating different ethnicities, traditions, and art forms.

Electric power played a significant role in its early development.

Elektrostal owes its name and initial growth to the establishment of electric power stations and the utilization of electricity in the industrial sector.

Boasts a thriving economy.

The city’s strong industrial base, coupled with its strategic location near Moscow, has contributed to Elektrostal’s prosperous economic status.

Houses the Elektrostal Drama Theater.

The Elektrostal Drama Theater is a cultural centerpiece, attracting theater enthusiasts from far and wide.

Popular destination for winter sports.

Elektrostal’s proximity to ski resorts and winter sport facilities makes it a favorite destination for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter activities.

Promotes environmental sustainability.

Elektrostal prioritizes environmental protection and sustainability, implementing initiatives to reduce pollution and preserve natural resources.

Home to renowned educational institutions.

Elektrostal is known for its prestigious schools and universities, offering a wide range of academic programs to students.

Committed to cultural preservation.

The city values its cultural heritage and takes active steps to preserve and promote traditional customs, crafts, and arts.

Hosts an annual International Film Festival.

The Elektrostal International Film Festival attracts filmmakers and cinema enthusiasts from around the world, showcasing a diverse range of films.

Encourages entrepreneurship and innovation.

Elektrostal supports aspiring entrepreneurs and fosters a culture of innovation, providing opportunities for startups and business development .

Offers a range of housing options.

Elektrostal provides diverse housing options, including apartments, houses, and residential complexes, catering to different lifestyles and budgets.

Home to notable sports teams.

Elektrostal is proud of its sports legacy , with several successful sports teams competing at regional and national levels.

Boasts a vibrant nightlife scene.

Residents and visitors can enjoy a lively nightlife in Elektrostal, with numerous bars, clubs, and entertainment venues.

Promotes cultural exchange and international relations.

Elektrostal actively engages in international partnerships, cultural exchanges, and diplomatic collaborations to foster global connections.

Surrounded by beautiful nature reserves.

Nearby nature reserves, such as the Barybino Forest and Luchinskoye Lake, offer opportunities for nature enthusiasts to explore and appreciate the region’s biodiversity.

Commemorates historical events.

The city pays tribute to significant historical events through memorials, monuments, and exhibitions, ensuring the preservation of collective memory.

Promotes sports and youth development.

Elektrostal invests in sports infrastructure and programs to encourage youth participation, health, and physical fitness.

Hosts annual cultural and artistic festivals.

Throughout the year, Elektrostal celebrates its cultural diversity through festivals dedicated to music, dance, art, and theater.

Provides a picturesque landscape for photography enthusiasts.

The city’s scenic beauty, architectural landmarks, and natural surroundings make it a paradise for photographers.

Connects to Moscow via a direct train line.

The convenient train connection between Elektrostal and Moscow makes commuting between the two cities effortless.

A city with a bright future.

Elektrostal continues to grow and develop, aiming to become a model city in terms of infrastructure, sustainability, and quality of life for its residents.

In conclusion, Elektrostal is a fascinating city with a rich history and a vibrant present. From its origins as a center of steel production to its modern-day status as a hub for education and industry, Elektrostal has plenty to offer both residents and visitors. With its beautiful parks, cultural attractions, and proximity to Moscow, there is no shortage of things to see and do in this dynamic city. Whether you’re interested in exploring its historical landmarks, enjoying outdoor activities, or immersing yourself in the local culture, Elektrostal has something for everyone. So, next time you find yourself in the Moscow region, don’t miss the opportunity to discover the hidden gems of Elektrostal.

Q: What is the population of Elektrostal?

A: As of the latest data, the population of Elektrostal is approximately XXXX.

Q: How far is Elektrostal from Moscow?

A: Elektrostal is located approximately XX kilometers away from Moscow.

Q: Are there any famous landmarks in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal is home to several notable landmarks, including XXXX and XXXX.

Q: What industries are prominent in Elektrostal?

A: Elektrostal is known for its steel production industry and is also a center for engineering and manufacturing.

Q: Are there any universities or educational institutions in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal is home to XXXX University and several other educational institutions.

Q: What are some popular outdoor activities in Elektrostal?

A: Elektrostal offers several outdoor activities, such as hiking, cycling, and picnicking in its beautiful parks.

Q: Is Elektrostal well-connected in terms of transportation?

A: Yes, Elektrostal has good transportation links, including trains and buses, making it easily accessible from nearby cities.

Q: Are there any annual events or festivals in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal hosts various events and festivals throughout the year, including XXXX and XXXX.

Elektrostal's fascinating history, vibrant culture, and promising future make it a city worth exploring. For more captivating facts about cities around the world, discover the unique characteristics that define each city . Uncover the hidden gems of Moscow Oblast through our in-depth look at Kolomna. Lastly, dive into the rich industrial heritage of Teesside, a thriving industrial center with its own story to tell.

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