Education System of Pakistan: Issues, Problems and Solutions

Introduction

It is mandated in the Constitution of Pakistan to provide free and compulsory education to all children between the ages of 5-16 years and enhance adult literacy. With the 18th constitutional amendment the concurrent list which comprised of 47 subjects was abolished and these subjects, including education, were transferred to federating units as a move towards provincial autonomy.

The year 2015 is important in the context that it marks the deadline for the participants of Dakar declaration (Education For All [EFA] commitment) including Pakistan. Education related statistics coupled with Pakistan’s progress regarding education targets set in Vision 2030 and Pakistan’s lagging behind in achieving EFA targets and its Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) for education call for an analysis of the education system of Pakistan and to look into the issues and problems it is facing so that workable solutions could be recommended.

What is Education System?

The system of education includes all institutions that are involved in delivering formal education (public and private, for-profit and nonprofit, onsite or virtual instruction) and their faculties, students, physical infrastructure, resources and rules. In a broader definition the system also includes the institutions that are directly involved in financing, managing, operating or regulating such institutions (like government ministries and regulatory bodies, central testing organizations, textbook boards and accreditation boards). The rules and regulations that guide the individual and institutional interactions within the set up are also part of the education system.

Education system of Pakistan:

The education system of Pakistan is comprised of 260,903 institutions and is facilitating 41,018,384 students with the help of 1,535,461 teachers. The system includes 180,846 public institutions and 80,057 private institutions. Hence 31% educational institutes are run by private sector while 69% are public institutes.

Analysis of education system in Pakistan

Pakistan has expressed its commitment to promote education and literacy in the country by education policies at domestic level and getting involved into international commitments on education. In this regard national education policies are the visions which suggest strategies to increase literacy rate, capacity building, and enhance facilities in the schools and educational institutes. MDGs and EFA programmes are global commitments of Pakistan for the promotion of literacy.

A review of the education system of Pakistan suggests that there has been little change in Pakistan’s schools since 2010, when the 18th Amendment enshrined education as a fundamental human right in the constitution. Problems of access, quality, infrastructure and inequality of opportunity, remain endemic.

A)    MDGs and Pakistan

Due to the problems in education system of Pakistan, the country is lagging behind in achieving its MDGs of education. The MDGs have laid down two goals for education sector:

Goal 2 : The goal 2 of MDGs is to achieve Universal Primary Education (UPE) and by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. By the year 2014 the enrolment statistics show an increase in the enrolment of students of the age of 3-16 year while dropout rate decreased. But the need for increasing enrolment of students remains high to achieve MDGs target. Punjab is leading province wise in net primary enrolment rate with 62% enrolment. The enrolment rate in Sindh province is 52%, in Khyber Pakhtunkhawa (KPK) 54% and primary enrolment rate in Balochistan is 45%.

Goal 3: The goal 3 of MDGs is Promoting Gender Equality and Women Empowerment. It is aimed at eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005 and in all levels of education not later than 2015. There is a stark disparity between male and female literacy rates. The national literacy rate of male was 71% while that of female was 48% in 2012-13. Provinces reported the same gender disparity. Punjab literacy rate in male was 71% and for females it was 54%. In Sindh literacy rate in male was 72% and female 47%, in KPK male 70% and females 35%, while in Balochistan male 62% and female 23%.

B)    Education for All (EFA) Commitment

The EFA goals focus on early childhood care and education including pre-schooling, universal primary education and secondary education to youth, adult literacy with gender parity and quality of education as crosscutting thematic and programme priorities.

EFA Review Report October 2014 outlines that despite repeated policy commitments, primary education in Pakistan is lagging behind in achieving its target of universal primary education. Currently the primary gross enrolment rate stands at 85.9% while Pakistan requires increasing it up to 100% by 2015-16 to fulfil EFA goals.  Of the estimated total primary school going 21.4 million children of ages 5-9 years, 68.5% are enrolled in schools, of which 8.2 million or 56% are boys and 6.5 million or 44% are girls. Economic Survey of Pakistan confirms that during the year 2013-14 literacy remained much higher in urban areas than in rural areas and higher among males.

C)    Vision 2030

Vision 2030 of Planning Commission of Pakistan looks for an academic environment which promotes the thinking mind. The goal under Vision 2030 is one curriculum and one national examination system under state responsibility. The strategies charted out to achieve the goal included:

(i)                  Increasing public expenditure on education and skills generation from 2.7% of GDP to 5% by 2010 and 7% by 2015.

(ii)                Re-introduce the technical and vocational stream in the last two years of secondary schools.

(iii)             Gradually increase vocational and technical education numbers to 25-30% of all secondary enrolment by 2015 and 50 per cent by 2030.

(iv)              Enhance the scale and quality of education in general and the scale and quality of scientific/technical education in Pakistan in particular.

Problems: The issues lead to the comprehension of the problems which are faced in the development of education system and promotion of literacy. The study outlines seven major problems such as:

1)      Lack of Proper Planning: Pakistan is a signatory to MDGs and EFA goals. However it seems that it will not be able to achieve these international commitments because of financial management issues and constraints to achieve the MDGs and EFA goals.

2)      Social constraints: It is important to realize that the problems which hinder the provision of education are not just due to issues of management by government but some of them are deeply rooted in the social and cultural orientation of the people. Overcoming the latter is difficult and would require a change in attitude of the people, until then universal primary education is difficult to achieve.

3)      Gender gap: Major factors that hinder enrolment rates of girls include poverty, cultural constraints, illiteracy of parents and parental concerns about safety and mobility of their daughters. Society’s emphasis on girl’s modesty, protection and early marriages may limit family’s willingness to send them to school. Enrolment of rural girls is 45% lower than that of urban girls; while for boys the difference is 10% only, showing that gender gap is an important factor.

4)      Cost of education: The economic cost is higher in private schools, but these are located in richer settlements only. The paradox is that private schools are better but not everywhere and government schools ensure equitable access but do not provide quality education.

5)      War on Terror: Pakistan’s engagement in war against terrorism also affected the promotion of literacy campaign. The militants targeted schools and students; several educational institutions were blown up, teachers and students were killed in Balochistan, KPK and FATA. This may have to contribute not as much as other factors, but this remains an important factor.

6)      Funds for Education: Pakistan spends 2.4% GDP on education. At national level, 89% education expenditure comprises of current expenses such as teachers’ salaries, while only 11% comprises of development expenditure which is not sufficient to raise quality of education.

7)      Technical Education: Sufficient attention has not been paid to the technical and vocational education in Pakistan. The number of technical and vocational training institutes is not sufficient and many are deprived of infrastructure, teachers and tools for training. The population of a state is one of the main elements of its national power. It can become an asset once it is skilled. Unskilled population means more jobless people in the country, which affects the national development negatively. Therefore, technical education needs priority handling by the government.

Poverty, law and order situation, natural disasters, budgetary constraints, lack of access, poor quality, equity, and governance have also contributed in less enrolments.

An analysis of the issues and problems suggest that:

The official data shows the allocation of funds for educational projects but there is no mechanism which ensures the proper expenditure of those funds on education.

  • The existing infrastructure is not being properly utilized in several parts of the country.
  • There are various challenges that include expertise, institutional and capacity issues, forging national cohesion, uniform standards for textbook development, and quality assurance.
  • The faculty hiring process is historically known to be politicized. It is because of this that the quality of teaching suffers and even more so when low investments are made in teachers’ training. As a result teachers are not regular and their time at school is not as productive as it would be with a well-trained teacher.
  • Inside schools there are challenges which include shortage of teachers, teacher absenteeism, missing basic facilities and lack of friendly environment.
  • Out of school challenges include shortage of schools, distance – especially for females, insecurity, poverty, cultural norms, parents are reluctant or parents lack awareness.

There is a need for implementation of national education policy and vision 2030 education goals. An analysis of education policy suggests that at the policy level there are several admirable ideas, but practically there are some shortcomings also.

It may not be possible for the government at the moment to implement uniform education system in the country, but a uniform curriculum can be introduced in educational institutes of the country. This will provide equal opportunity to the students of rural areas to compete with students of urban areas in the job market.

Since majority of Pakistani population resides in rural areas and the access to education is a major problem for them, it seems feasible that a balanced approach for formal and informal education be adopted. Government as well as non-government sector should work together to promote education in rural areas.

The government should take measures to get school buildings vacated which are occupied by feudal lords of Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab. Efforts should be made to ensure that proper education is provided in those schools.

The federal government is paying attention to the vocational and technical training, but it is important to make the already existing vocational and technical training centres more efficient so that skilled youth could be produced.

Since education is a provincial subject, the provincial education secretariats need to be strengthened. Special policy planning units should be established in provinces’ education departments for implementation of educational policies and formulation of new policies whenever needed. The provincial education departments need to work out financial resources required for realising the compliance of Article 25-A.

Federal Government should play a supportive role vis-à-vis the provinces for the early compliance of the constitutional obligation laid down in Article 25-A. Special grants can be provided to the provinces where the literacy rate is low.

Pakistan is not the only country which is facing challenges regarding promotion of literacy and meeting EFA and MDGs commitments. Education remains a subject which is paid least attention in the whole South Asian region. UNDP report 2014 suggests that there has been an improvement in other elements of human development such as life expectancy, per capita income and human development index value (in past 3 years); but there has been no progress in the number of schooling years. The expected average for years of schooling in 2010 was 10.6 years but the actual average of schooling remained 4.7 for all South Asian countries. In the year 2013 the expected average of number of years increased to 11.2 but the actual average of years of schooling of South Asian countries remained 4.7.  Regional cooperation mechanism can also be developed to promote literacy in South Asian region. Sharing success stories, making country-specific modifications and their implementation can generate positive results.

Recommendations

  • Technical education should be made a part of secondary education. Classes for carpentry, electrical, and other technical education must be included in the curriculum.
  • Providing economic incentives to the students may encourage the parents to send their children to school and may help in reducing the dropout ratio.
  • Local government system is helpful in promoting education and literacy in the country. In local government system the funds for education would be spent on a need basis by the locality.
  • Corruption in education departments is one of the factors for the poor literacy in the country. An effective monitoring system is needed in education departments.
  • For any system to work it is imperative that relevant structures are developed. Legislation and structure should be framed to plan for the promotion of education in the country. After the 18 th amendment the education has become a provincial subject, therefore, the provinces should form legislations and design educational policies which ensure quality education.
  • Unemployment of educated men and women is a major concern for Pakistan. There should be career counselling of the pupils in schools so that they have an understanding of job market and they can develop their skills accordingly.
  • Counselling of parents is required, so that they can choose a career for their child which is market friendly.
  • There are two approaches to acquiring education: First, which is being followed by many in Pakistan is to get education to earn bread and butter. The second approach is to get education for the sake of personal development and learning. This approach is followed by affluent and economically stable people who send their children to private schools and abroad for education. The problem arises when non-affluent families send their children to private schools, and universities. This aspiration for sending children for higher education is wrong, because the country does not need managers and officers only. There are several other jobs where people are needed. Hence the mind-set of sending one’s children to university only for becoming officers and managers needs to be changed.

Conclusion:                                                        

The reforms required in the education system of Pakistan cannot be done by the government alone, public-private participation and a mix of formal as well as non-formal education can pull out majority of country’s population from illiteracy. Similarly, to make the youth of the country an asset, attention should also be paid to vocational and technical training.

References:

Human Development Report 2014 “Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience,” United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (New York: UNDP, 2014).

Mehnaz Aziz et al, “Education System Reform in Pakistan: Why, When, and How?” IZA Policy Paper No. 76, January 2014 (Institute for the Study of Labor, 2014), P 4.

Annual Report: Pakistan Education Statistics 2011-12, National Education Management Information System Academy of Educational Planning and Management, Ministry of Education, Trainings & Standards in Higher Education, Government of Pakistan, (Islamabad, AEPAM, 2013).

Economic Survey of Pakistan 2014, Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan.

Pakistan: Education for All 2015 National Review , Ministry of Education, Trainings and Standards in Higher Education Academy of Educational Planning and Management Islamabad, Pakistan June, 2014 (available at : http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002297/229718E.pdf).

Maliha Naveed, Reasons of Low Levels of Education in Pakistan, Pakistan Herald, January 03, 2013 (available at: http://www.pakistanherald.com/articles/reasons-of-low-levels-of-education-in-pakistan-3065 ).

“Pakistan may miss EFA goals by 2015-16: Report,” Daily Nation , October, 3, 2014.

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Pakistan Education - Challenges, Problems & Solutions

Pakistan Education: Challenges, Problems & Solutions

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Pakistan Education: Challenges, Problems & Solutions

1. introduction.

Education serves as the cornerstone of development in any society, shaping its future by empowering individuals and fostering societal progress. In Pakistan, a nation brimming with potential, the challenges within its education system pose significant hurdles to realizing this vision. This article delves into the intricacies of Pakistan’s education landscape, shedding light on the existing issues and proposing actionable solutions.

1.1 Overview

Pakistan’s education system grapples with multifaceted challenges that hinder its ability to provide quality education to all. From barriers to access and gender disparity to infrastructure inadequacies, the journey toward educational excellence is fraught with obstacles.

1.2 Importance of Education

Education is more than just acquiring knowledge; it is a catalyst for change, driving economic growth, fostering social cohesion, and empowering individuals to reach their full potential. In Pakistan, a robust education system is vital for addressing pervasive issues such as poverty, unemployment, and social inequality.

1.3 Scope of the Article

This article aims to dissect the challenges plaguing Pakistan’s education system , analyze their root causes, and present viable solutions for a brighter future.

2. Current Challenges

2.1 access to education.

Millions of children in Pakistan are out of school, primarily due to financial constraints, geographical remoteness, and cultural norms. Limited access to schools perpetuates a cycle of illiteracy and impedes social mobility.

2.2 Quality of Education

Even for those fortunate enough to attend school, the quality of education remains a pressing concern. Outdated curriculum, inadequate teacher training, and lack of educational resources contribute to subpar learning outcomes.

2.3 Gender Disparity

Gender inequality pervades Pakistan’s education system , with girls disproportionately affected by barriers to schooling. Deep-rooted cultural beliefs, early marriages, and safety concerns discourage female enrollment and perpetuate educational disparity.

2.4 Infrastructure Issues

Many schools in Pakistan lack basic facilities such as proper classrooms, sanitation facilities, and clean drinking water. Dilapidated infrastructure not only affects the learning environment but also compromises students’ health and safety.

3. Root Causes

3.1 government policies.

Inconsistent government policies and underfunding of the education sector have hindered progress. The lack of a long-term vision and political will to prioritize education exacerbates systemic issues.

3.2 Socio-Economic Factors

Poverty and inequality perpetuate educational disparities, as marginalized communities struggle to access quality education. Economic instability and income disparities further widen the gap between the privileged and the underprivileged.

3.3 Cultural Barriers

Deep-seated cultural norms and traditions reinforce gender disparities in education. Patriarchal attitudes, early marriages, and societal expectations limit girls’ access to schooling and perpetuate cycles of poverty and ignorance.

4. Solutions

4.1 policy reforms.

Comprehensive policy reforms are imperative to address systemic issues within Pakistan’s education system. Government initiatives should focus on increasing education spending, reforming curriculum standards, and implementing inclusive policies to ensure equal access for all.

4.2 Technology Integration

Harnessing the power of technology can revolutionize education delivery in Pakistan. Initiatives such as e-learning platforms , digital libraries, and remote teaching programs can bridge the gap between urban and rural areas, providing quality education to underserved communities.

4.3 Community Involvement

Community engagement plays a crucial role in improving educational outcomes. Mobilizing local communities, empowering parents, and involving civil society organizations can foster a sense of ownership and accountability, leading to sustainable change.

4.4 Teacher Training

Investing in teacher training and professional development is essential for enhancing the quality of education. Equipping educators with modern teaching methodologies, pedagogical skills, and technological know-how empowers them to deliver effective instruction and nurture students’ potential.

5. Future Prospects

5.1 importance of change.

Addressing the challenges within Pakistan’s education system is not merely a moral imperative but also an economic necessity. Investing in education lays the foundation for future prosperity, innovation, and social progress.

5.2 Potential Impact

By implementing targeted reforms and fostering a culture of education, Pakistan can unlock its human capital potential and pave the way for sustainable development. Empowering every child with quality education is the key to building a prosperous and inclusive society.

6. Conclusion

In conclusion, the road to educational reform in Pakistan is fraught with challenges, but it is not insurmountable. By addressing access barriers, improving the quality of education, and fostering an environment of inclusivity, Pakistan can unleash its full potential and pave the way for a brighter future.

Frequently Asked Questions about Problems in Education System of Pakistan (FAQs)

How can technology help improve education in pakistan.

Technology can facilitate remote learning, provide access to educational resources, and enhance teaching effectiveness through interactive tools and multimedia content.

What role do parents and communities play in education reform?

Parents and communities can advocate for better schools, support children’s education at home, and participate in decision-making processes to ensure the needs of students are met.

Why is gender disparity a significant issue in Pakistan’s education system?

Gender disparity perpetuates cycles of poverty and inequality, limiting opportunities for girls and impeding social progress. Addressing this issue is crucial for achieving educational equity and empowerment.

What are some challenges faced by teachers in Pakistan?

Teachers in Pakistan often struggle with limited resources, large class sizes, and inadequate training. Investing in teacher support and professional development is essential for improving educational outcomes.

How can individuals contribute to education reform efforts in Pakistan?

Individuals can volunteer at local schools, mentor students, support educational initiatives, and advocate for policy changes to promote access to quality education for all.

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Education in Pakistan: problems, challenges and their solution

| pakistan has one of the world’s lowest literacy rates, with just around 58pc of adults able to read and write.

Education in Pakistan: problems, challenges and their solution

Pakistan has one of the world’s lowest literacy rates, with an estimated 22.6 million children not attending school and a literacy rate of only 58 percent. The situation is significantly worse for disadvantaged youngsters, who face considerable difficulties in getting school. This article looks at the obstacles that disadvantaged children face in Pakistan, as well as the chances to improve their access to school. Pakistan confronts various obstacles in delivering excellent education to its population, especially to the disadvantaged children. According to the World Bank, Pakistan has one of the world’s lowest literacy rates, with just around 58 percent of adults able to read and write. Furthermore, due to poverty, a lack of facilities, and social concerns, many children, particularly those from low-income households, are unable to attend school. Gender inequality is another major issue. Girls are particularly disadvantaged in Pakistan, with significantly lower enrolment rates and higher dropout rates than boys. This is due to a variety of causes, including cultural norms favouring boys’ education over girls’ education, early marriage and childbearing, and a lack of safe and secure schools for females. As a result, females account for just 44 percent of overall primary school enrolment, resulting in a large gender gap in education. Further to this, one of the major issues confronting Pakistan’s education industry is a lack of proper resources. According to UNICEF, the country has one of the world’s lowest education expenditures, with only 2.8 percent of GDP dedicated to education in 2022. Due to a lack of financing, poor facilities, obsolete curricula, and insufficient teacher training have resulted. Many rural schools lack essential amenities such as safe drinking water, electricity, and sufficient sanitation. Teachers struggle to provide quality education to their pupils due to a lack of facilities and resources in schools. The lack of infrastructure and resources in schools makes it difficult for instructors to provide quality education to their students. Despite these confines, there is potential in Pakistan to improve education. One of the most significant prospects is the expanding use of technology in education. With the proliferation of internet connectivity and mobile devices, e-learning has emerged as a feasible option for students who are unable to attend school due to financial or social constraints. Furthermore, the usage of technology can aid to improve educational quality by offering access to current knowledge and interactive learning tools. There is also the possibility of improving teacher training and growth. Pakistan has a high proportion of inexperienced or undertrained instructors, which has an impact on the quality of education provided. Pakistan may enhance education quality and student achievement by investing in teacher training programmes and providing greater incentives for instructors. Another possibility is the expanding number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working in Pakistan to enhance education. NGOs like The Citizens Foundation and the Zindagi Trust and self-built initiatives like Street to School are trying to build high-quality schools in underserved regions, give scholarships to students from low-income families, and improve teacher training and support. Finally, there is a chance to raise awareness and advocate for the necessity of education for all Pakistani children. Parents, teachers, and community leaders may all play a vital part in promoting education and pushing for impoverished children’s right to a decent education. Additionally, the Pakistani government has initiated a number of attempts to strengthen the country’s education system, such as the National Education Policy 2021. This strategy attempts to address the issues encountered by the education system in Pakistan and offer a framework for enhancing the quality of education for all students, especially the impoverished.

Special tasting event held at Fujiyama, Japanese restaurant

The writer is a Lecturer for Governance and Public Policy at NUML Islamabad and founder Street to Schools by Amnah Umair

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Smart Solutions to Improve Pakistan’s Education

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Story Highlights

  • The Sindh School Monitoring System spreads across 15 districts and to the remotest parts of the province. Plans are underway to expand it to the entire province.
  • This first digital system in the education sector in Pakistan allows transparent and effective monitoring of staff, students and school infrastructure.
  • More than 210,000 teaching and non-teaching staff have been profiled using biometric information, covering more than 26,200 schools.

Grade seven in the Qureshi Government Boys Secondary School in Karachi is bustling with activity. The science class is in session and the chemistry teacher is talking about atoms and molecules. The students listen eagerly as the sea breeze permeates the room. 

In the adjacent staff room, Sultan Dogar has just arrived. He is the Field Monitoring Assistant from the Sindh government and comes every two months to monitor teacher presence and school infrastructure. He uses a fingerprint-based biometric and photo system supported by Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. 

More than 26,200 schools and 210,000 education staff spread across the province are being monitored. The transparent and effective system aims to address such problems as “absconder teachers” – teachers who are employed yet absent for a lengthy period--, missing basic facilities and infrastructure, closed schools and lack of reliable and timely information on school status and teacher presence.  

To date, disciplinary action has been initiated against 40,000 absent teachers and 6,000 absconders. 

As Dogar records the data, it is transmitted in real time to a centralized dashboard. The Education and Literacy Department has access to this information and uses it to plan and make informed decisions. 

The system has been set up under the Sindh Global Partnership for Education project, which supports the government’s reform efforts over a three-year period. 

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Fazlullah Pechuho

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The government has been at the forefront of this effort and sees immense value in it. ‘‘The Sindh School Monitoring System brings together technology and a robust accountability mechanism to address long-standing governance issues in education,” says Fazlullah Pechuho, Former Secretary Education and Literacy Department, Sindh.

“It is a scalable solution to address teacher absenteeism, missing facilities and student attendance and enrollment. By receiving data directly from the field, we are able to undertake key administrative and policy actions in a timely manner. We consider this an important step towards improving education outcomes in Sindh.” 

Teachers also recognize the benefits. Mohammed Shakeel Siddiqui, Section In-charge, Qureshi Primary School, says: ‘‘The system addresses the issue of ghost teachers in school, very often reported in the media. Through thumb impressions, teacher presence is verified. You cannot go wrong. That is really good.’’ 

Teachers consider it a just and fair system. 

‘‘The system acknowledges teachers like us who come regularly and identifies those who don’t. That is only fair,’’ says Shaheen Afrooz who teaches Urdu in a primary school. 

As is often the case with reforms, the initiative has faced several implementation challenges. 

Nasr Abbasi, Chief Monitoring Officer identifies some: “Our field monitors go to far-flung areas, even up to 50 kilometers per trip; at times, security is an issue. Teachers who were habitually absent resent the system and feel insecure every time a Field Monitor comes. Nonetheless, student enrollment has increased substantially and fake enrollments are declining as we operationalize the system across Sindh.”

Despite these challenges, the benefits of regular teacher attendance continue to emerge. “I am learning very well and the school environment is good,” says Farhana Khan, from grade 10 of the Government Girls Higher Secondary School in Khairpur, Sindh. “Teachers are regular and teach us well.” 

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Facing the Challenges of Girls’ Education in Pakistan

Juan d. barón.

Girl in a classroom

Girls’ education is smart economics , and Pakistan has committed to guaranteeing the right of both girls and boys to access quality education ( SDG 4 ).

In fact, Pakistan has dramatically expanded enrollment for girls and boys in the last 14 years. Net enrollment for both has increased by roughly 10 percentage points (Figure 1). With a school-aged population of around 50 million children, there have been substantial gains in the number of children enrolled in school. However, the country faces a number of challenges in ensuring a quality education for all children: 75 percent of 10-year-olds in Pakistan cannot read a simple text, and that rate may have increased to 79 percent due to COVID-19 and the 2022 floods .

Despite progress, girls in Pakistan face more challenges in accessing quality education and their education outcomes lag boys. Bringing more girls and boys to school will require using data to target interventions to specific challenges. At the current pace (which already incorporates strong assumptions on progress), it will take Pakistan at least 50 years to enroll all girls and 31 years to enroll all boys. Below, we present potential solutions to challenges facing girls access to education.

Figure 1. Net enrollment rates by sex (%)

Figure 1. Net enrollment rates by sex (%)

Challenge 1: 12 million girls out of school

About 2 million more girls than boys are out of school in Pakistan–or about 12 million girls in total—and account for most of the out-of-school population in Pakistan. Estimates of the number of out-of-school children in Pakistan range from 20.3 to 22.1 million children.

Solutions. One solution includes using available data and targeting specific programs to specific types of out-of-school children. For example, bringing back young kids who may have dropped out of primary school is a targeted intervention for young kids who were in school, but not for teenage children who may have left the system years ago. A literacy, numeracy, and life skill programs would be a more targeted approach for this group.

Another solution is increasing school supply: Punjab has done it successfully in primary education with public-private partnerships (PPPs). Expanding PPPs to other levels of education and enhancing regulations can deliver big returns. Expanding and better managing public schools in rural areas is another solution, like the SELECT project in the Sindh Province.

Challenge 2: Girls are more likely to have never been to school

In 2018, 26 percent of girls and 19 percent of boys had never been to school, a 7-percentage point difference (Figure 2). Pakistan has made progress compared to 2004, when the difference was 13 percentage points. The effort, however, has left girls in the same position as before relative to boys. Figure 2 shows that in 2018, the number of girls who have never attended school was the same as the number of boys who never attended school in 2004 (14 years earlier).

Solutions . Expanding conditional cash transfers to incentivize parents to send children to school, with a premium on girls, could be effective to enhance early enrollment and reduce gender gaps. Enrollment drives focused on first grades and pre-K enrollment can also be effective.

Figure 2. Children who have never attended school by sex (%)

Figure 2. Children who have never attended school by sex (%)

Challenge 3: Girls in poor families are less likely to attend school

Poverty is a major challenge for girls’ education. Girls in poor families are 22 percentage points less likely to attend school than boys (Figure 3). This gender gap gets narrower with better-off families, ending with no gap for families in the wealthiest quintile, where enrollment is around 87 percent, for both sexes.

Figure 3. School enrollment by sex and household wealth (%)

Figure 3. School enrollment by sex and household wealth (%)

Moreover, girls in poor families are 52 percentage points less likely to attend school than girls in well-off households (Figure 3). This highlights what families express as the biggest constraint to sending girls to primary school: the cost of education. Girls in rural areas, who are more likely to be in poor households, are also less likely to be enrolled than any other group, including girls in urban areas and boys in both rural and urban areas (Figure 4). Girls in rural areas are the most disadvantaged group.

Solutions. Pakistan has recently expanded the conditional cash transfer program to all districts in the country and has had girls’ stipend programs with positive outcomes. Expanding and consolidating this financial support to families—differentiating by gender and rural areas—could help in closing these gaps. These financial conditionalities will only work if there are enough schools available, which is not the case in many rural areas of Pakistan. For example, there are nearly 130,000 primary schools in rural Pakistan, but only 33,000 middle schools, leaving many middle school-aged students in rural areas without education options after primary school.

Figure 4. In all provinces, girls of all ages in rural areas are less likely to be in school than boys

Figure 4. In all provinces, girls of all ages in rural areas are less likely to be in school than boys

Challenge 4: Security of girls and women at school

Girls face harassment in school and on the way to school. They face challenges to their security in public spaces, transportation, and near schools. Girls express anguish at all types of harassment in these spaces, the Center for Gender and Policy Studies reports. Given this, parents in Pakistan either delay girls’ education or prevent them from attending school altogether. The second most important reason parents give for not sending girls to school is the distance to schools, which is a factor that exacerbates parents’ security concerns: the more distant the school, the more risk for girls.

Solutions . Improving transport services for girls and female teachers, as has been done in KP Province , and making school safe for students (for example, building boundary walls in schools).

What’s next?

Pakistan has shown that increased enrollment for girls is possible even in a context of high population growth. To accelerate progress, programs could be based on cost-effectiveness, potential for scale, and new research. For example, countries can advance girls’ education through un-targeted programs as effectively as targeted programs, as outlined in research by Evans & Yuan . This is true in some domains, but targeted interventions would work best for specific constraints faced by girls. The above potential solutions reflect both.

Solutions, however, require adequate and well-executed funding. Pakistan spends 2.5 percent of its GDP on education, far from the 4 percent international average. Reducing gaps and ensuring that all children, in particular girls, have access to quality education would require at least 4.5 percent of GDP, the World Bank estimates.

Juan D. Barón profile picture

Senior Economist, Education Global Practice, World Bank Group

May Bend

Senior Consultant

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Education in Pakistan: problems, challenges and perspectives

Education in Pakistan: problems, challenges and perspectives

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah said and I quote:

“Education is a matter of life and death for Pakistan. The world is progressing so rapidly that without requisite advance in education, not only shall we lag behind others but maybe wiped out altogether.”

The education section of the executive summary of the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2021-22 notes: “Pakistan is committed to transform its education system into a high-quality global-market demand-driven system in accordance with Goal 4 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) .” However, the reality is vastly different.

The literacy rate in Pakistan in 2021 was only 62.8%. Any gains in literacy rates over the last many years have been small, slow and marginal.

In 2021-22, we spent only 1.77% of GDP on education-related expenditure at both the federal and provincial levels. Most UN agencies recommend that the minimum expenditure on education should be 4% of GDP. In recent years, the highest percentage of GDP we have spent on education was in 2017-18, when education expenditures were raised to 2.12%. The usual argument given for lack of spending on education has always been and still is that we do not have the resources.

In Pakistan, the current literacy rate is 62.3%. In Budget 1.7% of GDP has been allocated as Education Budget which is lowest in the region. The expenditure of Rs 74,609 billion has been allocated for Tertiary Education Affairs & Services in budget 2022-23; Rs 3,786 billion for pre-primary & primary education; Rs 8,863 billion for Secondary Education Affairs and Rs 2 billion for administration. Rs 44,174 billion has been earmarked for Higher Education Commission ( HEC ) under the Public Sector Development Program (PSDP) for the year 2022-23. (Business Recorder June 11, 2022).

how to overcome educational problems in pakistan

According to data from the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2017-18, the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) shows Pakistan’s slow performance being ranked 129th of the 137 countries, on the Health and Primary Education related elements of competitiveness, when compared with other countries in the region like India, China, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. The structure of school education system in the public sector is depicted in Fig. below.

how to overcome educational problems in pakistan

Figure Above: The structure of school education system in Pakistan (Pre-Primary to Higher Secondary)

Education system creates sense of responsibility among people and they come to know the methods to achieve their national, societal and personal rights and it also enhances their general consciousness needed to deliver their duties as citizens towards their Nation. Once the realization originates, people start working for the development and prosperity of their motherland in the atmosphere of trust and co-operation.

The polarization and non – unified education system has resulted into outraged political turmoil, deadly terrorism, incessant sectorial violence, social disruption, economic instability and degeneration of government system. Whether it is poverty, non-availability of jobs, security uncertainty, sectarianism or terrorism, lack of tolerance, lack of general awareness, illiteracy, all are off shoots of the poor, inefficient and ineffective education system. The lowest budget allocation, a realm of large number of ineffective education policies has badly failed to take country out of economic, social, political and development quagmire.

Education has fundamental role in the economic, social, political and structural development of any nation. Many of the economic issues like poverty , overpopulation, unemployment , resource mobilization, inflation, exchange rate drastic fluctuation, housing, infrastructure, and health can be reduced and handled by improving education system in Pakistan. Education can also solve social issues like Baradari system, Wadera Culture, Chaudary regime and slave mentality. The political issues like battle for power by different politicians, lawlessness, fraud, corruption, religious riots, extremism, processions to gain popularity, use of indecent remarks, no public service, no human investment to save the lives of ignorant and deprived humans. Structural Development like transition from primitive methodologies to modern strategies; Shifts from Agriculture to Industry, hand made tools to mechanization, from physical conventional education system to Online Education and adoption of highly sophisticated and up to the mark technology can only happen with the strong Education Policy and implementation of country’s education system.

Pakistan, since its inception has failed to establish an education system which can fulfill the aspirations of the general public. Being a developing country, Pakistan is facing multifaceted problems and issues in the education sector. There are many issues prevalent and practiced in Pakistan’s Education System at all levels of Education – primary, secondary – colleges or universities.

The educational institutions within the country are divided into following categories: (1) Pre-primary School (2) Primary School (3) Middle School (4) High School (5) Higher Secondary (6) Inter-colleges (7) Degree Colleges (8) Universities (9) Non-formal Basic Education (10) Education foundations (11) Technical & Vocational Institutions (12) Teacher Training Institutions (13) Deeni Madaris

Pakistan’s schooling system consists of three main school types namely public sector schools, private sector schools and Deeni Madaris. These are further divided as public and private mainly due to curriculum and examination systems used in the schools and the language of instructions used by teachers.

how to overcome educational problems in pakistan

The Broad Categories on education level are:

School Education (Pre-primary – Class 12) College Education (Degree Colleges Class 13-14) University Education

The education system of Pakistan is comprised of 305,763 institutions accommodating 51,186,560 9 students and 2,073,433 teachers. The system is composed of 189,748 (62%) public institutions and 116,015 (38%) private institutions, which also include 31,115 Deeni Madaris. The public sector is serving 28.49 million (56%) students to complete their education while the remaining 22.70 million (44%) are enrolled in the private sector of education. About 38 percent private educational institutions are facilitating 44 percent of students showing a slightly higher per-institution enrolment ratio in the private sector compared to the public sector.

how to overcome educational problems in pakistan

There are a total of 186 universities & degree awarding institutions catering to the needs of higher degree students in both public and private sectors of education. Out of these universities, 111 (60%) are working under umbrella of public sector, whereas 75 (40%) are working in the private sector.

how to overcome educational problems in pakistan

The total enrolment in the universities and degree awarding institutions is 1.576 million. Out of these 1.266 million (80%) students are enrolled in public sector whereas, 0.309 million (20%) students are studying in private universities and degree awarding institutions. In the overall national scenario only four percent students have access to university education. The total male enrolment in the universities is 0.881 million (56%), whereas, the female enrolment is 0.695 million (44%) . There are 56,885 teachers imparting higher education to the students in these universities. Universities in the public sector employ 38,011 (67%) teachers while those in the private sector have 18,874 (33%) teachers.

The significant issues of Education system are lack of Budget Allocation, lack of Policy Implementation, Faulty examination System, Poor Infra Structure of Educational Institutions, Lack of Teacher’s quality, low enrolment, Wayward and Directionless Education system, High scale drop outs, Increasing Political Interference, Out dated curriculum, corruption, Poor Management and Supervision, lack of Uniformity, lack of research, lack of faculty training and Development, Cost of Education, Terrorist Attacks, Cultural Constraints, lack of Parent input, Widening gap between Educational Institutions and Community, lack of Academia Industry Linkage program and Learning Crisis etc.

Education is the nurturing and nourishing force for the construction of strong and impressive societal set up, prominent development and significant growth of the country. Education explores new dimensions and polishes the hidden talent, potential, capabilities and strengths of individuals and redirect these forces towards the rise of Pakistan as a powerful nation on the global horizon.

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah envisioned Education System of Pakistan as the driving force behind all the national goals. In the first National Education Conference held at Karachi. It was decided that Education System will work according to the National aspirations of Pakistan and it will be truly related to the needs of the people of Pakistan. The father of Nation said, “The magnificent goal of Education sector will be to develop character of Pakistan, high sense of responsibility, social integrity, selfless service to the Nation and morality on the part of the people of Pakistan.

Critical analysis of the problems and issues of education system in Pakistan.

These are the most dominant issues and problems of our Education System which needs to be addressed and to find remedial solutions for these issues and put forward recommendations for the positive change in our prevalent Education System.

1- Lack of uniformity

The Education System is not Uniform and is based on differentiated Education System like Public Institutions, Private Institutions and Deeni Madaris. There has been accelerated polarization in the Education System due to divisive Pakistani Education System. This has penetrated into cultural veins of the Nation. The recent waves of Sectarianism and Terrorism are the consequences of this divisible system. Polarized Education System has further divided society on political, economic and social grounds instead of uniting people. This division is leading towards further segregation on linguistic and religious levels and cutting knee deep the ideological foundation of the Nation.

2- Education without direction

A sound Education System is essential for every nation of the world. All nations develop their people or human resources on the basis of rigorous focus on Education and Training . We have poor and direction less education system with lack of cohesion and more prone towards general education without creation of Skillful man power resulting into massive unemployment. It also results into massive political, social, economic and cultural distress among people. There is no use of science and technology in the education system. Students are unable to develop critical thinking, creativity, imagination, reasoning, experimentation, innovation and invention

3- Outdated curriculum

We are still following the old fashioned and outdated Education System of rote memorization, cramming the facts and figures without realizing the holistic development of individuals. The objective of Education should be development of psychological, philosophical and sociological foundations of Education. The present curriculum is not motivating learners for practical research and development, scientific knowledge and reflective observation.

4- Lack of professional development of teachers

There are few training institutes but have lack of funds, lack of resourceful and trained trainers and administers. There are no defined standards of training and development. The courses and trainings are outdated, traditional without exposure to modern technology, motivation, quality of teachers and enhancement of skills .

5- Lack of quality teacher

According to UNESCO report, the quality of educational institutions and teacher is low. The situation is grimmer in remote parts of Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan where there is non availability of teachers. Teachers are not using new methods of teaching and learning, no lesson planning, old method of cramming, no research, no use of libraries or internet, no book reading. Students are promoted to next class on the basis of cramming and memorization of facts and figures without knowledge in depth, no conceptualization, no understanding of topics in the books without relevance in schools.

6- Alarming dropouts

Lack of management and discipline in schools leads many students to drop out from school. This trend is due to punishment in schools, poor parenting, lack of motivation, unattractive school environment, child labor & poverty are also very significant reasons of huge drop out from schools, colleges and universities. It shows that almost 30% of children enrolled in primary education. This trend has added to low literacy rate in Pakistan.

7- Examination system

Students are evaluated on the basis of annual exams, semester wise assessments. Both quantitative and qualitative exams should be introduced to judge the performance of students on comprehensive level and exams should evaluate the student’s ability through various types of reliable assessments like case studies, research papers, MCQs, Comprehensive subjective questions, Analytical questions to check the conceptual understanding of students especially in higher classes (Rehman, 2011).

In Pakistan examination system is faulty and it tests only the memory of students, there is use of unfair means, bribery, cheating, issuance of duplicate marks sheets, changes of marks, change of answer sheets, impersonation. This present examination system has promoted rote memorization and cramming. It has badly failed in producing critical thinking, analytical skills, learning, intellectual power and visionary reflection in the students at all levels of education. It does not measure the strength, achievements and performance of students (Quereshi, 1975).

Modular system of examination in Medical Universities is producing incompetent students with insufficient knowledge of Anatomy which is the backbone of medicine studies. In modular system a single paper for three subjects is given to students. Students prepare easy subjects to pass the exam and leave the difficult and important subject of Anatomy for choice. Therefore, this method has tarnished the strong foundations of learning and performing badly. Doctors produced with such type of examination with lack of proper understanding of subject will not be able to serve the humanity honestly and do the justice with their profession.

In our education system educational institutions are used as breeding grounds for political parties and in colleges and universities these groups nurture. Students get benefits by being part of any political party during exams. A list of students is provided to the teacher by the student leader to pass them in the exam, admissions are given on the party basis, exams are marked and checked on party basis because mostly teachers are also working for parties while sitting in educational institutions. During Board or University exam by giving money to the invigilator, students are allowed to cheat in the exam, Students throw question paper outside the window and one of the party rep climbs up the tree near the window with Megaphone and starts dictating answers by calling up question numbers. Honest Teachers are threatened and sometimes gunned and killed in case they are not willing to listen to the unfair demands of the students of different parties.

Some of the teachers are also involved in malpractices. They leak the paper by charging handsome amounts or solve the papers for students or allow students to solve the papers by cheating from books, material or from some good student. In board exams, before submission of sheets to the board office representative student is asked to write down correct answers. Teachers are themselves involved in such political activities and award “F” grade to students who are not in their party.

In Russia there is no exam system like ours. Students study through out the year and at the end of year teacher can ask any question from the book to pass the candidate and check his understanding & knowledge of the subject.

8- Poor supervision standards

To monitor teaching and learning, poor and harsh standards of evaluation and punishment are used which in some case leads to termination of jobs . At primary school level teacher’s evaluation is not possible. Secondary Schools/Cambridge Schools are evaluated through Board exam results/CAIE results. In college, again Board or University exam results are the criteria to judge the academic performance of Student and Teacher’s teaching. Whereas, actually there is an increase in tuitions instead of relying on School or College teaching. Students and their parents are compelled to go for tuitions due pressure of good grades and admissions in good educational institutions. There are many tuition centres, coaching centres, academies where the same teachers who were unable to impart quality education give quality tuitions by charging heavy amounts and prepare students well to score good grades. The low salaries demotivate them in their institutions to impart good education. In Universities students are given power to evaluate teaching and their grading becomes part of an Annual Evaluation Report which is essential for promotion or benefit of the faculty. This system is again polluted by involvement of computer department staff, Student coordinators and by bribing students to give bad remarks about any teacher. Some insincere and corrupt teachers mark students’ attendance and give them good marks, tell them questions of exams and do immoral activities to get good evaluation from students. Teachers who are honest and hard working are ranked low by students. Even at higher education institutions there is lobbying and politics through which false evaluation against any faculty can be prepared to get rid of the unwanted faculty by the management. So, in short, supervision system is more prone to harassment and control over the teaching staff rather than providing proper guideline and training for the improvement of teaching methodologies & strategies. (Rehman, 2011).

9- Internal and external influence

In Education sector external factors are coming outside the system through politicians and they bring changes in the system to give favor to their families, relatives, friends etc. Internal factors are bureaucratic manipulations (Mazhar, 2011).

There is great favoritism and Nepotism in cases of transfers, Appointments, Promotions, Salaries, Grades & Work Stations. Due to this the basic Infrastructure of the Education System in Pakistan has been badly affected (LOUIS, 1987).

10- Lack of resources

There are not proper Libraries with physical space for Students to Study. Books are not available, No digital libraries, no computer Facility in the library especially in public sector colleges & universities. No proper lighting, no AC, no Generators in case of power break down are available to make studies more comfortable for the desirous and ambitious students. Class rooms are over-crowded, corridors are flooded with students, Inadequate and Inefficient teachers, Laboratories without required apparatus & equipment of practical learning have resulted into a situation of despair and low standard of Education (Louis, 1987).

11- Lack of policy implementation

Frequent political turmoil and change of governments have made policy implementation in its true letter and spirit impossible. Corruption, Lack of Resources, Lack of teacher’s involvement in policies and inconsistency in successive planning on the part of various political regimes in Pakistan. Teachers are ignored while designing Education policies which has led to alienation between teachers and the system of Education (Zaki, 1989).

12- Low budgetary allocation for education

Education system in Pakistan has been crippled mainly due allocation of scarce financial resources in budget. The Education Budget which is definitely not sufficient to fulfill the growing needs of population and involvement of modern technology in the education system, low salaries, high taxation are also hindering the growth of this sector. Taxes are even imposed on the hourly payment of visiting faculty at the rate of ten percent from filers and twenty percent from non-filers which is really unjustified and reduces the meagre earning.

In many countries like Bangladesh & Sri Lanka the Education share in total budget of the country is increasing but in Pakistan it is continuously declining (Sayan, 2012).

13- Corruption

Corruption is another factor responsible for deterioration of the Education System, use of unfair means, nepotism, favors in transfer, promotion and appointments and decision making, misuse of funds, use of illegal authority by the school management, Gender based exploitation and harassment are the subsidiaries of corruption .

14- Lack of faculty training and development

Educational institutions do not spend available funds on the training and development of teachers. They are neither sent to attend the workshops, courses, seminars or conferences to groom themselves and learn the modern techniques and methodologies of teaching. Here again only few favorite teachers are selected for these trainings and most of the teachers remain deprived of any opportunity to groom their teaching skills.

15- Non- availability of public transport/ parking/traffic congestion

Most of the private schools are located in residential areas usually in bungalows to avoid taxes. Here the big issue is non-availability of public transport, parking and traffic congestion on daily basis. This makes both students and teachers tired and stressed because of wastage of lots of time of travelling to and from school to home. This unnecessary delay in timings also affects the quality of education. Mostly schools do not provide their conveyance to students, teachers and staff but ask them to avail transport of the companies with which the senior management set commission.

16- Opening up of large nuber of private schools

There is opening up of various private schools with a shift from Matric system to O & A level with Up-to-date modern technologies. They have comparatively better infrastructure, spacious class rooms, low strengths of class, more trained teachers, with proper sanitary conditions, counselors, doctors, psychologist, its teachers, sports teacher, swimming pools, etc. Creativity of students is enhanced through various activities. These facilities are missing in public schools so parents prefer to send their children to nearby private schools.

17- Politics in education

Different political parties prepare their representatives amongst students. Different teachers also involve them in this exercise as party members. These teacher in exchange of this get favors and benefits from parties by helping their students in getting admissions, provision of question papers, awarding of good grades as per list provided by the party.

18- Compulsion to purchase stationery, syllabus, uniforms and other items from school shop

School management compels parents to purchase the required stationery, syllabus, uniforms and all other required study material from their own school’s shop where the rates are too high as compared to the open market. This puts burden on the finances of the family and parents have to change the school or leave the school. The school charge fess for 3 moths and invest this amount in different profit schemes to earn interest on it.

During COVID-19 pandemic when due lock down schools were closed and even online classes were not in practice, school charged full fee from the students and parents had no option except listening to the management and doing as they demand to keep admission of their child locked and secured.

19- Entry tests, coaching and paper out

All the admissions have been linked with admission test in more or less all institutions making the credibility of different schools, boards, colleges and universities doubtful just to give benefits to the students who are non-deserving and not coming on merit with their results. Every year we hear about MCAT test, usually tests are postponed or test paper is out and re-exam is arranged and many of the students with good grades are pushed out of the admission list. The private colleges have their own test criteria and select students as per their own policies and even charge fees as per their own policies. Most of the deserving, hard working students due to the demand of heavy fees are forced to move towards some other institution. Every year PMDC is dissolved. For these entry tests students join academies, tuition centres and coaching centre and pay high charges to prepare for admission in all these high ranked Engineering and Medical institutes.

These admission tests are introduced to favor their own families, relatives, friends or workers of the political parties to strengthen their vote bank in their constituency.

These tests are fake, their results are fake, the merit lists displayed are fake. In this way many deserving students do not get chance to pursue education of their own choice.

20- Theoretical knowledge inplace of practical learning

Students are given only bookish theoretical knowledge instead of practical knowledge. Most of the students even after getting degrees do not meet the requirement of jobs and are unable to be absorbed in the working population. Students should be sent at least for one semester in organizations before their graduation so that they may become acquainted with the office environment and familiar with the working of different reputable organizations. Activities, Role plays, Case Studies, Worksheets, Research Projects, Seminars, Symposiums, Lecture Series, Events should be organized for the students with their hundred percent involvement so the students not only own the activity but get an opportunity to meet influential people from big companies of reputable brands.

21- Lack of liaison between industry and educational institutions

Mostly universities have no liaison with industries and therefore their students face problems at the time of induction. Universities should invite industrialists to teach courses especially in the last two semester of their studies so that students can learn about the ins and outs of the industrial workings and may get a chance of absorption in the industry as employees.

22- Non-participatory in nation building

Education Sector is not playing any role in Nation Building. Our Education System is producing students with mindset that only foreign countries are providing good education and to get good job it is necessary to become foreign graduates. Mostly Students lack patriotism, civic sense, loyalty and love for their homeland and people living here and treat them as inferior to the foreign world. So being Status conscious and due ostentatious effect our crème has moved abroad for higher education. On the other hand, students who get them enrolled here in Pakistan after getting degrees and job search find it best to move abroad for higher studies, job and career growth. Once they get job, they prefer to stay there on permanent basis and become citizens of that country with dual nationality status. Our best youth has settled in European Countries, USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Spain, Italy, Australia, Malaysia, South Africa and Gulf Region and rendering their best services and earning handsome salaries and maintaining luxury life styles in those countries without any fear of security, terrorist attacks, bomb blasts, sectarian riots, traffic congestions, pollution, Smog, energy Shortage etc. By being there they feel satisfied and happy. They do not send any remittances here instead they are calling up their families, relatives and friends to come and transfer their assets to those countries making Pakistan’s economy weaker with this outflow of resources. Our Doctors, Engineers, Architects, Retired Army Officers, Bankers, health workers paramedical staff, skilled labor, business graduates, pilots, Air men, Air Technicians, Aircraft Engineers, Educationists, Insurance Agents, Scientists and Researcher have moved to Western countries and are not willing to come back or serve the Nation.

23- Pupil teacher, pupil school and teacher school ratio

These ratios are very important. If there are more peoples in one class then teacher cannot give individual attention to students. Weak students are neglected and gap between strong and weak students widens. If pupil school ratio increases then infrastructure does not accommodate the increased number of students and in place of two students, three or four students are asked to sit. Other facilities like availability of labs, computers, access to canteens, sports items, playgrounds, washrooms etc. become less for the large number of people. If schools have low number of teachers hirings then work load for one teacher is overburdened and individual attention, mood, behavior, marking of copies/assignments or imparting of quality education is disturbed. The ideal class size is 30 students at most for one teacher but in our universities sometimes more than 100 students are accommodated in one class.

24- Non-availability of electricity

Load shedding and energy crisis in the country has devastatingly ruined the quality of education. In summer when the weather is hot and humid, then in the class of 68-70 students when teacher has very limited space to move, then there is suffocation, lack of oxygen, smell of sweat and loss of student’s attention in studies. This is a source of big demotivation for students and teachers and they want to leave.

25- Non-availability of drinking and washing water in toilets

In most of the schools clean drinking water is not available. Mostly the washrooms are not cleaned on regular basis so health hazards are faced by the students and teachers especially female students suffer a lot because of this. Mostly, schools’ students suffer from cholera, diarrhea, typhoid etc.

26- Non-availability of boundary wall

There are many schools in villages, towns and even cities where schools are working without boundary walls, which has become a security hazard.

27- Terrorist attacks and child killing

Terrorist attacks in schools like APS, Peshawar where a large number of students were killed. Schools are force to provide security to students. Attacks on students, teachers, on school buses, entrance of school buildings have decreased enrollment in schools.

28- Female students and female teachers’ harassment

Female students and female teachers are sexually harassed by male teachers. Many students are threatened not to speak against the culprit. In universities many male teachers award good grades to female students after their sexual assault. In jobs, females involved in such type of illicit activities and involved with the management get all kind of benefits of increments; increase in salaries, courses abroad, promotions and in some cases female faculty was awarded PhD degrees even when their research work was not up to the mark and rejected by external supervisors.

29- Parent’s input for improvement of education system at all levels

Parents should be involved at all education levels to maintain the high standards of education and learning.

30- Cost of education

The economic cost is higher in private schools and they are located in rich localities only though they provide better quality of education. Public schools ensure equitable access but low-quality education.

31- Cultural constraints and traditional taboos

Due to cultural constraints and traditional taboos parents prefer early marriages of their girls instead of sending them to schools. Similarly, mothers feel comfortable when girls stay home and help mothers in baby sitting and finishing household chores. In some of the areas only boys are sent to schools considering them as head of the future families and girls are asked to learn some family skills like embroidery, weaving, pottery or for cattle care.

32- Illiteracy of parents and parental concerns

Due to non – availability of Education and lack of awareness poor parents have number of children in the hope that they will become their earning hands and instead of sending them to school their mothers working in different houses as domestic help take them along for the baby sitting of the children of theses houses and demand money for that. They think that investing girls will be of benefit to the in laws or her husband since they will not get any return from it so its better as long as girls are staying in their homes they should earn and bring money for the family.

33- Learning crisis:

The education system is not producing students who are learning from education as per the requirement of the standard in which they are studying. Maybe a student studying in class five does have the knowledge of class two or three only. This Learning Crisis has become the biggest issue of our current education system. It means there is wide gap between school input and school output.

34- Distance:

There are many schools which are far from some of villages and there are no means of transportation and children have to walk on foot to reach schools miles away from their homes which is not possible for girl students to do as parents do not want to send their girls unattended and do not accompany them since they have to work to meet both ends.

Recommendations:

  • Budget allocation should be increased as per international standards of education.
  • Schools should be shifted on solar system to handle the issue of load shedding.
  • Pupil teacher, pupil school and teacher school ratios should be balanced and class strength, teacher’s number and number of classrooms should be in accordance to the international education standards.
  • Boundary walls should be made. Security staff should be hired, CCTV cameras should be installed, student teacher and staff should be issued identity cards.
  • For teacher training and development quality professional institutes with sufficient funds should be set up.
  • Political and bureaucratic influence should be minimized at all educational levels.
  • The system of accountability should be strengthened and all associated in education system are trained to own responsibilities both at individual and collective basis.
  • Curriculum should be revised on annual basis and new strategies and methods should be incorporated to align our education system with other countries.
  • Examination system should be made free of unfair means, Mafia culture and illegal gratification. Supervision and monitoring should be strong to subside this element.
  • Policies should be implemented with delay and in continuity to get their outcomes.
  • The culture of research should be promoted in the educational institutions.
  • There should be Academia industrial linkage programs to make our education practical and our students capable of absorption in the job market.
  • Introduction of technical and vocational trainings at secondary schools.
  • Increasing public expenditure on education and skill generation from 2.7% of GDP to 5% of GDP and then to 7% of GDP.
  • Reduce polarization and try to introduce uniform standards at all types of schools.
  • Enhance the scale and quality of education in general and the scale and quality of scientific/technical education in Pakistan in particular.

Conclusion:

Sense education is developing not only mind but it also cleans and grooms our body and soul. We not only get education for economic reason but to handle social, political, psychological, ethical, legal and spiritual issues of our life. Education turns a raw human into a polished human being which becomes human capital of any nation and key to the development of that country. With education many countries are ruling the world and have become leaders in the comity of nations. The current system has made our younger generation direction directionless and uncertain about their future so they are leaving Pakistan and settling down in developed countries. The lawlessness, fear of loss of life, terrorist attacks, unemployment, inflation, exchange rate fluctuation, overpopulation, poverty, taxes and IMF loans are producing forces of degree holders without any vision, mission, critical thinking, reflection, analysis, research and creativity. Our outdated curriculum is pushing our youth towards stone age instead of directing them towards the fast-changing technology driven world. Traditional teaching is giving theoretical knowledge to students but practical learning is missing.

Finally, education reforms are the only solution to change the existing education system so following recommendations are suggested for the policy makers, thinkers, researchers, educationists and common people. Hope it will add value in the research and development of both student and teachers.

References:

  • http://library.aepam.edu.pk/Books/Pakistan%20Education%20Statistics%202017-18.pdf
  • https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED570671.pdf
  • https://contentgenerate.com/problems-of-education-sector-solutions-pakistan-content-generate/
  • https://www.finance.gov.pk/survey/chapter_22/PES10-EDUCATION.pdf
  • https://ipripak.org/education-system-of-pakistan-issues-problems-and-solutions/
  • https://www.morenews.pk/real-issues-education-system-pakistan/
  • Zaki W. M., “Evaluation of Education Plans and Projects”, Islamabad, National Book Foundation, 1989.
  • Save the Children & UNICEF “Disciplining The Child Practices and Impacts”, NWFP: School & Lietarcy Department, 2005.
  • Rehman H. and Khan N., “The flaws in Pakistan’s Education System”, Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences, vol/issue: 4(1), 2011.
  • Louis D. H., “The crises of Education in Pakistan”, Lahore, Vanguard Book Ltd., 1987.
  • Iqbal M., “Education in Pakistan”, Lahore, Aziz publishers, 1981.
  • Qurashi I. H., “Education in Pakistan”, Karachi, Ma,aref LTD, 1975.
  • Sayan, Fida, and Hussain, “Pakistan existing education system”, 2008. Retrieved from Retrieved from www.eric.articles/pak/edu on dated 2012, July 18.
  • Naseem J. Q., “Problem of Education in Pakistan”, Karachi, Royal Book Company, 1990.
  • Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education. “National Assessment Findings”, Islamabad, National Education System, 2006.
  • Ahmed, Iqbal.,” Critical Analysis of the Problems of Education in Pakistan: Possible Solutions”, . International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE) Vol.3, No.2, June 2014, pp. 79~84 ISSN: 2252-8822.

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Academia

Educational inequality in Pakistan: Causes and Solutions

Of all the challenges Pakistan is facing, from economic crises to Political disability, the challenge of educational inequality is often ignored and overlooked and doesn’t get the attention that it deserves. Pakistan is facing significant challenges in achieving educational equality due to various factors. Some of the main causes of educational inequality in Pakistan are:

  • Economic factors: Poverty is one of the biggest barriers to education in Pakistan. Children from low-income families often lack access to basic necessities like food, shelter, and healthcare, which makes it difficult for them to attend school regularly. Families may also need their children to work to support the household, which further limits their ability to attend school.
  • Gender inequality: In Pakistan, girls face significant barriers to education. They are often discouraged from attending school due to cultural norms that prioritize marriage and household responsibilities over education. Girls also face safety concerns while travelling to and from school, as well as while at school.
  • Inadequate infrastructure: Many schools in Pakistan lack basic infrastructure like safe and clean classrooms, toilets, and drinking water facilities. The lack of infrastructure makes it difficult for students to attend school regularly and affects their ability to learn.
  • Poor quality of education: The quality of education in Pakistan is generally poor, particularly in rural areas. Schools may lack qualified teachers, appropriate teaching materials, and a suitable learning environment. This can affect student learning outcomes and contribute to the high dropout rate.
  • Regional disparities: Education inequality is more pronounced in certain regions of Pakistan, particularly in rural and remote areas. These regions often lack basic infrastructure, qualified teachers, and adequate funding for schools, which makes it difficult for students to attend school regularly and achieve good learning outcomes.
  • Lack of government funding: Pakistan’s education sector is underfunded, with limited investment in improving educational infrastructure, providing teacher training, and promoting access to education for all. The lack of funding limits the government’s ability to improve the education system and reduce educational inequality.

Solutions to Educational inequality in Pakistan

Pakistan is a country where educational equality is still a distant dream for millions of children. According to UNESCO , the country has the second highest number of out-of-school children in the world. The problem is particularly acute for girls, who are often denied the opportunity to go to school due to cultural and societal norms.

To address this issue, Pakistan’s government and civil society must work together to implement a multi-pronged approach. The following are some solutions that can help promote educational equality in the country:

Increase Funding for Education:

Pakistan must increase funding for education to provide better resources, infrastructure, and teacher training. The government must allocate more funds to education, and the private sector must also step in to support the education sector. Investment in education is essential to improve the quality of education and increase access to education.

Improve Quality of Education:

Pakistan must also focus on improving the quality of education provided in schools. This can be done by hiring better teachers, training existing teachers, and providing modern teaching resources. Quality education will not only ensure that children are equipped with the skills they need to succeed in life but also help reduce drop-out rates.

Provide Scholarships and Financial Assistance:

Pakistan must provide scholarships and financial assistance to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. This will help address the financial barriers that prevent many children from accessing education. The government and private sector must work together to provide financial assistance and ensure that children from low-income families have access to education.

Address Gender Inequality:

Pakistan must address gender inequality and promote the education of girls. This can be done by launching campaigns to raise awareness of the importance of education for girls, providing incentives to families who send their daughters to school, and ensuring that schools are safe and welcoming for girls. Providing separate toilets for girls in schools is also crucial to encourage them to attend school.

Develop Vocational Education:

Pakistan must develop vocational education to provide children with the skills they need to find employment. This can be done by working with the private sector to identify the skills required in the workforce and designing courses to meet these requirements. Vocational education will not only provide children with employment opportunities but also help address the issue of unemployment in the country.

Improve Access to Technology:

Pakistan must also improve access to technology in schools. This will help provide children with access to modern teaching resources and help bridge the gap between urban and rural areas. The government and private sector must work together to provide schools with computers, internet access, and other technological resources.

Provide Safe Learning Environments:

Pakistan must ensure that schools provide safe learning environments for children. This can be done by addressing issues such as bullying, violence, and harassment in schools. The government must also ensure that schools are equipped with adequate security measures to prevent incidents of violence and protect children.

In conclusion, promoting educational equality in Pakistan will require a concerted effort from the government, civil society, and the private sector. The solutions outlined above can help provide children with the education they need to succeed in life and contribute to the development of the country. By investing in education, Pakistan can ensure that every child has access to quality education regardless of their socio-economic background or gender.

Related: Education Not Enough To End Income Inequality

how to overcome educational problems in pakistan

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Maryam Naqvi

October 4th, 2021, single national curriculum & educational disparities in pakistan.

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Pakistan’s recently-introduced Single National Curriculum for schools across the country promises uniform educational attainment for her children, but as Maryam Naqvi argues, there are several impediments to equal outcomes for children via education in Pakistan and only a multi-pronged, composite strategy can hope to overcome Pakistan’s complex problems in the education sector. 

The Prime Minister of Pakistan Mr Imran Khan recently introduced the Single National Curriculum (SNC) with an aim to unite the children of the country under the umbrella of a single curriculum. However, there is little evidence of what exactly the execution of this curriculum, as envisaged by the government, will achieve.

The curriculum is to be introduced in three phases: in the first phase, it will be implemented for Grades 1-5 in the academic year 2021-22; in the second, it will be implemented for Grades 6-8 in 2022-23; and in its third phase, Grades 9-12 in 2023-24. For the first phase, the Federal government has directed all provinces except Sindh to launch the SNC by ensuring its implementation in all public and private schools as well as in religious madrasas. The question is, will it be able to tackle the existing educational inequalities in Pakistan?

Educational Inequalities in Pakistan

Pakistan is marred by intricate problems which affect the education of her children. It is easier said than achieved that one curriculum can address all these complex problems. Educational inequality exists in Pakistan not just because students are studying different curricula, are enrolled in private and state schools, are elite and poor, and (those who can afford) opt for higher education abroad, compared to the local education; the reasons for educational inequality lie beyond these aspects.

Poverty is one of the main factors that impedes parents from sending their children to school. Limited income and spending capacity of parents along with unsafe transportation services puts education, particularly of female children, at stake, with girls dropping out of school more than boys. It would be interesting to know how exactly the SNC will result in more educated girls, and reduce the existing gender gap within the education system of Pakistan? The issue of girls dropping out from schools is not because of the nature of the curriculum; as such, it will not be resolved if SNC is implemented in schools. There are cultural barriers, like early marriage for girls, which again keeps them deprived of higher education. If girls continue to get married at an early age, the curriculum at schools will not matter as long as they are not the beneficiaries of it.

The SNC attempts to bring religious neutrality by promoting intra-faith harmony and catering to the needs of students from minority faiths by teaching them according to their religious beliefs. However, gaps in implementation make it a daunting task for the government as not all private and public schools in every province will be willing to opt for the SNC and hence, a strong monitoring mechanism will need to be adopted by the government to ensure the implementation. After the 18 th Amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan , the Provinces were given an exclusive right to design their curriculum, syllabus and define their education standards. By introducing the SNC, the Federal Government seems to have breached this privilege of the Provinces and violated the 18 th Amendment. The Education Minister of Sindh, Mr Sardar Shah, held this view while explaining why Sindh would not be introducing the SNC, clarifying that the Province has its exclusive right to design and implement its education curriculum, and the SNC of the Federal Government was an unacceptable imposition. The refusal to implement the SNC by the Sindh provincial government also deprives the curriculum from being ‘national’ any longer.

The SNC also violates the right of parents to choose the kind of education they would like to provide for their children. Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights , to which Pakistan is a signatory, provides freedom to parents to choose the religious and moral education for their children in light of their own convictions. However, the introduction of the SNC leaves parents with no choice than to let their children study what the government has decided.

In Pakistan, almost 22.5 million children are out of school ; to get them enrolled in schools, the capacity of existing schools needs to be increased, more schools are needed, and of course more funds should be allocated to the education sector. The government’s priority should be out-of-school children, as their enrolment in schools is essential to resolve the persisting educational disparities in Pakistan. Once children are enrolled in schools, only then would they be able to benefit from the SNC. Focusing only on renewing a curriculum is not a sound policy, especially when the teachers are not even sufficiently or properly trained to deliver quality education. Teachers’ training is another related aspect the government needs to invest in and work on before assuming that the implementation of SNC will improve the quality of education in Pakistan.

While a single curriculum is in principle a good step towards unifying the younger generation, it is not enough as a strategy to bridge the existing inequalities within the education system of Pakistan. There are several other important issues which need to be dealt with, and addressed by, the government first as they are crucial for the success of SNC. As discussed above, the drop-out rates of girls, out-of-school children, lack of trained teachers and unsafe transportation services need to be resolved. For all this to be taken care of, the government needs to invest more in the education sector and not rely only on a limited number of policies and strategies to overcome educational disparities.

With education becoming a provincial subject under the 18 th Amendment of the Constitution of Pakistan, Provinces should be allowed to design and choose curricula of their own choice; likewise, parents should be allowed to choose what type of education their children should benefit from. Finally, reducing poverty itself is a challenge the  government needs to tackle, since many parents cannot send their children to school due to lack of finances, and their children remain deprived of education which gives rise to further educational disparities in Pakistan.

In sum, there are many hurdles which need to be overcome before assuming success of the SNC in Pakistan.

Banner image © Muneer Ahmed, ‘Covid-19 School Reopening’, Karachi, Unsplash .

The views presented here are those of the author and do not represent the views of ‘South Asia @ LSE’, the LSE South Asia Centre or the London School of Economics and Political Science.

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About the author

how to overcome educational problems in pakistan

Maryam Naqvi, an LSE alumnus, is Senior Research Associate at Devtrio Consultants in Lahore; she has recently authored a Political Economy Analysis (PEA) Report on the status of WASH in Badin (Sindh) for WaterAid Pakistan. She worked earlier at the Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development and Transparency (PILDAT) in Lahore.

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Executive Summary

  • Persian, Farsi

Education Reform in Pakistan

To combat religious extremism and sectarian violence, Pakistan must reform its education sector by boosting resources to public schools and updating the school curriculum to improve quality and remove divisive and discriminatory narratives.

  • "> Download PDF Full Report (en)

In April 2010, the eighteenth constitutional amendment committed Pakistan to free and compulsory education for all children between the ages of five and sixteen. Yet, millions are still out of school, and the education system remains alarmingly impoverished. The madrasa (religious school) sector flourishes, with no meaningful efforts made to regulate the seminaries, many of which propagate religious and sectarian hatred. Militant violence and natural disasters have exacerbated the dismal state of education. Earthquakes and floods have destroyed school buildings in Balochistan, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and Punjab, disrupting the education of hundreds of thousands of children. Militant jihadi groups have destroyed buildings, closed girls’ schools and terrorised parents into keeping daughters at home; their attacks made global headlines with the shooting of schoolgirl and education activist Malala Yousafzai in October 2012. The public education system needs to foster a tolerant citizenry, capable of competing in the labour market and supportive of democratic norms within the country and peace with the outside world.

More than nine million children do not receive primary or secondary education, and literacy rates are stagnant. Pakistan is far from meeting its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of providing universal primary education by 2015. The net primary school enrolment rate in 2012-2013 is a mere 1 per cent increase from 2010-2011. There are significant gender disparities and differences between rural and urban areas. The combined federal/provincial budgetary allocation to education is the lowest in South Asia, at 2 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

If Pakistan is to provide all children between five and sixteen free and compulsory education, as its law requires, it must reform a system marred by teacher absenteeism, poorly maintained or “ghost schools” that exist only on paper and a curriculum that encourages intolerance and fails to produce citizens who are competitive in the job market. Private schools, increasing largely in response to these shortcomings, account for 26 per cent of enrolment in rural areas and 59 per cent in urban centres but vary greatly in methodology, tuition and teacher qualifications.

The eighteenth constitutional amendment devolved legislative and executive authority over education to the provinces to make it more responsive to local needs. Given the scale of those needs, donors and the private sector must be key partners, but provincial governments need to become the principal drivers of reform. They should reverse decades of neglect by giving government-run schools adequate materials and basic facilities such as boundary walls and toilets. They should also tackle teacher absenteeism and curb nepotism and corruption in appointments, postings and transfers.

To counter the challenge from the private schools, and madrasas and religious schools of Islamic parties and foundations that fill the gaps of a dilapidated public education sector but contribute to religious extremism and sectarian violence, the state will have to do far more than just increase the numbers of schools and teachers. Curriculum reform is essential and overdue. Provincial governments must ensure that textbooks and teachers no longer convey an intolerant religious discourse and a distorted narrative, based on hatred of imagined enemies, local and foreign.

Islamabad/Brussels, 23 June 2014

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Educational inequality in Pakistan: Causes and Solutions

  • Economic factors: Poverty is one of the biggest barriers to education in Pakistan. Children from low-income families often lack access to basic necessities like food, shelter, and healthcare, which makes it difficult for them to attend school regularly. Families may also need their children to work to support the household, which further limits their ability to attend school.
  • Gender inequality: In Pakistan, girls face significant barriers to education. They are often discouraged from attending school due to cultural norms that prioritize marriage and household responsibilities over education. Girls also face safety concerns while travelling to and from school, as well as while at school.
  • Inadequate infrastructure: Many schools in Pakistan lack basic infrastructure like safe and clean classrooms, toilets, and drinking water facilities. The lack of infrastructure makes it difficult for students to attend school regularly and affects their ability to learn.
  • Poor quality of education: The quality of education in Pakistan is generally poor, particularly in rural areas. Schools may lack qualified teachers, appropriate teaching materials, and a suitable learning environment. This can affect student learning outcomes and contribute to the high dropout rate.
  • Regional disparities: Education inequality is more pronounced in certain regions of Pakistan, particularly in rural and remote areas. These regions often lack basic infrastructure, qualified teachers, and adequate funding for schools, which makes it difficult for students to attend school regularly and achieve good learning outcomes.
  • Lack of government funding: Pakistan’s education sector is underfunded, with limited investment in improving educational infrastructure, providing teacher training, and promoting access to education for all. The lack of funding limits the government’s ability to improve the education system and reduce educational inequality.

Solutions to Educational inequality in Pakistan

Increase funding for education:, improve quality of education:, provide scholarships and financial assistance:, address gender inequality:, develop vocational education:, improve access to technology:, provide safe learning environments:.

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How youth can play vital role in solving Pakistan’s education problems

Global youth ambassador.

16 Jul 2014

A World at School Global Youth Ambassador Mitharam Parmar moderated the North Sindh Regional Youth Conference in Pakistan. Here is an edited version of his report.

INTRODUCTION

Pakistan – a country with lots of social issues like low-quality education, poor governance, lack of awareness among the masses, lack of opportunities, violation of rights and many others.

It should have a bright future because youth makes up more than 67% of the population of Pakistan. But if that potential isn’t used and channeled effectively, there will be nothing to gain and much to lose.

The first major challenge is low access to education. Seven million children are missing out on primary education in Pakistan, enrollment in secondary schools stands at a mere 23% and only 5% of Pakistanis make it to university. According to research, 50% of rural school children cannot read a sentence.

Young people need to get organised regarding the social issues in which they can play a positive role.

THE CONFERENCE

Voice of New Generation (VNG), with the support of the Center for Research, Advocacy and Democracy, Civil Society Support Program, Strengthening Participatory Organisation and other civil society organisations, held a one-day North Sindh Regional Youth Conference on “Peace, Development and Cultural Diversity” at the Institute for Business Administration Sukkur.

It was attended by 250 youth and 50 civil society activists, media, academia and political activists from around the region.

  • Gathered youth (individuals & groups) and senior fellows at one point
  • Built capacity of youth to understand the Peace, Development and Cultural Diversity theme
  • Made youth aware of their role towards peace and development of their areas
  • Provided exposure to the urban world for rural youth through participation in conference

MAJOR SESSIONS

  • Cultural Diversity in North Sindh; an introduction
  • Cultural Diversity in historical perspective
  • Role of Youth for Cultural Diversity, Peace and Development
  • Peace promotion through Education
  • Educational Policies, Gaps and Way Forward

Mitharam Parmar, Global Youth Ambassador at A World at School and former Executive Director of Voice of New Generation, moderated the conference. He also facilitated the session called “Role of Youth for Cultural Diversity, Peace and Development”.

He shared that youth has no real platform where they can be aware of  their positive role in social change. Youth are energetic and committed to social change but they need a proper road map.

He suggested youth take on board these major points:

  • Just take a step
  • Raise and spread awareness
  • Educate the masses
  • Believe in yourself

The Peace Promotion through Education session called upon the non-governmental organisations to introduce their initiative for education around north sindh and other part of whole country.

The leading civil society group Strengthening Participatory Organisation shared about the project “Engaging Children, youth and communities for the promotion of social cohesion and resilience (SCR) in Sindh”.

The representatives said they have engaged 5000 out-of-school children in child-friendly spaces and temporary learning centres at Karachi and Jackobabad districts of Sindh. The children are provided with non-formal educational activities and extra activities and are also linked with youth platforms working around Pakistan. 

Khursheed Shah, former Provincial Education Minister and current leader of the opposition in the National Assembly of Pakistan, joined in the session “Educational Policies, Gaps and Way Forward”.

He said the government has great focus on education. He welcomed the input and suggestions by communities and civil society activists and organisations for educational improvements.

the Education Commission

the Education Commission

Overcoming the challenges to improving education in pakistan.

Aug 10, 2016 | Updates | 1 comment

Overcoming the challenges to improving education in Pakistan

Consultation Findings: Pakistan Coalition for Education

In April, the Pakistan Coalition for Education (PCE) hosted a consultation to discuss the challenges of education financing. This specific issue was selected as the topic of discussion for the consultation given government funding to education is extremely low in Pakistan at around 2 percent of the country’s GDP.  With the release of the country’s national budget just around the corner, education financing was a pertinent issue to discuss with representatives from civil society, legislators, government officials and representatives from the Ministry of Education.

There are several challenges facing Pakistan’s education sector starting with the fact that there is not enough investment in education. The answer to why education is not a funding priority in Pakistan lies in the simple reality that most people in our country are not aware of all the long-term benefits of receiving a quality education. The lack of quality education in Pakistan has left citizens deprived of knowledge and understanding. This has become a compounding problem in the country as parents that are uneducated don’t see how education leads to enormous positive psychological impacts, social growth and economic empowerment.

Education in developing countries is one of the most neglected sectors. Many developing national governments, including Pakistan’s, fail to realize that ensuring all youth and children receive a quality education is critical to a country’s socioeconomic development and economic growth. As a result, the lack of funding for education creates major problems in Pakistan, such as poor quality teaching and learning, unequal access to education, and low levels of school enrollment and attendance.

Aside from budgetary constraints, one of the biggest obstacles inhibiting Pakistan from achieving quality education for all is the lack of trained and competent teachers. In government schools across Pakistan, it is common practice that teachers are not hired through meritocratic standards, but rather are elected through political appointments or hired through nepotism.

When it comes to improving the quality of education in developing countries, political will is the most important factor–even more so than budgetary constraints. Political will lies at the heart of the issue and if motivation is needed to change the status quo, it must come from the highest levels. Historically, the Pakistani government has not had the political will to focus on assessing education indicators and outcomes. Instead, it has focused most of its attention on keeping the country safe from internal and external threats. From border skirmishes and nuclear threats, most of the political will in Pakistan is geared towards building up the country’s military and defense system, which explains the large budgetary allocations to defense in contrast to funding for education. Since the inception of Pakistan, each government has pushed their own respective agendas forward, each more aggressive than the last. However, no government has reformed education to make it more accessible. Unfortunately, the lack of political will to prioritize education at the highest levels of government in Pakistan flows to lower provincial and district levels. As a consequence, schools in Pakistan often have low levels of learning, and poor academic performance and educational outcomes. Other obstacles that schools often face are the lack of security systems and basic facilities.

In order to address these problems, there needs to be a focus on transparency, accountability and monitoring systems. There also is a need to engage the general public in the budget-making processes so that the demands of the community and civil society are listened to by policymakers. The government cannot work in silos and it is essential that linkages with the relevant departments are established to initiate greater policy change.

As a nation, we have not prioritized education as a catalyst for growth, instead it has often been sidelined by other national priorities. During the consultation, participants agreed that improving education in Pakistan will require the following strategies:

  • Implementation of the right to education across Pakistan.
  • Government must increase the education budget to 4 percent of GDP and education reforms must be aligned with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
  • Equity in education must be ensured by making provincial and national governments accountable for providing minimum standards in public schools for disadvantaged groups.
  • Education should be linked with other development sectors such as climate change, poverty reduction and economic growth to have a holistic approach to sustainable growth and development in Pakistan.

Nashwa Shaklee is a Program Coordinator at the Pakistan Coalition for Education. 

David Watt

An emphasis needs to be given to gender governance issues and outcomes for girls and women in education in Pakistan.

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how to overcome educational problems in pakistan

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Education Policy and Practice in the Global South: Insights from Pakistan

By Mohammad Usama Khawar

The interconnected relationships between education policy, practice, and the lived experiences of those in the Global South forms the core of episode six of CID's  Road to GEM podcast series. With the expertise of Javed Ahmed Malik , Program Director of the Malala Fund in Pakistan, we dive deep into the evolving landscape of education policy, highlighting pivotal shifts and enduring challenges in making quality education accessible to all.

Road to GEM24 Episode 6

Highlights from the Conversation

An economist by training, Malik challenges the prevailing reliance on empirical research methods such as randomized control trials (RCTs) when evaluating education policy. While acknowledging the importance of evidence and data, he critiques these methodologies and their narrow focus for sometimes “missing the forest for the trees.” Malik underscores the importance of understanding educational reforms within their full social, cultural, and political contexts—a reminder that data should inform rather than dictate policy. 

During the conversation, Malik critiques supply-side interventions in education. Despite significant investments, there remains a persistent gap in educational quality and access, particularly in rural and underprivileged areas. Malik shares compelling evidence from the Malala Fund's initiatives, which prove to him that demand for education is not the issue; rather, it's the lack of functional schools and qualified teachers. His insights shed light on the urgent need for systemic improvements, from hiring practices to teacher training, to ensure that every school can deliver on the promise of providing a quality education to all students.

Malik addresses the high dropout rates in Pakistan and similar countries, attributing them to systemic failures rather than a lack of desire for education. His advocacy for a more holistic approach to education reform, emphasizing the quality of learning and the empowerment of educators, is a powerful call-to-action. The success stories he shares from his work illustrate the transformative potential of well-implemented education policies that genuinely meet the needs of communities.

Central to our discussion is the critique of the international development sector's approach to education policy in the Global South. Malik calls for a shift from centralized decision-making towards greater localization and responsiveness to the needs of the communities served. He argues for development practices that prioritize agility, relevance, and the leveraging of local expertise, challenging the sector to adopt a more nuanced and effective approach to supporting education globally.

As we look towards the future, the conversation underscores the importance of gender equity in education. Malik passionately advocates for targeted efforts to support girls' education, highlighting the compound benefits of such initiatives on societal well-being and economic development. His vision for a future where gender takes center stage in international development is both inspiring and pragmatic, emphasizing the need for representation, inclusion, and empowerment at all levels of policy and practice.

This episode of Road to GEM offers invaluable insights for anyone interested in the nexus of education, policy, and international development. Malik's expertise and experiences remind us that effective education policy is not just about building schools or hiring teachers; it's about creating systems that are equitable, inclusive, and responsive to the needs of every child. As we continue our journey towards global empowerment, let these insights guide our efforts to craft education policies that truly make a difference in the lives of those in the Global South and beyond.

Listen to the Episode

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Education system in Pakistan: Key issues, problems and future challenges

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This paper reviews the current key issues and problems in the education system of Pakistan that pose a challenge for the future growth of the country. The paper uses documentary analysis as the research methodology for data collection. The paper attempts to understand which factors have contributed to the downfall of Pakistani education system. The first part of the paper explains how the system is operated by the government. Moving on, the problems be them external or internal in nature are highlighted and it is delineated how these problems have contributed to greater social demise. The paper further looks into some solutions to the problems aforementioned and urges the government to contribute in due diligence what is required to the education system.

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This research paper examines the impact of ethnic identity based politics on education in Pakistan through in-depth interviews with young professionals from Balochistan and Punjab. Findings suggest that there is the Punjabi-dominated power structure results in an unequal allocation of financial resources, whereby Balochistan lacks the financial resources to invest in education development. In addition, political instability caused by unprecedented ethnic strife contributes towards poor quality education, which, as a result, adversely impacts a Balochi's future course of life. On the other hand, Punjabis are at an advantage in the public arena because of their robust educational foundation.

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English Language Teachers and Trained Teachers in Pakistan: Ground Realities, Discernments and Practices

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The purpose of this descriptive analysis is to evaluate international profile of language teachers‟ training programs, their significance, effectiveness and the ground realities of Pakistan in mentioned areas. The study describes the European standards of language teachers and their training necessities, the problems that are faced by Pakistani English Language Learners, the ground realities related to the phenomenon of English Language teaching, the need for the affective language teachers training and some recommendations and suggestions in this regard. It is suggested to the concerned authorities to invest sufficient capital to facilitate the process of teaching and learning English language. It is strongly advised to take valiant decisions in order to improve the quality of English language teaching and learning in Pakistan. Sustained teachers‟ training programs are one of the most effective stratagems in the present scenario because those who dare to teach must never cease learning.

Muhammad Abid Malik

Education system in Pakistan is complex. Unlike most of the other education systems in the world which can easily be divided on the basis of urban and rural, or public and private; Pakistan also has parallel education systems with their own distinctive, sometimes contrasting curriculum, teaching methodologies, examination systems, education culture and boards/ organizations that regulate and conduct exams in them. Although there are many, the most important ones are government boards affiliated (leading to SSC- Secondary School Certificate- and HSSC- Higher Secondary School Certificate), deeni madaris/ religious schools (either working independently or controlled by independent boards/ waqfs) and British Council affiliated schools (leading to GCE- General Certificate of Education/ GCSE -General Certificate of Secondary Education). Although many other countries in the world also have parallel education systems, their numbers and influence is not as high as in Pakistan. The presence of these systems also causes confusions in the findings of the research as the findings of one education system is taken as the finding of all. In some cases, the data is also mixed, causing confusions with findings. This papers looks at the parallel education systems in Pakistan, their spread, characteristics, merits and demerits. It also looks at the possible challenges and confusions that such education systems can cause in educatin research. It also suggests ways to help overcome the challenges.

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  1. Education System of Pakistan: Issues, Problems and Solutions

    The education system of Pakistan is comprised of 260,903 institutions and is facilitating 41,018,384 students with the help of 1,535,461 teachers. The system includes 180,846 public institutions and 80,057 private institutions. Hence 31% educational institutes are run by private sector while 69% are public institutes. Analysis of education ...

  2. Pakistan Education: Challenges, Problems & Solutions

    In Pakistan, a robust education system is vital for addressing pervasive issues such as poverty, unemployment, and social inequality. 1.3 Scope of the Article This article aims to dissect the challenges plaguing Pakistan's education system , analyze their root causes, and present viable solutions for a brighter future.

  3. Education in Pakistan: problems, challenges and their solution

    Further to this, one of the major issues confronting Pakistan's education industry is a lack of proper resources. According to UNICEF, the country has one of the world's lowest education expenditures, with only 2.8 percent of GDP dedicated to education in 2022. Due to a lack of financing, poor facilities, obsolete curricula, and ...

  4. Smart Solutions to Improve Pakistan's Education

    This first digital system in the education sector in Pakistan allows transparent and effective monitoring of staff, students and school infrastructure. More than 210,000 teaching and non-teaching staff have been profiled using biometric information, covering more than 26,200 schools. Grade seven in the Qureshi Government Boys Secondary School ...

  5. Strengthening the fight against Pakistan's learning crisis

    A much larger effort is needed to resolve this crisis. We calculate that Pakistan's economy stands to lose between $67 -155 billion if learning losses are as large as we predict. These numbers are not some abstraction. This economic loss is equivalent to government spending on education in the past two to five years.

  6. Facing the Challenges of Girls' Education in Pakistan

    Challenge 1: 12 million girls out of school. About 2 million more girls than boys are out of school in Pakistan-or about 12 million girls in total—and account for most of the out-of-school population in Pakistan. Estimates of the number of out-of-school children in Pakistan range from 20.3 to 22.1 million children. Solutions.

  7. Education in Pakistan: problems, challenges and perspectives

    However, the reality is vastly different. The literacy rate in Pakistan in 2021 was only 62.8%. Any gains in literacy rates over the last many years have been small, slow and marginal. In 2021-22, we spent only 1.77% of GDP on education-related expenditure at both the federal and provincial levels.

  8. Educational inequality in Pakistan: Causes and Solutions

    Pakistan is facing significant challenges in achieving educational equality due to various factors. Some of the main causes of educational inequality in Pakistan are: Economic factors: Poverty is one of the biggest barriers to education in Pakistan. Children from low-income families often lack access to basic necessities like food, shelter, and ...

  9. Single National Curriculum & Educational Disparities in Pakistan

    Pakistan's recently-introduced Single National Curriculum for schools across the country promises uniform educational attainment for her children, but as Maryam Naqvi argues, there are several impediments to equal outcomes for children via education in Pakistan and only a multi-pronged, composite strategy can hope to overcome Pakistan's complex problems in the education sector.

  10. Pakistan's Education Crisis: The Real Story (Report)

    The report argues, however, that Pakistan must spend better, not simply spend more, in order to ease and ultimately solve its education crisis. Nadia Naviwala, the report's author and a Wilson Center public policy fellow, highlights myths about Pakistan's education budget and foreign aid; and compares how foreign donors and local leaders have ...

  11. Education Reform in Pakistan

    Executive Summary. In April 2010, the eighteenth constitutional amendment committed Pakistan to free and compulsory education for all children between the ages of five and sixteen. Yet, millions are still out of school, and the education system remains alarmingly impoverished. The madrasa (religious school) sector flourishes, with no meaningful ...

  12. Educational inequality in Pakistan: Causes and Solutions

    Pakistan is facing significant challenges in achieving educational equality due to various factors. Some of the main causes of educational inequality in Pakistan are: Economic factors: Poverty is one of the biggest barriers to education in Pakistan. Children from low-income families often lack access to basic necessities like food, shelter, and ...

  13. PDF Education System Reform in Pakistan: Why, When, and How?

    In primary schools, the student/teacher ratio is roughly 40:1, about the same as in Bangladesh and India, though much higher than Indonesia's 16:1. In secondary schools, Pakistan's relative position is worse, with a ratio of roughly 40:1, as compared with about 30:1 in Bangladesh, 25:1 in India, and 15:1 in Indonesia.

  14. PDF Critical Analysis of the Problems of Education in Pakistan: Possible

    Education has been treated like a step child. The lowest budget has been awarded to the system of education since the establishment of Pakistan which has weakened the foundation of the quality in the education system. The education system, hence, has failed to raise the nation economically, politically and socially.

  15. How youth can play vital role in solving Pakistan's education problems

    The first major challenge is low access to education. Seven million children are missing out on primary education in Pakistan, enrollment in secondary schools stands at a mere 23% and only 5% of Pakistanis make it to university. According to research, 50% of rural school children cannot read a sentence. Young people need to get organised ...

  16. Overcoming the challenges to improving education in Pakistan

    Consultation Findings: Pakistan Coalition for Education. In April, the Pakistan Coalition for Education (PCE) hosted a consultation to discuss the challenges of education financing. This specific issue was selected as the topic of discussion for the consultation given government funding to education is extremely low in Pakistan at around 2 ...

  17. Education in Pakistan: Issues & Solutions 2022

    Education in Pak istan: Issues & Solutions. 2022. Shaharyar Ali Kalhoro. Abstract: This research paper will de lve into the issues a nd so lutions in Pakistan's education system from. the ...

  18. Education reforms and democracy in Pakistan: the problem of

    This presents challenges to democratic futures, and particularly for young democratic states such as Pakistan. The government of Pakistan is pouring a significant amount of money into the private provision of education, encouraged by the policies and investments of international donor-partners such as the World Bank and Asian Development Bank.

  19. (PDF) Education in Pakistan: The key issues, problems and the new

    This paper reviews the current key issues and problems in the education system of Pakistan that pose a challenge for the future growth of the country. The paper uses documentary analysis as the research methodology for data collection. The paper attempts to understand which factors have contributed to the downfall of Pakistani education system.

  20. Education Policy and Practice in the Global South: Insights from Pakistan

    The interconnected relationships between education policy, practice, and the lived experiences of those in the Global South forms the core of episode six of CID's Road to GEM podcast series. With the expertise of Javed Ahmed Malik, Program Director of the Malala Fund in Pakistan, we dive deep into the evolving landscape of education policy, highlighting pivotal shifts and enduring challenges ...

  21. Education in Pakistan: Problems and Their Solutions

    View PDF. Research Paper Education in Pakistan: Problems and Their Solutions Paper written by: Bilal Yousaf Roll No: PS-10-21 PS B.S Political Science (2010-2014) (2010 Submitted To: Nadeem A. Qureshi Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Government Postgraduate College No. 1, Abbottabad.

  22. (PDF) Education system in Pakistan: Key issues, problems and future

    Running head: EDUCATION SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN: ISSUES & CHALLENGES Education system in Pakistan: Key issues, problems and future challenges. Maira Asif University of Management and Technology, Lahore 1 EDUCATION SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN: ISSUES & CHALLENGES 2 Abstract This paper reviews the current key issues and problems in the education system of Pakistan that pose a challenge for the future growth ...

  23. Women Education in Pakistan: Challenges and Opportunities

    Conclusion: women's education in Pakistan faces numerous challenges, including. cultural norms, poverty, and lac k of educational facilities. However, opportunities such. as govern ment ...

  24. PDF Teacher education in Pakistan: Issues and problems

    the enrolment of 5,171 (1%) are in private institutions. Out of the total institutions, 50 (24%) institutions are for male, 41(10%) institutions are for female and 115(56%) institutions are with. co-education. Female students accounted for about 34% to all students enrolled in teacher. training institutions.

  25. 250,000 Afghan children need education, food and homes after returning

    AP. ISLAMABAD (AP) — A quarter of a million Afghan children need education, food and homes after being forcibly returned from Pakistan, a nongovernmental organization said Thursday. Pakistan is ...