Self-Reflection on Course Participation Essay (Critical Writing)

All-over class participation, listening and reading skills, class preparation, quality of contribution, impact on seminar, frequency of participation.

Participation in class discussions and online activities is important in any learning endeavor because it promotes effective learning activities, stimulates creativity, and instills confidence. Active contribution to discussions is a reflection of competency of the skills I have gained in class. This paper provides a self-reflection on course participation concerning various learning elements.

I participated adequately in class and online discussions (High rating). I only missed one out of the 12 on-campus sessions. However, my contribution to the attended sessions was up to the recommended standards. I stuck to the objectives of the course throughout the sessions. Consequently, I posed questions meant to complement the learning objectives to engage my classmates during discussions (Akkaya & Demirel, 2012). I avoided using ‘leading questions’ that could otherwise prompt the answers and in so doing enhanced critical thinking and creativity. I also avoided asking ambiguous questions that could lead to unnecessary discussions and wastage of time (Etemadzadeh, Seifi, & Far, 2013). I tried my best to provide precise answers and made a habit of giving other students a chance to speak without interruption.

Listening and reading are important in grasping and mastering the course content. Listening requires focus and concentration with the ability to analyze different situations critically while reading requires internal listening. Therefore, poor listening and reading skills are indicators of failure. Throughout the course, I demonstrated an interest in my peers’ and instructors’ contributions. During the class sessions, I used keywords to note down the ideas presented by others. I also strived to make eye contact with my audience during discussions.

I prepared for class by completing required readings (High rating). Before every class and online session, I read ahead on the topic to be discussed as suggested by Ding, Kim, and Orey (2017). The designated course readings were useful in this regard. I found that this approach prepared me for the discussions because the preparation helped me to anticipate various questions on the discussion topics.

Though I made significant contributions to the class, I was not able to answer all questions posed to me as comprehensively as I had wished, which indicated that my preparation was not as thorough as I thought. I had small problems in linking some of the readings to the discussion. These problems may have been caused by internal interferences such as mental state and nervousness (Staveley-O’Carrol, 2015). Nevertheless, most of my answers were accurate. Therefore, I rate myself as high in this aspect.

My contributions were useful in stimulating new ideas and setting the base to recognize the strengths of other people. Therefore, I grade myself in the high category in this aspect. The use of real-life examples and happenings in the contemporary world helped me to deliver my sentiments effectively (Bosangit & Demangeot, 2012).

Maintaining consistency in schoolwork requires frequent participation in class. The frequency of participation is also an indication of classroom attendance because it is impossible to participate in a class where one is conspicuously absent (Heaslip, Board, Duckworth, & Thomas, 2017). Frequent participation also encourages other students to be active participants in the class. I rate my frequency of participation as high because I attended all class sessions except one.

In conclusion, I rate myself in the medium category for all the aspects of class participation. However, I rate my participation in group activities and all other categories as high. Overall, my performance was good because this was my first semester even though I aim for a score of 10 come next semester. This reflection has helped me to identify my strengths and weaknesses, which will help me perform better in the coming semester.

Akkaya, N., & Demirel, M. V. (2012). Teacher candidates’ use of questioning skills in during-reading and post-reading strategies. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences , 46 , 4301-4305. Web.

Bosangit, C., & Demangeot, C. (2016). Exploring reflective learning during the extended consumption of life experiences. Journal of Business Research , 69 (1), 208-215. Web.

Ding, L., Kim, C., & Orey, M. (2017). Studies of student engagement in gamified online discussions. Computers & Education , 115 , 126-142. Web.

Etemadzadeh, A., Seifi, S., & Far, H. R. (2013). The role of questioning technique in developing thinking skills: The ongoing effect on writing skill. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences , 70 , 1024-1031. Web.

Heaslip, V., Board, M., Duckworth, V., & Thomas, L. (2017). Widening participation in nurse education: An integrative literature review. Nurse Education Today , 59 , 66-74. Web.

Staveley-O’Carrol, J. (2015). International Review of Economics Education , 20 , 46-58. Web.

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How to Write a Self Evaluation (With Examples)

class contribution self evaluation essay

Self evaluations are performance assessments that bring you and your manager together to rate your performance over a given time span (quarterly, semi-annually, annually) either using a scale (one to 10 or one to five) or by answering open-ended questions. You complete the evaluation and so does your manager. During the performance review , the two of you compare notes to arrive at a final evaluation.

What Is a Self Evaluation?

Self evaluations are performance assessments that both employees and managers complete. They can be done quarterly, semi-annually or annually, and range from open-ended questions discussed to ratings given on a numeric scale.

Writing about yourself, especially if those words are going to be part of your permanent work record, can be daunting. But it doesn’t have to be. In fact, self evaluations give you a voice in your performance review , and they’re opportunities to outline your career goals and get help in reaching them.

Below, we’ll examine self evaluation benefits, tips and examples, plus how both employees and managers can complete them successfully.

More on Self Evaluations Self-Evaluations Make Stronger Leaders. Here’s How to Write One.

Benefits of Self Evaluations 

Benefits of employee self evaluations include:  

1. Help Employees and Managers Prepare for Performance Reviews

Completing a self evaluation can help guide the eventual performance-review conversation in a structured, but meaningful, way. It also helps both parties get an idea of what needs to be discussed during a performance review, so neither feels caught off guard by the conversation.

2. Give Employees an Opportunity to Reflect on Their Progress

Since self evaluations are inherently reflective, they allow employees to identify and examine their strengths and weaknesses. This helps employees both know their worth to an organization and what they still have left to learn. 

“Self evaluations enable employees to see their work in its entirety,” Jill Bowman, director of people at fintech company Octane , said. “They ensure that employees reflect on their high points throughout the entire year and to assess their progress towards achieving predetermined objectives and goals.” 

3. Help Managers Track Employee Accomplishments

Employee self assessments help managers more accurately remember each employee’s accomplishments. “As many managers often have numerous direct reports, it provides a useful summary of the achievements of each member,” Bowman said. 

4. Improve Employee Satisfaction

Academic literature indicates that employees are more satisfied with evaluations that involve two-way communication and encourage a conversation between manager and employee, according to Thomas Begley, professor of management at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute . 

The thing is, employees have to trust that the process is fair, Begley added. If they believe it is, and they’re treated fairly and respectfully during the process, employees react positively to self evaluations.

5. Can Decrease Employee Turnover

Some companies see tangible results from self evaluations. For example, Smarty , an address-verification company, enjoys low staff turnover, said Rob Green, chief revenue officer. The self-evaluation method, coupled with a strong focus on a communication-based corporate culture, has resulted in a 97 percent retention rate, Green told Built In.

Related 6 Ways to Be More Confident in Performance Reviews

How to Write a Self Evaluation

The ability to write a self evaluation is a critical career skill.

“Self evaluations give you a platform to influence your manager and in many cases, reframe the nature of the relationship with your manager,” Richard Hawkes, CEO and founder of Growth River , a leadership and management consulting company, said. “And all results in business happen in the context of relationships.”

Below are some tips on how to complete a self evaluation.  

1. Track Your Work and Accomplishments

Daily or weekly tracking of your work can help you keep track of your progress and also prevent last-minute “what on earth did I do the last six months?” panic at performance evaluation time, said Peter Griscom, CEO at Tradefluence . “Strip down the questions to two or three, and just ask yourself, ‘How well did I communicate today?’ ‘How well did I solve problems today?’ ‘What have I achieved today?’” Griscom said. “Get in the habit of writing those things out and keeping track and over time.”

2. Answer Honestly  

For his first self evaluation, Griscom remembers wondering how to best answer the questions. After he asked his manager for guidance, Griscom answered the questions as accurately as he could. “What came out of it was really valuable, because it gave me a chance to reflect on my own achievements and think about where I can improve,” he said. “It forced me to do the thinking instead of just accepting feedback.”  

3. Highlight Your Achievements

If your boss has a handful of direct reports, chances are good they haven’t noticed each of your shining moments during a review period. This is your chance to spotlight yourself. Quotas exceeded, projects finished ahead of schedule, fruitful mentoring relationships, processes streamlined — whatever you’ve done, share it, and don’t be shy about it, said Alexandra Phillips , a leadership and management coach. Women, especially, tend not to share achievements and accomplishments as loudly or often as they should. “Make sure your manager has a good sense of where you’ve had those wins, large and small, because sometimes they can fly under the radar,” Phillips added.

Related What Are Short-Term Career Goals? (With 12 Examples)

4. Admit Weaknesses and How You Have Grown 

If you’ve made a whopper mistake since your past review, mention it — and be sure to discuss what you’ve learned from it. Chances are good your manager knows you made a mistake, and bringing it up gives you the opportunity to provide more context to the situation.

5. Acknowledge Areas of Improvement

Be prepared for your manager to point out a few areas for improvement. This is where career growth happens. “If you want something,” whether it’s a promotion or move to another department, “you need to know how to get there,” said Phillips.

Related Long-Term Career Goals: How to Set a Successful Development Plan

Self Evaluation Examples and Templates Answers

Still not sure what to do when you put pen to paper? Here are six open-ended self evaluation sample questions from the Society for Human Resource Management, as well as example answers you can use to prepare for your own self evaluation.  

Job Performance Examples

List your most significant accomplishments or contributions since last year. How do these achievements align with the goals/objectives outlined in your last review?

How to answer with positive results: In the past year, I successfully led our team in finishing [project A]. I was instrumental in finding solutions to several project challenges, among them [X, Y and Z]. When Tom left the company unexpectedly, I was able to cover his basic tasks until a replacement was hired, thus keeping our team on track to meet KPIs. 

I feel the above accomplishments demonstrate that I have taken more of a leadership role in our department, a move that we discussed during my last performance review.

How to answer with ways to improve: Although I didn’t meet all of my goals in the last year, I am working on improving this by changing my workflow and holding myself accountable. I am currently working to meet my goals by doing [X, Y and Z] and I plan to have [project A] completed by [steps here]. I believe that I will be able to correct my performance through these actionable steps. 

Describe areas you feel require improvement in terms of your professional capabilities. List the steps you plan to take and/or the resources you need to accomplish this.

I feel I could do better at moving projects off my desk and on to the next person without overthinking them or sweating details that are not mine to sweat; in this regard I could trust my teammates more. I plan to enlist your help with this and ask for a weekly 15-minute one-on-one meeting to do so.

Identify two career goals for the coming year and indicate how you plan to accomplish them.

One is a promotion to senior project manager, which I plan to reach by continuing to show leadership skills on the team. Another is that I’d like to be seen as a real resource for the organization, and plan to volunteer for the committee to update the standards and practices handbook.  

Leadership Examples

Since the last appraisal period, have you successfully performed any new tasks or additional duties outside the scope of your regular responsibilities? If so, please specify.

How to answer with positive results: Yes. I have established mentoring relationships with one of the younger members of our team, as well as with a more seasoned person in another department. I have also successfully taken over the monthly all-hands meeting in our team, trimming meeting time to 30 minutes from an hour and establishing clear agendas and expectations for each meeting. Again, I feel these align with my goal to become more of a leader.

How to answer with ways to improve: Since the last review period, I focused my efforts on improving my communication with our team, meeting my goals consistently and fostering relationships with leaders in other departments. Over the next six months, I plan on breaking out of my comfort zone by accomplishing [X, Y and Z]. 

What activities have you initiated, or actively participated in, to encourage camaraderie and teamwork within your group and/or office? What was the result?

How to answer with positive results: I launched the “No More Panicked Mondays” program to help on-site and remote colleagues make Mondays more productive. The initiative includes segmenting the day into 25-minute parts to answer emails, get caught up on direct messages, sketch out to-do lists and otherwise plan for the week ahead. NMPM also includes a 15-minute “Weekend Update” around lunch time, during which staff shares weekend activities. Attendance was slow at first but has picked up to nearly 90 percent participation. The result overall for the initiative is more of the team signs on to direct messages earlier in the day, on average 9:15 a.m. instead of the previous 10 a.m., and anecdotally, the team seems more enthusiastic about the week. I plan to conduct a survey later this month to get team input on how we can change up the initiative.

How to answer with ways to improve: Although I haven’t had the chance to lead any new initiatives since I got hired, I recently had an idea for [A] and wanted to run it by you. Do you think this would be beneficial to our team? I would love to take charge of a program like this. 

Professional Development Examples

Describe your professional development activities since last year, such as offsite seminars/classes (specify if self-directed or required by your supervisor), onsite training, peer training, management coaching or mentoring, on-the-job experience, exposure to challenging projects, other—please describe.

How to answer with positive results: I completed a class on SEO best practices and shared what I learned from the seminar during a lunch-and-learn with my teammates. I took on a pro-bono website development project for a local nonprofit, which gave me a new look at website challenges for different types of organizations. I also, as mentioned above, started two new mentoring relationships.

How to answer with ways to improve: This is something I have been thinking about but would like a little guidance with. I would love to hear what others have done in the past to help me find my footing. I am eager to learn more about [A] and [B] and would like to hear your thoughts on which courses or seminars you might recommend. 

Related How to Find the Right Mentor — and How to Be One

Types of Self Evaluations

Self evaluations can include rating scale questions, open-ended questions or a hybrid of both. Each approach has its own set of pros and cons to consider.  


Rating scale self evaluations give a list of statements where employees are asked to rate themselves on a scale of one to five or one to ten (generally the higher the number, the more favorable the rating). 

For example, in Smarty’s self evaluations, it uses a tool called 3A+. This one calls for employees and managers to sit down and complete the evaluation together, at the same time. Employees rate themselves from 3, 2 or 1 (three being the best) on their capability in their role; A, B or C on their helpfulness to others, and plus or minus on their “diligence and focus” in their role. Managers rate the employees using the same scale. A “perfect” score would be 3A+, while an underperforming employee would rate 2B-.

At the performance evaluation meeting, managers and employees compare their ratings, and employees ask for feedback on how they can improve.

But rating systems can have their challenges that are often rooted in bias . For example, women are more likely to rate themselves lower than men. People from individualistic cultures, which emphasize individuals over community, will rate themselves higher than people from collectivist cultures, which place a premium on the group rather than the individual.


Open-ended questions ask employees to list their accomplishments, setbacks and goals in writing. The goal of open-ended questions is to get employees thinking deeply about their work and where they need to improve. 

Open-ended questions allow employees a true voice in the process, whereas “self ratings” can sometimes be unfair , Fresia Jackson, lead research people scientist at Culture Amp , said. 

With open-ended questions, employees tend to be more forgiving with themselves, which can be both good and bad. Whatever result open ended questions bring about, they typically offer more fodder for discussion between employees and managers.  


Hybrid self evaluations combine both rating questions and open-ended questions, where employees assess their skills and accomplishments by using a number scale and by answering in writing. This type of self evaluation lets employees provide quantitative and qualitative answers for a more holistic reflection. 

Self-Evaluation Questions for Performance Reviews

If you’ve never done a self evaluation, or if you just need a refresher before your next performance review, looking over some examples of self evaluation questions — like the ones below — can be a helpful starting point.  


  • What are you most proud of?
  • What would you do differently?
  • How have you carried out the company’s mission statement?
  • Where would you like to be a year from now?
  • List your skills and positive attributes.
  • List your accomplishments, especially those that impacted others or moved you toward goals.
  • Think about your mistakes and what you’ve learned from them.
  • What are your opportunities to grow through advancement and/or learning?
  • How do the above tie to your professional goals?


  • What are you interested in working on?
  • What are you working on now?
  • What do you want to learn more about?
  • How can I as your manager better support you?
  • What can the company do to support your journey?
  • How can the immediate team support you?
  • What can you do to better support the team and the company? 


  • How did you perform in relation to your goals?
  • What level of positive impact did your performance have on the team?
  • Did your performance have a positive impact on the business?
  • What was your level of collaboration with other departments?
  • What corporate value do you bring to life?
  • What corporate value do you most struggle to align with?
  • Summarize your strengths.
  • Summarize your development areas.
  • Summarize your performance/achievements during this year.
  • How would you rate your overall performance this year? 

Related How to Set Professional Goals

How Should Managers Approach Self Evaluations?

It’s clear here that self evaluations, as a type of performance review, are more employee- than manager-driven. That said, managers are a key ingredient in this process, and the way managers handle self evaluations determines much about how useful they are and how well employees respond to them. To make sure they’re as effective as possible, consider these suggestions.  

Train Managers on How to Use Evaluations

“If you don’t, there’s no point in doing them, because the manager is going to be the one driving the conversations,” Elisabeth Duncan, vice president of human resources at Evive, said. “Without training, the [evaluations] will be a checkbox and not meaningful.”

Don’t Use Ratings Formulaically

The results of self evaluations that employ a scale (say, one to five) can vary wildly, as one manager’s three is another manager’s five. Use the scale to identify and address discrepancies between the manager’s and employee’s answers, not to decide on raises or promotions across the company. 

Hold Self Evaluations Often

They work best as career-development tools if they’re held semi-annually, quarterly or even more often. “It’s about an ongoing, consistent conversation,” Duncan said. 

Tailor Them For Each Department

Competencies in sales very likely differ from competencies in tech, marketing and other departments. Competencies for junior-level employees probably differ wildly from those for senior managers. Self evaluations tailored to different employee populations will be more effective, and fairer. 

Stress That the Rating Is Just the Start

The rating or the open-ended questions are the beginning of the evaluation process; they are not the process itself. “These are tools to trigger a conversation,” Duncan said.

Overall, think of self evaluations as a way to engage with your manager and your work in a way that furthers your career. Embrace the self evaluation and get good at writing them. In no time at all, you’ll find that they can be a productive way to reflect on yourself and your skillset. 

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a self evaluation.

A self evaluation is a personal assessment used for employees to reflect on their strengths, weaknesses, accomplishments and overall progress during an allotted time on the job.

Self evaluations are often completed quarterly, semi-annually or annually, and can include numbered rating questions or open-ended written questions.

How do you write a good self evaluation?

An effective self evaluation is one where you highlight your achievements and instances of growth as well as areas for improvement during your given period of time at work. Tracking specific accomplishments and metrics can be especially helpful for writing a good self evaluation.

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Systematic review article, a critical review of research on student self-assessment.

class contribution self evaluation essay

  • Educational Psychology and Methodology, University at Albany, Albany, NY, United States

This article is a review of research on student self-assessment conducted largely between 2013 and 2018. The purpose of the review is to provide an updated overview of theory and research. The treatment of theory involves articulating a refined definition and operationalization of self-assessment. The review of 76 empirical studies offers a critical perspective on what has been investigated, including the relationship between self-assessment and achievement, consistency of self-assessment and others' assessments, student perceptions of self-assessment, and the association between self-assessment and self-regulated learning. An argument is made for less research on consistency and summative self-assessment, and more on the cognitive and affective mechanisms of formative self-assessment.

This review of research on student self-assessment expands on a review published as a chapter in the Cambridge Handbook of Instructional Feedback ( Andrade, 2018 , reprinted with permission). The timespan for the original review was January 2013 to October 2016. A lot of research has been done on the subject since then, including at least two meta-analyses; hence this expanded review, in which I provide an updated overview of theory and research. The treatment of theory presented here involves articulating a refined definition and operationalization of self-assessment through a lens of feedback. My review of the growing body of empirical research offers a critical perspective, in the interest of provoking new investigations into neglected areas.

Defining and Operationalizing Student Self-Assessment

Without exception, reviews of self-assessment ( Sargeant, 2008 ; Brown and Harris, 2013 ; Panadero et al., 2016a ) call for clearer definitions: What is self-assessment, and what is not? This question is surprisingly difficult to answer, as the term self-assessment has been used to describe a diverse range of activities, such as assigning a happy or sad face to a story just told, estimating the number of correct answers on a math test, graphing scores for dart throwing, indicating understanding (or the lack thereof) of a science concept, using a rubric to identify strengths and weaknesses in one's persuasive essay, writing reflective journal entries, and so on. Each of those activities involves some kind of assessment of one's own functioning, but they are so different that distinctions among types of self-assessment are needed. I will draw those distinctions in terms of the purposes of self-assessment which, in turn, determine its features: a classic form-fits-function analysis.

What is Self-Assessment?

Brown and Harris (2013) defined self-assessment in the K-16 context as a “descriptive and evaluative act carried out by the student concerning his or her own work and academic abilities” (p. 368). Panadero et al. (2016a) defined it as a “wide variety of mechanisms and techniques through which students describe (i.e., assess) and possibly assign merit or worth to (i.e., evaluate) the qualities of their own learning processes and products” (p. 804). Referring to physicians, Epstein et al. (2008) defined “concurrent self-assessment” as “ongoing moment-to-moment self-monitoring” (p. 5). Self-monitoring “refers to the ability to notice our own actions, curiosity to examine the effects of those actions, and willingness to use those observations to improve behavior and thinking in the future” (p. 5). Taken together, these definitions include self-assessment of one's abilities, processes , and products —everything but the kitchen sink. This very broad conception might seem unwieldy, but it works because each object of assessment—competence, process, and product—is subject to the influence of feedback from oneself.

What is missing from each of these definitions, however, is the purpose of the act of self-assessment. Their authors might rightly point out that the purpose is implied, but a formal definition requires us to make it plain: Why do we ask students to self-assess? I have long held that self-assessment is feedback ( Andrade, 2010 ), and that the purpose of feedback is to inform adjustments to processes and products that deepen learning and enhance performance; hence the purpose of self-assessment is to generate feedback that promotes learning and improvements in performance. This learning-oriented purpose of self-assessment implies that it should be formative: if there is no opportunity for adjustment and correction, self-assessment is almost pointless.

Why Self-Assess?

Clarity about the purpose of self-assessment allows us to interpret what otherwise appear to be discordant findings from research, which has produced mixed results in terms of both the accuracy of students' self-assessments and their influence on learning and/or performance. I believe the source of the discord can be traced to the different ways in which self-assessment is carried out, such as whether it is summative and formative. This issue will be taken up again in the review of current research that follows this overview. For now, consider a study of the accuracy and validity of summative self-assessment in teacher education conducted by Tejeiro et al. (2012) , which showed that students' self-assigned marks tended to be higher than marks given by professors. All 122 students in the study assigned themselves a grade at the end of their course, but half of the students were told that their self-assigned grade would count toward 5% of their final grade. In both groups, students' self-assessments were higher than grades given by professors, especially for students with “poorer results” (p. 791) and those for whom self-assessment counted toward the final grade. In the group that was told their self-assessments would count toward their final grade, no relationship was found between the professor's and the students' assessments. Tejeiro et al. concluded that, although students' and professor's assessments tend to be highly similar when self-assessment did not count toward final grades, overestimations increased dramatically when students' self-assessments did count. Interviews of students who self-assigned highly discrepant grades revealed (as you might guess) that they were motivated by the desire to obtain the highest possible grades.

Studies like Tejeiro et al's. (2012) are interesting in terms of the information they provide about the relationship between consistency and honesty, but the purpose of the self-assessment, beyond addressing interesting research questions, is unclear. There is no feedback purpose. This is also true for another example of a study of summative self-assessment of competence, during which elementary-school children took the Test of Narrative Language and then were asked to self-evaluate “how you did in making up stories today” by pointing to one of five pictures, from a “very happy face” (rating of five) to a “very sad face” (rating of one) ( Kaderavek et al., 2004 . p. 37). The usual results were reported: Older children and good narrators were more accurate than younger children and poor narrators, and males tended to more frequently overestimate their ability.

Typical of clinical studies of accuracy in self-evaluation, this study rests on a definition and operationalization of self-assessment with no value in terms of instructional feedback. If those children were asked to rate their stories and then revise or, better yet, if they assessed their stories according to clear, developmentally appropriate criteria before revising, the valence of their self-assessments in terms of instructional feedback would skyrocket. I speculate that their accuracy would too. In contrast, studies of formative self-assessment suggest that when the act of self-assessing is given a learning-oriented purpose, students' self-assessments are relatively consistent with those of external evaluators, including professors ( Lopez and Kossack, 2007 ; Barney et al., 2012 ; Leach, 2012 ), teachers ( Bol et al., 2012 ; Chang et al., 2012 , 2013 ), researchers ( Panadero and Romero, 2014 ; Fitzpatrick and Schulz, 2016 ), and expert medical assessors ( Hawkins et al., 2012 ).

My commitment to keeping self-assessment formative is firm. However, Gavin Brown (personal communication, April 2011) reminded me that summative self-assessment exists and we cannot ignore it; any definition of self-assessment must acknowledge and distinguish between formative and summative forms of it. Thus, the taxonomy in Table 1 , which depicts self-assessment as serving formative and/or summative purposes, and focuses on competence, processes, and/or products.

Table 1 . A taxonomy of self-assessment.

Fortunately, a formative view of self-assessment seems to be taking hold in various educational contexts. For instance, Sargeant (2008) noted that all seven authors in a special issue of the Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions “conceptualize self-assessment within a formative, educational perspective, and see it as an activity that draws upon both external and internal data, standards, and resources to inform and make decisions about one's performance” (p. 1). Sargeant also stresses the point that self-assessment should be guided by evaluative criteria: “Multiple external sources can and should inform self-assessment, perhaps most important among them performance standards” (p. 1). Now we are talking about the how of self-assessment, which demands an operationalization of self-assessment practice. Let us examine each object of self-assessment (competence, processes, and/or products) with an eye for what is assessed and why.

What is Self-Assessed?

Monitoring and self-assessing processes are practically synonymous with self-regulated learning (SRL), or at least central components of it such as goal-setting and monitoring, or metacognition. Research on SRL has clearly shown that self-generated feedback on one's approach to learning is associated with academic gains ( Zimmerman and Schunk, 2011 ). Self-assessment of the products , such as papers and presentations, are the easiest to defend as feedback, especially when those self-assessments are grounded in explicit, relevant, evaluative criteria and followed by opportunities to relearn and/or revise ( Andrade, 2010 ).

Including the self-assessment of competence in this definition is a little trickier. I hesitated to include it because of the risk of sneaking in global assessments of one's overall ability, self-esteem, and self-concept (“I'm good enough, I'm smart enough, and doggone it, people like me,” Franken, 1992 ), which do not seem relevant to a discussion of feedback in the context of learning. Research on global self-assessment, or self-perception, is popular in the medical education literature, but even there, scholars have begun to question its usefulness in terms of influencing learning and professional growth (e.g., see Sargeant et al., 2008 ). Eva and Regehr (2008) seem to agree in the following passage, which states the case in a way that makes it worthy of a long quotation:

Self-assessment is often (implicitly or otherwise) conceptualized as a personal, unguided reflection on performance for the purposes of generating an individually derived summary of one's own level of knowledge, skill, and understanding in a particular area. For example, this conceptualization would appear to be the only reasonable basis for studies that fit into what Colliver et al. (2005) has described as the “guess your grade” model of self-assessment research, the results of which form the core foundation for the recurring conclusion that self-assessment is generally poor. This unguided, internally generated construction of self-assessment stands in stark contrast to the model put forward by Boud (1999) , who argued that the phrase self-assessment should not imply an isolated or individualistic activity; it should commonly involve peers, teachers, and other sources of information. The conceptualization of self-assessment as enunciated in Boud's description would appear to involve a process by which one takes personal responsibility for looking outward, explicitly seeking feedback, and information from external sources, then using these externally generated sources of assessment data to direct performance improvements. In this construction, self-assessment is more of a pedagogical strategy than an ability to judge for oneself; it is a habit that one needs to acquire and enact rather than an ability that one needs to master (p. 15).

As in the K-16 context, self-assessment is coming to be seen as having value as much or more so in terms of pedagogy as in assessment ( Silver et al., 2008 ; Brown and Harris, 2014 ). In the end, however, I decided that self-assessing one's competence to successfully learn a particular concept or complete a particular task (which sounds a lot like self-efficacy—more on that later) might be useful feedback because it can inform decisions about how to proceed, such as the amount of time to invest in learning how to play the flute, or whether or not to seek help learning the steps of the jitterbug. An important caveat, however, is that self-assessments of competence are only useful if students have opportunities to do something about their perceived low competence—that is, it serves the purpose of formative feedback for the learner.

How to Self-Assess?

Panadero et al. (2016a) summarized five very different taxonomies of self-assessment and called for the development of a comprehensive typology that considers, among other things, its purpose, the presence or absence of criteria, and the method. In response, I propose the taxonomy depicted in Table 1 , which focuses on the what (competence, process, or product), the why (formative or summative), and the how (methods, including whether or not they include standards, e.g., criteria) of self-assessment. The collections of examples of methods in the table is inexhaustive.

I put the methods in Table 1 where I think they belong, but many of them could be placed in more than one cell. Take self-efficacy , for instance, which is essentially a self-assessment of one's competence to successfully undertake a particular task ( Bandura, 1997 ). Summative judgments of self-efficacy are certainly possible but they seem like a silly thing to do—what is the point, from a learning perspective? Formative self-efficacy judgments, on the other hand, can inform next steps in learning and skill building. There is reason to believe that monitoring and making adjustments to one's self-efficacy (e.g., by setting goals or attributing success to effort) can be productive ( Zimmerman, 2000 ), so I placed self-efficacy in the formative row.

It is important to emphasize that self-efficacy is task-specific, more or less ( Bandura, 1997 ). This taxonomy does not include general, holistic evaluations of one's abilities, for example, “I am good at math.” Global assessment of competence does not provide the leverage, in terms of feedback, that is provided by task-specific assessments of competence, that is, self-efficacy. Eva and Regehr (2008) provided an illustrative example: “We suspect most people are prompted to open a dictionary as a result of encountering a word for which they are uncertain of the meaning rather than out of a broader assessment that their vocabulary could be improved” (p. 16). The exclusion of global evaluations of oneself resonates with research that clearly shows that feedback that focuses on aspects of a task (e.g., “I did not solve most of the algebra problems”) is more effective than feedback that focuses on the self (e.g., “I am bad at math”) ( Kluger and DeNisi, 1996 ; Dweck, 2006 ; Hattie and Timperley, 2007 ). Hence, global self-evaluations of ability or competence do not appear in Table 1 .

Another approach to student self-assessment that could be placed in more than one cell is traffic lights . The term traffic lights refers to asking students to use green, yellow, or red objects (or thumbs up, sideways, or down—anything will do) to indicate whether they think they have good, partial, or little understanding ( Black et al., 2003 ). It would be appropriate for traffic lights to appear in multiple places in Table 1 , depending on how they are used. Traffic lights seem to be most effective at supporting students' reflections on how well they understand a concept or have mastered a skill, which is line with their creators' original intent, so they are categorized as formative self-assessments of one's learning—which sounds like metacognition.

In fact, several of the methods included in Table 1 come from research on metacognition, including self-monitoring , such as checking one's reading comprehension, and self-testing , e.g., checking one's performance on test items. These last two methods have been excluded from some taxonomies of self-assessment (e.g., Boud and Brew, 1995 ) because they do not engage students in explicitly considering relevant standards or criteria. However, new conceptions of self-assessment are grounded in theories of the self- and co-regulation of learning ( Andrade and Brookhart, 2016 ), which includes self-monitoring of learning processes with and without explicit standards.

However, my research favors self-assessment with regard to standards ( Andrade and Boulay, 2003 ; Andrade and Du, 2007 ; Andrade et al., 2008 , 2009 , 2010 ), as does related research by Panadero and his colleagues (see below). I have involved students in self-assessment of stories, essays, or mathematical word problems according to rubrics or checklists with criteria. For example, two studies investigated the relationship between elementary or middle school students' scores on a written assignment and a process that involved them in reading a model paper, co-creating criteria, self-assessing first drafts with a rubric, and revising ( Andrade et al., 2008 , 2010 ). The self-assessment was highly scaffolded: students were asked to underline key phrases in the rubric with colored pencils (e.g., underline “clearly states an opinion” in blue), then underline or circle in their drafts the evidence of having met the standard articulated by the phrase (e.g., his or her opinion) with the same blue pencil. If students found they had not met the standard, they were asked to write themselves a reminder to make improvements when they wrote their final drafts. This process was followed for each criterion on the rubric. There were main effects on scores for every self-assessed criterion on the rubric, suggesting that guided self-assessment according to the co-created criteria helped students produce more effective writing.

Panadero and his colleagues have also done quasi-experimental and experimental research on standards-referenced self-assessment, using rubrics or lists of assessment criteria that are presented in the form of questions ( Panadero et al., 2012 , 2013 , 2014 ; Panadero and Romero, 2014 ). Panadero calls the list of assessment criteria a script because his work is grounded in research on scaffolding (e.g., Kollar et al., 2006 ): I call it a checklist because that is the term used in classroom assessment contexts. Either way, the list provides standards for the task. Here is a script for a written summary that Panadero et al. (2014) used with college students in a psychology class:

• Does my summary transmit the main idea from the text? Is it at the beginning of my summary?

• Are the important ideas also in my summary?

• Have I selected the main ideas from the text to make them explicit in my summary?

• Have I thought about my purpose for the summary? What is my goal?

Taken together, the results of the studies cited above suggest that students who engaged in self-assessment using scripts or rubrics were more self-regulated, as measured by self-report questionnaires and/or think aloud protocols, than were students in the comparison or control groups. Effect sizes were very small to moderate (η 2 = 0.06–0.42), and statistically significant. Most interesting, perhaps, is one study ( Panadero and Romero, 2014 ) that demonstrated an association between rubric-referenced self-assessment activities and all three phases of SRL; forethought, performance, and reflection.

There are surely many other methods of self-assessment to include in Table 1 , as well as interesting conversations to be had about which method goes where and why. In the meantime, I offer the taxonomy in Table 1 as a way to define and operationalize self-assessment in instructional contexts and as a framework for the following overview of current research on the subject.

An Overview of Current Research on Self-Assessment

Several recent reviews of self-assessment are available ( Brown and Harris, 2013 ; Brown et al., 2015 ; Panadero et al., 2017 ), so I will not summarize the entire body of research here. Instead, I chose to take a birds-eye view of the field, with goal of reporting on what has been sufficiently researched and what remains to be done. I used the references lists from reviews, as well as other relevant sources, as a starting point. In order to update the list of sources, I directed two new searches 1 , the first of the ERIC database, and the second of both ERIC and PsychINFO. Both searches included two search terms, “self-assessment” OR “self-evaluation.” Advanced search options had four delimiters: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) January, 2013–October, 2016 and then October 2016–March 2019, (3) English, and (4) full-text. Because the focus was on K-20 educational contexts, sources were excluded if they were about early childhood education or professional development.

The first search yielded 347 hits; the second 1,163. Research that was unrelated to instructional feedback was excluded, such as studies limited to self-estimates of performance before or after taking a test, guesses about whether a test item was answered correctly, and estimates of how many tasks could be completed in a certain amount of time. Although some of the excluded studies might be thought of as useful investigations of self-monitoring, as a group they seemed too unrelated to theories of self-generated feedback to be appropriate for this review. Seventy-six studies were selected for inclusion in Table S1 (Supplementary Material), which also contains a few studies published before 2013 that were not included in key reviews, as well as studies solicited directly from authors.

The Table S1 in the Supplementary Material contains a complete list of studies included in this review, organized by the focus or topic of the study, as well as brief descriptions of each. The “type” column Table S1 (Supplementary Material) indicates whether the study focused on formative or summative self-assessment. This distinction was often difficult to make due to a lack of information. For example, Memis and Seven (2015) frame their study in terms of formative assessment, and note that the purpose of the self-evaluation done by the sixth grade students is to “help students improve their [science] reports” (p. 39), but they do not indicate how the self-assessments were done, nor whether students were given time to revise their reports based on their judgments or supported in making revisions. A sentence or two of explanation about the process of self-assessment in the procedures sections of published studies would be most useful.

Figure 1 graphically represents the number of studies in the four most common topic categories found in the table—achievement, consistency, student perceptions, and SRL. The figure reveals that research on self-assessment is on the rise, with consistency the most popular topic. Of the 76 studies in the table in the appendix, 44 were inquiries into the consistency of students' self-assessments with other judgments (e.g., a test score or teacher's grade). Twenty-five studies investigated the relationship between self-assessment and achievement. Fifteen explored students' perceptions of self-assessment. Twelve studies focused on the association between self-assessment and self-regulated learning. One examined self-efficacy, and two qualitative studies documented the mental processes involved in self-assessment. The sum ( n = 99) of the list of research topics is more than 76 because several studies had multiple foci. In the remainder of this review I examine each topic in turn.

Figure 1 . Topics of self-assessment studies, 2013–2018.


Table S1 (Supplementary Material) reveals that much of the recent research on self-assessment has investigated the accuracy or, more accurately, consistency, of students' self-assessments. The term consistency is more appropriate in the classroom context because the quality of students' self-assessments is often determined by comparing them with their teachers' assessments and then generating correlations. Given the evidence of the unreliability of teachers' grades ( Falchikov, 2005 ), the assumption that teachers' assessments are accurate might not be well-founded ( Leach, 2012 ; Brown et al., 2015 ). Ratings of student work done by researchers are also suspect, unless evidence of the validity and reliability of the inferences made about student work by researchers is available. Consequently, much of the research on classroom-based self-assessment should use the term consistency , which refers to the degree of alignment between students' and expert raters' evaluations, avoiding the purer, more rigorous term accuracy unless it is fitting.

In their review, Brown and Harris (2013) reported that correlations between student self-ratings and other measures tended to be weakly to strongly positive, ranging from r ≈ 0.20 to 0.80, with few studies reporting correlations >0.60. But their review included results from studies of any self-appraisal of school work, including summative self-rating/grading, predictions about the correctness of answers on test items, and formative, criteria-based self-assessments, a combination of methods that makes the correlations they reported difficult to interpret. Qualitatively different forms of self-assessment, especially summative and formative types, cannot be lumped together without obfuscating important aspects of self-assessment as feedback.

Given my concern about combining studies of summative and formative assessment, you might anticipate a call for research on consistency that distinguishes between the two. I will make no such call for three reasons. One is that we have enough research on the subject, including the 22 studies in Table S1 (Supplementary Material) that were published after Brown and Harris's review (2013 ). Drawing only on studies included in Table S1 (Supplementary Material), we can say with confidence that summative self-assessment tends to be inconsistent with external judgements ( Baxter and Norman, 2011 ; De Grez et al., 2012 ; Admiraal et al., 2015 ), with males tending to overrate and females to underrate ( Nowell and Alston, 2007 ; Marks et al., 2018 ). There are exceptions ( Alaoutinen, 2012 ; Lopez-Pastor et al., 2012 ) as well as mixed results, with students being consistent regarding some aspects of their learning but not others ( Blanch-Hartigan, 2011 ; Harding and Hbaci, 2015 ; Nguyen and Foster, 2018 ). We can also say that older, more academically competent learners tend to be more consistent ( Hacker et al., 2000 ; Lew et al., 2010 ; Alaoutinen, 2012 ; Guillory and Blankson, 2017 ; Butler, 2018 ; Nagel and Lindsey, 2018 ). There is evidence that consistency can be improved through experience ( Lopez and Kossack, 2007 ; Yilmaz, 2017 ; Nagel and Lindsey, 2018 ), the use of guidelines ( Bol et al., 2012 ), feedback ( Thawabieh, 2017 ), and standards ( Baars et al., 2014 ), perhaps in the form of rubrics ( Panadero and Romero, 2014 ). Modeling and feedback also help ( Labuhn et al., 2010 ; Miller and Geraci, 2011 ; Hawkins et al., 2012 ; Kostons et al., 2012 ).

An outcome typical of research on the consistency of summative self-assessment can be found in row 59, which summarizes the study by Tejeiro et al. (2012) discussed earlier: Students' self-assessments were higher than marks given by professors, especially for students with poorer results, and no relationship was found between the professors' and the students' assessments in the group in which self-assessment counted toward the final mark. Students are not stupid: if they know that they can influence their final grade, and that their judgment is summative rather than intended to inform revision and improvement, they will be motivated to inflate their self-evaluation. I do not believe we need more research to demonstrate that phenomenon.

The second reason I am not calling for additional research on consistency is a lot of it seems somewhat irrelevant. This might be because the interest in accuracy is rooted in clinical research on calibration, which has very different aims. Calibration accuracy is the “magnitude of consent between learners' true and self-evaluated task performance. Accurately calibrated learners' task performance equals their self-evaluated task performance” ( Wollenschläger et al., 2016 ). Calibration research often asks study participants to predict or postdict the correctness of their responses to test items. I caution about generalizing from clinical experiments to authentic classroom contexts because the dismal picture of our human potential to self-judge was painted by calibration researchers before study participants were effectively taught how to predict with accuracy, or provided with the tools they needed to be accurate, or motivated to do so. Calibration researchers know that, of course, and have conducted intervention studies that attempt to improve accuracy, with some success (e.g., Bol et al., 2012 ). Studies of formative self-assessment also suggest that consistency increases when it is taught and supported in many of the ways any other skill must be taught and supported ( Lopez and Kossack, 2007 ; Labuhn et al., 2010 ; Chang et al., 2012 , 2013 ; Hawkins et al., 2012 ; Panadero and Romero, 2014 ; Lin-Siegler et al., 2015 ; Fitzpatrick and Schulz, 2016 ).

Even clinical psychological studies that go beyond calibration to examine the associations between monitoring accuracy and subsequent study behaviors do not transfer well to classroom assessment research. After repeatedly encountering claims that, for example, low self-assessment accuracy leads to poor task-selection accuracy and “suboptimal learning outcomes” ( Raaijmakers et al., 2019 , p. 1), I dug into the cited studies and discovered two limitations. The first is that the tasks in which study participants engage are quite inauthentic. A typical task involves studying “word pairs (e.g., railroad—mother), followed by a delayed judgment of learning (JOL) in which the students predicted the chances of remembering the pair… After making a JOL, the entire pair was presented for restudy for 4 s [ sic ], and after all pairs had been restudied, a criterion test of paired-associate recall occurred” ( Dunlosky and Rawson, 2012 , p. 272). Although memory for word pairs might be important in some classroom contexts, it is not safe to assume that results from studies like that one can predict students' behaviors after criterion-referenced self-assessment of their comprehension of complex texts, lengthy compositions, or solutions to multi-step mathematical problems.

The second limitation of studies like the typical one described above is more serious: Participants in research like that are not permitted to regulate their own studying, which is experimentally manipulated by a computer program. This came as a surprise, since many of the claims were about students' poor study choices but they were rarely allowed to make actual choices. For example, Dunlosky and Rawson (2012) permitted participants to “use monitoring to effectively control learning” by programming the computer so that “a participant would need to have judged his or her recall of a definition entirely correct on three different trials, and once they judged it entirely correct on the third trial, that particular key term definition was dropped [by the computer program] from further practice” (p. 272). The authors note that this study design is an improvement on designs that did not require all participants to use the same regulation algorithm, but it does not reflect the kinds of decisions that learners make in class or while doing homework. In fact, a large body of research shows that students can make wise choices when they self-pace the study of to-be-learned materials and then allocate study time to each item ( Bjork et al., 2013 , p. 425):

In a typical experiment, the students first study all the items at an experimenter-paced rate (e.g., study 60 paired associates for 3 s each), which familiarizes the students with the items; after this familiarity phase, the students then either choose which items they want to restudy (e.g., all items are presented in an array, and the students select which ones to restudy) and/or pace their restudy of each item. Several dependent measures have been widely used, such as how long each item is studied, whether an item is selected for restudy, and in what order items are selected for restudy. The literature on these aspects of self-regulated study is massive (for a comprehensive overview, see both Dunlosky and Ariel, 2011 and Son and Metcalfe, 2000 ), but the evidence is largely consistent with a few basic conclusions. First, if students have a chance to practice retrieval prior to restudying items, they almost exclusively choose to restudy unrecalled items and drop the previously recalled items from restudy ( Metcalfe and Kornell, 2005 ). Second, when pacing their study of individual items that have been selected for restudy, students typically spend more time studying items that are more, rather than less, difficult to learn. Such a strategy is consistent with a discrepancy-reduction model of self-paced study (which states that people continue to study an item until they reach mastery), although some key revisions to this model are needed to account for all the data. For instance, students may not continue to study until they reach some static criterion of mastery, but instead, they may continue to study until they perceive that they are no longer making progress.

I propose that this research, which suggests that students' unscaffolded, unmeasured, informal self-assessments tend to lead to appropriate task selection, is better aligned with research on classroom-based self-assessment. Nonetheless, even this comparison is inadequate because the study participants were not taught to compare their performance to the criteria for mastery, as is often done in classroom-based self-assessment.

The third and final reason I do not believe we need additional research on consistency is that I think it is a distraction from the true purposes of self-assessment. Many if not most of the articles about the accuracy of self-assessment are grounded in the assumption that accuracy is necessary for self-assessment to be useful, particularly in terms of subsequent studying and revision behaviors. Although it seems obvious that accurate evaluations of their performance positively influence students' study strategy selection, which should produce improvements in achievement, I have not seen relevant research that tests those conjectures. Some claim that inaccurate estimates of learning lead to the selection of inappropriate learning tasks ( Kostons et al., 2012 ) but they cite research that does not support their claim. For example, Kostons et al. cite studies that focus on the effectiveness of SRL interventions but do not address the accuracy of participants' estimates of learning, nor the relationship of those estimates to the selection of next steps. Other studies produce findings that support my skepticism. Take, for instance, two relevant studies of calibration. One suggested that performance and judgments of performance had little influence on subsequent test preparation behavior ( Hacker et al., 2000 ), and the other showed that study participants followed their predictions of performance to the same degree, regardless of monitoring accuracy ( van Loon et al., 2014 ).

Eva and Regehr (2008) believe that:

Research questions that take the form of “How well do various practitioners self-assess?” “How can we improve self-assessment?” or “How can we measure self-assessment skill?” should be considered defunct and removed from the research agenda [because] there have been hundreds of studies into these questions and the answers are “Poorly,” “You can't,” and “Don't bother” (p. 18).

I almost agree. A study that could change my mind about the importance of accuracy of self-assessment would be an investigation that goes beyond attempting to improve accuracy just for the sake of accuracy by instead examining the relearning/revision behaviors of accurate and inaccurate self-assessors: Do students whose self-assessments match the valid and reliable judgments of expert raters (hence my use of the term accuracy ) make better decisions about what they need to do to deepen their learning and improve their work? Here, I admit, is a call for research related to consistency: I would love to see a high-quality investigation of the relationship between accuracy in formative self-assessment, and students' subsequent study and revision behaviors, and their learning. For example, a study that closely examines the revisions to writing made by accurate and inaccurate self-assessors, and the resulting outcomes in terms of the quality of their writing, would be most welcome.

Table S1 (Supplementary Material) indicates that by 2018 researchers began publishing studies that more directly address the hypothesized link between self-assessment and subsequent learning behaviors, as well as important questions about the processes learners engage in while self-assessing ( Yan and Brown, 2017 ). One, a study by Nugteren et al. (2018 row 19 in Table S1 (Supplementary Material)), asked “How do inaccurate [summative] self-assessments influence task selections?” (p. 368) and employed a clever exploratory research design. The results suggested that most of the 15 students in their sample over-estimated their performance and made inaccurate learning-task selections. Nugteren et al. recommended helping students make more accurate self-assessments, but I think the more interesting finding is related to why students made task selections that were too difficult or too easy, given their prior performance: They based most task selections on interest in the content of particular items (not the overarching content to be learned), and infrequently considered task difficulty and support level. For instance, while working on the genetics tasks, students reported selecting tasks because they were fun or interesting, not because they addressed self-identified weaknesses in their understanding of genetics. Nugteren et al. proposed that students would benefit from instruction on task selection. I second that proposal: Rather than directing our efforts on accuracy in the service of improving subsequent task selection, let us simply teach students to use the information at hand to select next best steps, among other things.

Butler (2018 , row 76 in Table S1 (Supplementary Material)) has conducted at least two studies of learners' processes of responding to self-assessment items and how they arrived at their judgments. Comparing generic, decontextualized items to task-specific, contextualized items (which she calls after-task items ), she drew two unsurprising conclusions: the task-specific items “generally showed higher correlations with task performance,” and older students “appeared to be more conservative in their judgment compared with their younger counterparts” (p. 249). The contribution of the study is the detailed information it provides about how students generated their judgments. For example, Butler's qualitative data analyses revealed that when asked to self-assess in terms of vague or non-specific items, the children often “contextualized the descriptions based on their own experiences, goals, and expectations,” (p. 257) focused on the task at hand, and situated items in the specific task context. Perhaps as a result, the correlation between after-task self-assessment and task performance was generally higher than for generic self-assessment.

Butler (2018) notes that her study enriches our empirical understanding of the processes by which children respond to self-assessment. This is a very promising direction for the field. Similar studies of processing during formative self-assessment of a variety of task types in a classroom context would likely produce significant advances in our understanding of how and why self-assessment influences learning and performance.

Student Perceptions

Fifteen of the studies listed in Table S1 (Supplementary Material) focused on students' perceptions of self-assessment. The studies of children suggest that they tend to have unsophisticated understandings of its purposes ( Harris and Brown, 2013 ; Bourke, 2016 ) that might lead to shallow implementation of related processes. In contrast, results from the studies conducted in higher education settings suggested that college and university students understood the function of self-assessment ( Ratminingsih et al., 2018 ) and generally found it to be useful for guiding evaluation and revision ( Micán and Medina, 2017 ), understanding how to take responsibility for learning ( Lopez and Kossack, 2007 ; Bourke, 2014 ; Ndoye, 2017 ), prompting them to think more critically and deeply ( van Helvoort, 2012 ; Siow, 2015 ), applying newfound skills ( Murakami et al., 2012 ), and fostering self-regulated learning by guiding them to set goals, plan, self-monitor and reflect ( Wang, 2017 ).

Not surprisingly, positive perceptions of self-assessment were typically developed by students who actively engaged the formative type by, for example, developing their own criteria for an effective self-assessment response ( Bourke, 2014 ), or using a rubric or checklist to guide their assessments and then revising their work ( Huang and Gui, 2015 ; Wang, 2017 ). Earlier research suggested that children's attitudes toward self-assessment can become negative if it is summative ( Ross et al., 1998 ). However, even summative self-assessment was reported by adult learners to be useful in helping them become more critical of their own and others' writing throughout the course and in subsequent courses ( van Helvoort, 2012 ).


Twenty-five of the studies in Table S1 (Supplementary Material) investigated the relation between self-assessment and achievement, including two meta-analyses. Twenty of the 25 clearly employed the formative type. Without exception, those 20 studies, plus the two meta-analyses ( Graham et al., 2015 ; Sanchez et al., 2017 ) demonstrated a positive association between self-assessment and learning. The meta-analysis conducted by Graham and his colleagues, which included 10 studies, yielded an average weighted effect size of 0.62 on writing quality. The Sanchez et al. meta-analysis revealed that, although 12 of the 44 effect sizes were negative, on average, “students who engaged in self-grading performed better ( g = 0.34) on subsequent tests than did students who did not” (p. 1,049).

All but two of the non-meta-analytic studies of achievement in Table S1 (Supplementary Material) were quasi-experimental or experimental, providing relatively rigorous evidence that their treatment groups outperformed their comparison or control groups in terms of everything from writing to dart-throwing, map-making, speaking English, and exams in a wide variety of disciplines. One experiment on summative self-assessment ( Miller and Geraci, 2011 ), in contrast, resulted in no improvements in exam scores, while the other one did ( Raaijmakers et al., 2017 ).

It would be easy to overgeneralize and claim that the question about the effect of self-assessment on learning has been answered, but there are unanswered questions about the key components of effective self-assessment, especially social-emotional components related to power and trust ( Andrade and Brown, 2016 ). The trends are pretty clear, however: it appears that formative forms of self-assessment can promote knowledge and skill development. This is not surprising, given that it involves many of the processes known to support learning, including practice, feedback, revision, and especially the intellectually demanding work of making complex, criteria-referenced judgments ( Panadero et al., 2014 ). Boud (1995a , b) predicted this trend when he noted that many self-assessment processes undermine learning by rushing to judgment, thereby failing to engage students with the standards or criteria for their work.

Self-Regulated Learning

The association between self-assessment and learning has also been explained in terms of self-regulation ( Andrade, 2010 ; Panadero and Alonso-Tapia, 2013 ; Andrade and Brookhart, 2016 , 2019 ; Panadero et al., 2016b ). Self-regulated learning (SRL) occurs when learners set goals and then monitor and manage their thoughts, feelings, and actions to reach those goals. SRL is moderately to highly correlated with achievement ( Zimmerman and Schunk, 2011 ). Research suggests that formative assessment is a potential influence on SRL ( Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick, 2006 ). The 12 studies in Table S1 (Supplementary Material) that focus on SRL demonstrate the recent increase in interest in the relationship between self-assessment and SRL.

Conceptual and practical overlaps between the two fields are abundant. In fact, Brown and Harris (2014) recommend that student self-assessment no longer be treated as an assessment, but as an essential competence for self-regulation. Butler and Winne (1995) introduced the role of self-generated feedback in self-regulation years ago:

[For] all self-regulated activities, feedback is an inherent catalyst. As learners monitor their engagement with tasks, internal feedback is generated by the monitoring process. That feedback describes the nature of outcomes and the qualities of the cognitive processes that led to those states (p. 245).

The outcomes and processes referred to by Butler and Winne are many of the same products and processes I referred to earlier in the definition of self-assessment and in Table 1 .

In general, research and practice related to self-assessment has tended to focus on judging the products of student learning, while scholarship on self-regulated learning encompasses both processes and products. The very practical focus of much of the research on self-assessment means it might be playing catch-up, in terms of theory development, with the SRL literature, which is grounded in experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology ( de Bruin and van Gog, 2012 ), while self-assessment research is ahead in terms of implementation (E. Panadero, personal communication, October 21, 2016). One major exception is the work done on Self-regulated Strategy Development ( Glaser and Brunstein, 2007 ; Harris et al., 2008 ), which has successfully integrated SRL research with classroom practices, including self-assessment, to teach writing to students with special needs.

Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick (2006) have been explicit about the potential for self-assessment practices to support self-regulated learning:

To develop systematically the learner's capacity for self-regulation, teachers need to create more structured opportunities for self-monitoring and the judging of progression to goals. Self-assessment tasks are an effective way of achieving this, as are activities that encourage reflection on learning progress (p. 207).

The studies of SRL in Table S1 (Supplementary Material) provide encouraging findings regarding the potential role of self-assessment in promoting achievement, self-regulated learning in general, and metacognition and study strategies related to task selection in particular. The studies also represent a solution to the “methodological and theoretical challenges involved in bringing metacognitive research to the real world, using meaningful learning materials” ( Koriat, 2012 , p. 296).

Future Directions for Research

I agree with ( Yan and Brown, 2017 ) statement that “from a pedagogical perspective, the benefits of self-assessment may come from active engagement in the learning process, rather than by being “veridical” or coinciding with reality, because students' reflection and metacognitive monitoring lead to improved learning” (p. 1,248). Future research should focus less on accuracy/consistency/veridicality, and more on the precise mechanisms of self-assessment ( Butler, 2018 ).

An important aspect of research on self-assessment that is not explicitly represented in Table S1 (Supplementary Material) is practice, or pedagogy: Under what conditions does self-assessment work best, and how are those conditions influenced by context? Fortunately, the studies listed in the table, as well as others (see especially Andrade and Valtcheva, 2009 ; Nielsen, 2014 ; Panadero et al., 2016a ), point toward an answer. But we still have questions about how best to scaffold effective formative self-assessment. One area of inquiry is about the characteristics of the task being assessed, and the standards or criteria used by learners during self-assessment.

Influence of Types of Tasks and Standards or Criteria

Type of task or competency assessed seems to matter (e.g., Dolosic, 2018 , Nguyen and Foster, 2018 ), as do the criteria ( Yilmaz, 2017 ), but we do not yet have a comprehensive understanding of how or why. There is some evidence that it is important that the criteria used to self-assess are concrete, task-specific ( Butler, 2018 ), and graduated. For example, Fastre et al. (2010) revealed an association between self-assessment according to task-specific criteria and task performance: In a quasi-experimental study of 39 novice vocational education students studying stoma care, they compared concrete, task-specific criteria (“performance-based criteria”) such as “Introduces herself to the patient” and “Consults the care file for details concerning the stoma” to vaguer, “competence-based criteria” such as “Shows interest, listens actively, shows empathy to the patient” and “Is discrete with sensitive topics.” The performance-based criteria group outperformed the competence-based group on tests of task performance, presumably because “performance-based criteria make it easier to distinguish levels of performance, enabling a step-by-step process of performance improvement” (p. 530).

This finding echoes the results of a study of self-regulated learning by Kitsantas and Zimmerman (2006) , who argued that “fine-grained standards can have two key benefits: They can enable learners to be more sensitive to small changes in skill and make more appropriate adaptations in learning strategies” (p. 203). In their study, 70 college students were taught how to throw darts at a target. The purpose of the study was to examine the role of graphing of self-recorded outcomes and self-evaluative standards in learning a motor skill. Students who were provided with graduated self-evaluative standards surpassed “those who were provided with absolute standards or no standards (control) in both motor skill and in motivational beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, attributions, and self-satisfaction)” (p. 201). Kitsantas and Zimmerman hypothesized that setting high absolute standards would limit a learner's sensitivity to small improvements in functioning. This hypothesis was supported by the finding that students who set absolute standards reported significantly less awareness of learning progress (and hit the bull's-eye less often) than students who set graduated standards. “The correlation between the self-evaluation and dart-throwing outcomes measures was extraordinarily high ( r = 0.94)” (p. 210). Classroom-based research on specific, graduated self-assessment criteria would be informative.

Cognitive and Affective Mechanisms of Self-Assessment

There are many additional questions about pedagogy, such as the hoped-for investigation mentioned above of the relationship between accuracy in formative self-assessment, students' subsequent study behaviors, and their learning. There is also a need for research on how to help teachers give students a central role in their learning by creating space for self-assessment (e.g., see Hawe and Parr, 2014 ), and the complex power dynamics involved in doing so ( Tan, 2004 , 2009 ; Taras, 2008 ; Leach, 2012 ). However, there is an even more pressing need for investigations into the internal mechanisms experienced by students engaged in assessing their own learning. Angela Lui and I call this the next black box ( Lui, 2017 ).

Black and Wiliam (1998) used the term black box to emphasize the fact that what happened in most classrooms was largely unknown: all we knew was that some inputs (e.g., teachers, resources, standards, and requirements) were fed into the box, and that certain outputs (e.g., more knowledgeable and competent students, acceptable levels of achievement) would follow. But what, they asked, is happening inside, and what new inputs will produce better outputs? Black and Wiliam's review spawned a great deal of research on formative assessment, some but not all of which suggests a positive relationship with academic achievement ( Bennett, 2011 ; Kingston and Nash, 2011 ). To better understand why and how the use of formative assessment in general and self-assessment in particular is associated with improvements in academic achievement in some instances but not others, we need research that looks into the next black box: the cognitive and affective mechanisms of students who are engaged in assessment processes ( Lui, 2017 ).

The role of internal mechanisms has been discussed in theory but not yet fully tested. Crooks (1988) argued that the impact of assessment is influenced by students' interpretation of the tasks and results, and Butler and Winne (1995) theorized that both cognitive and affective processes play a role in determining how feedback is internalized and used to self-regulate learning. Other theoretical frameworks about the internal processes of receiving and responding to feedback have been developed (e.g., Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick, 2006 ; Draper, 2009 ; Andrade, 2013 ; Lipnevich et al., 2016 ). Yet, Shute (2008) noted in her review of the literature on formative feedback that “despite the plethora of research on the topic, the specific mechanisms relating feedback to learning are still mostly murky, with very few (if any) general conclusions” (p. 156). This area is ripe for research.

Self-assessment is the act of monitoring one's processes and products in order to make adjustments that deepen learning and enhance performance. Although it can be summative, the evidence presented in this review strongly suggests that self-assessment is most beneficial, in terms of both achievement and self-regulated learning, when it is used formatively and supported by training.

What is not yet clear is why and how self-assessment works. Those of you who like to investigate phenomena that are maddeningly difficult to measure will rejoice to hear that the cognitive and affective mechanisms of self-assessment are the next black box. Studies of the ways in which learners think and feel, the interactions between their thoughts and feelings and their context, and the implications for pedagogy will make major contributions to our field.

Author Contributions

The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Supplementary Material

The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at:

1. ^ I am grateful to my graduate assistants, Joanna Weaver and Taja Young, for conducting the searches.

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Keywords: self-assessment, self-evaluation, self-grading, formative assessment, classroom assessment, self-regulated learning (SRL)

Citation: Andrade HL (2019) A Critical Review of Research on Student Self-Assessment. Front. Educ. 4:87. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2019.00087

Received: 27 April 2019; Accepted: 02 August 2019; Published: 27 August 2019.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2019 Andrade. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Heidi L. Andrade,

This article is part of the Research Topic

Advances in Classroom Assessment Theory and Practice

class contribution self evaluation essay

Center for Teaching and Learning

Fostering open exchange about teaching and learning among faculty and staff at Hampshire College

Student Self Evaluations

Students’ Self Evaluations

NEW!!!  Guide to Self and Narrative Evaluation for Students (.pdf) – on writing self evaluations, using narrative evaluations from faculty, and setting goals for their work.

Below are older posts – much of which is folded into the new guide above, some might not be. Do explore.

Many students make excellent use of self-evaluations. Some do not understand their purposes of self evaluation or how to write a meaningful self-evaluation. You can give students guidance about writing self evaluations. In particular, you might want students to write about their learning relative to your course goals and/or their own.

To learn more about what students say about self evaluation, watch this video on data from the Hampshire Learning Project. Here is the presentation on Critical Reflection and Evaluation (pdf) from the April 7th Faculty Meeting’s discussion on self reflection.

Here are a series of handouts that show different ways to engage in self evaluation. Select one that you like to share with students or create your own:

  • Here is a handout for students from Herb Bernstein & Sarah Hews (.doc) on self evaluations
  • And an update from Herb Bernstein (November 2015)
  • Here is Lynn Miller’s handout: Lynn on Self Evaluations (.pdf)
  • This is a third Tips for Self-Evaluation (.doc) compiled across faculty, including Michele Hardesty.

Portfolio Guidelines and Expectations

If you do not use the course moodle site for your assignments, students need to know what will constitute their final course portfolios.  Here is an example from Kristen Luschen that includes a portfolio checklist and directions for student’s course retrospective and self evaluation.

Mid-Semester Self-Evaluations – All students who entered this academic year (first years and transfers) must do self evaluations. It is likely that they don’t know how to do them well. You might want to give them specific questions to guide their reflection and writing – consider your goals and what you want them to get better at doing. You might also want them to give you some feedback on how the course is going at the same time.  Here are examples of questions one could ask of students that include  self and course mid-semester evaluation (Word document).  One suggestion – if you do a mid-semester course evaluation, make sure students know what you heard them say and what, if anything, you will be doing differently as a result of their feedback.

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Self Evaluation Essay

4 Self Evaluation Essay Examples in PDF

One of the most important in having to tell that you have been performing right is by the use of a self-evaluation . Not only does it tells about being aware of yourself, but also being open for self-improvement and development. When you are aware of yourself, you begin to know what your strengths and weaknesses are. Self-evaluation can also offer confidence, strong relationships and good decision making. When you are asked to write for a self-evaluation , you are more likely to reflect and demonstrate your value in an organization where you have found an avenue to grow.

7+ Self Evaluation Essay Examples

1. self evaluation form template.

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2. Lesson Self Evaluation Sample

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3. Staff Employee Self-Evaluation Template

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4. Self Evaluation Internal Conflict Essay

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8. Student Self Evaluation Essay

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What is Self-Evaluation?

The act of evaluating oneself is to objectively monitor their own performance in a particular job. It is a kind of a written review that involves rating competencies, goals, and overall performance. When you are able to assess yourself, you will become someone who is active in his or her own evaluation. This increases commitment to setting up a goal , development and planning for your career.

Things To Do For Self-Evaluation

Take time . Allot an hour of your time to complete the evaluation. You may spend this time reviewing your past documentations that is related to your goals.

You may consider conducting your self-evaluation in a quiet place where nobody can disturb your focus. Devote your full attention when reflecting.

Try to keep yourself relaxed . The purpose of the evaluation is to highlight your strengths, correct weaknesses, and develop skills.

Self-evaluations are the right place for you to boast about what you have achieved without putting anyone else down. The things that you have accomplished must be stated accurately.

Write in a conversational style so that you won’t be misunderstood especially by your supervisor. Keep it natural.

Ask your co-workers about of some feedback about your performances. Avoid comments in the feedback that could lessen your self-esteem.

Use appropriate language . This means that you have to be decent with your words and choose only those words that are objective.

Writing self-evaluations essays are a good opportunity for you to identify how you are going to improve your performance . Make some recommendations . This is not a weakness. Rather, this is a strength that could help you grow and improve as a person.

Apply the knowledge you have gained . You should be able to complete the learning and apply those that you have learned that could support your performance goals and competency development.

Get your self-evaluation essay right . Write more than one draft. Make sure that you are writing thoroughly and professionally.

Example of Self-Evaluation Essay

“ …On analyzing my performance during the semester, I believe that I was quite successful to a significant extent. In this regard, it is worth mentioning the fact that I have completed seven essays during the semester and almost all of them were quite successful because I received “A” grade for the majority of my essays. I really liked my performance but I am always concerned with receiving “A” grades for my work which is the only acceptable grade for me. I am success-oriented person. This is why I just cannot afford the grade below “A”.

 Such personal position urges me to do my best and to work hard to gain the possibly highest degree but, on the other hand, it is sometimes difficult and even frustrating to pursue the highest degree, especially if it is extremely difficult to receive. For example, there were cases, when I felt the task was quite challenging for me to complete it successfully. This is why I had to work really hard to obtain “A” degree for those papers. Nevertheless, I am aware that such tasks have made the most significant contribution to my progress and academic development because they encouraged not only my creativity but also stimulated the development of research skills which helped me to learn more about the subject I wrote about and to improve my writing and academic performance overall (Frosh 103) …”

Why do you have to include the list of your achievements.

Your achievements will make you proud and will bring the most value into your company.

Where do some self-evaluations used?

Some self-evaluations are used for self-review, performance review or even when you are considered to receive bonuses or salary increase.

What are some of the do’s and don’ts in self-evaluation?

Do’s – ask feedback from others, focus on your highlights, and get second opinion from someone close to you.

Don’ts – put bullets in writing for your accomplishments and make grammatical or typographical errors.

Writing a self-evaluation doesn’t have to be that stressful. Before you begin, it is important to organize yourself and focus on something positive to impress others. It will also be beneficial to your part because you will be able to provide a reflection over your achievements in which it sets you to the right path in making yourself more improved.

class contribution self evaluation essay

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How to write a Self-Evaluation

Fairhaven College classes do not use the A-to-F grading system. Students evaluate their own performance in detail for each Fairhaven college course. The student self-evaluation, combined with their faculty member's narrative assessment of the student's work, records the individual qualities of student academic performance in Fairhaven coursework.

Below are guidelines for current Fairhaven students on how to write a narrative self-evaluation. Be specific & detailed.

Fairhaven Self Evaluation Tips

How to complete your self-evaluation online

  • What did I expect to learn?
  • What were my goals?
  • What did I take on? What was my approach to regular assignments and to larger projects?
  • What were the individual projects I completed? Did I complete all assignments? If not, why not? Did I do more than was assigned? If so, what? And what did I accomplish with this extra work?
  • How well did I do routine assignments and/or special projects? Did I find a way through confusion, hang-up, procrastination, or disaffection with the work?
  • Be specific about my attendance . Was I there? If not, how often, and why not? Did I support the community of learning in the classroom? Did I come to class prepared? If so, how consistent was I? How well did I prepare? Did I find ways to improve it during the term?
  • What was my role in class discussion and/or other class activities? What did I do/not do to facilitate good discussion or other fruitful participation in activities? Was I prepared? Did I make specific note of my problems and questions and bring them to class to share them?
  • How well did I do? What were my strengths and weaknesses? What do I need to work on most? What new strengths or weaknesses did I discover?
  • If I had problems or difficulties with the way the class was working for me, did I bring those to the attention of the instructor so circumstances could improve? Did I do other things to face difficulty squarely?
  • Did I seek out help when I needed it? How successful was I? What did I do/not do to make my work as good as it could be?
  • What did I learn (subject matter, skills, ways of knowing and working)?
  • What changes happened in my attitude, my confidence, my way of going about or looking at things?
  • What’s next? Where do I (could I) I go from here?

Self-Evaluation of Teaching

Formal evaluation of your own teaching serves at least two purposes.

  • Analyzing your own pedagogy can be a productive component of the development of your teaching over time, and
  • Your presentation of your pedagogy can guide others in their evaluation of your teaching. 

Formal self-evaluation can take a number of forms

The most developed form is a full teaching portfolio, which will likely include a teaching philosophy, a description of your teaching methods and learning assessments, evidence of student learning outcomes, and other documentation.  If you would like guidance and feedback as you develop a teaching portfolio, please join our Community of Practice on Teaching Portfolios, a two-week program offered each May.

Perhaps the most basic component is a self-evaluation of a course you have just completed, and you may find evaluating one recent course to be a practical and manageable start for self-evaluation of your teaching.  The resulting self-evaluation might form part of your annual review.  Later, you might combine it with your self-evaluations of subsequent sections of the same course for a more condensed account your pedagogical approach to that course— such a cumulative evaluation might form part of an application for promotion, for a new position, or for a teaching award.

Self-Evaluation of a course you have just completed

A formal self-evaluation of a course you have just completed is likely to be a written document of 1-3 pages. 

Consider beginning with some specifics that will provide helpful context for your audience:

Basic course information:  

  • Course number and title, 
  • Brief course description, 
  • The delivery method, and, if it was in-person, where it was taught,
  • How often the class met and when,
  • The number of students in the class,
  • Whether the course included a separate lab, 
  • Any other relevant specifics.

Information about how the course fits into your own experience: 

  • How many courses you were teaching in this semester,
  • Whether this was a new preparation for you or how many times you've taught it before , 
  • Whether this is a new course or one that is also taught by other faculty, and, if the latter, whether you sought to adhere to the department norm or to make changes to how the course is usually taught,
  • Whether you collaborated with co-instructors or graduate teaching assistants.

After this introductory material, your evaluation of your course design, pedagogical strategies, and/or interaction with students can be organized in any number of ways:

You might divide your self-evaluation into two sections: what went well in the course and what you would like to do differently the next time.  

  • Describing what went well, try to address how you know that component of the course went well and why that component is important.
  • Describing possibilities for improvement, try to focus on specific things that you will be able to change—this will allow you to demonstrate continual improvement and to assess how these changes work over time.

You might consider elements of your course chronologically, addressing

  • your initial course planning and design, including your course objectives
  • practices you used to engage students in the course material
  • activities you designed to communicate the material to the students
  • assignments and exams you designed to assess student learning
  • feedback you provided to help students improve throughout the semester

(This chronological approach can work well for a course in which you gather mid-semester feedback from your students, providing a framework that enables you to document changes you may have made in response to feedback as you moved through the semester.)

You might decide to organize your self-evaluation with reference to the learning objectives of the course.  For each learning objective, you might explain 

  • what pedagogical strategies you used to reach that objective, 
  • which strategies were most successful and how you know, 
  • which strategies could be improved or replaced and how you might do that.

You might decide that the most useful direction for your self-evaluation for a particular course would be a focused response to one element of your teaching that semester.  For example, many self-evaluations of teaching in 2020-21 focused on how the instructor adapted to the pandemic conditions.  This kind of focus can be useful in other situations, as well, in response to a new development in your field, your pedagogy, and/or your own professional trajectory.  You might focus your self-evaluation on how you responded to one of the following:

  • a development in the field of study
  • a particular pedagogical initiative, such as inclusivity and/or accessibility
  • a particular pedagogical innovation you have been working on 
  • an innovation in the course compared to previous incarnations
  • a trend in the student course surveys
  • an observation by a colleague
  • interactions with CTL

Support for your self-evaluation

Evidence supporting the claims your self-evaluation makes about your course design, pedagogical strategies, and/or interactions with students can be supported in a number of ways:  

  • You might refer to your course materials (syllabus, assignments, exams, etc.)
  • You might refer to demonstrated student improvement on course assignments and/or accomplishments connected with the course
  • You might refer to feedback you provided on student work
  • You might refer to interactions you had with students or collaborations among students
  • You might analyze student perceptions of the course based on communications from student and/or trends in the student course surveys  
  • You might refer to comments you received through a peer review of your teaching or a CTL classroom observation
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  • Published: 22 December 2022

Learning-oriented assessment in the classroom: the contribution of self-assessment and critical thinking to EFL learners’ academic engagement and self-esteem

  • Riswanto 1 ,
  • Tahereh Heydarnejad 2 ,
  • Elham Saberi Dehkordi 3 &
  • Bambang Parmadi 4  

Language Testing in Asia volume  12 , Article number:  60 ( 2022 ) Cite this article

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The core of self-assessment (CSA) and critical thinking (CT) empower learners to observe and evaluate themselves. Although the literature on CSA and CT reflects a long history, little is known about their contributions to the learners’ academic engagement (AE) and self-esteem (SE), particularly in the EFL context. Therefore, the present investigation intended to explore a structural model of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university students’ CSA, CT, and SE. Accordingly, the Core of Self-assessment Questionnaire (CSAQ), Watson–Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-form A (WGCTA), The SInAPSi Academic Engagement Scale (SAES), and The Foreign Language Learning Self-esteem Scale (FLLSES), were administered to 427 Iranian EFL university learners. The results of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) indicated that EFL university students with high levels of CSA were more engaged and could build up high SE. Moreover, the effective role of CT in boosting AE and SE was also confirmed. The implications of this study may unveil new prospects for implementing learning-oriented assessment in the classroom and CT practices in language learning instruction and assessment.


Assessment is an indispensable part of Instruction. Teachers’ applied methodology and teaching style preferences, directly and indirectly, affect how they design and administer their assessments in the classroom. To ensure the educational and psychological well-being of the students, learning-oriented assessment in the classroom is highly recommended (Bachman, 2015 ). In CSA, learners are involved in critically evaluating their progress (Tavousi & Pour Sales, 2018 ). CSA is basically an integrated personality structure referring to the students’ assessment and interpretation of their own learning (GuoJie, 2021 ). Put it in other words, CSA is intended to activate the learners to feel more responsible and reflect on every step of their learning experiences (Wongdaeng, 2022 ). Investment in CSA can improve learners’ autonomy, emotion regulation, L2 grit, and social relationships (Heydarnejad et al., 2022 ; Jiang et al., 2022 ; Zhuoyuan, 2021 ).

CT is a higher-order thinking skill that is concentrated using intuition, insight, and artistry to decide about any affairs (Amirian et al., 2022 ; Heshmat Ghahderijani et al., 2021 ). According to Li et al. ( 2022 ), CT enables individuals to look back and forth to react efficiently in every situation. Thus, CT is a helpful attribution for the learners that guarantee a safe road for learning. While learning, students may face various chaos and complexities that ask for decisive reactions. They need to be armed with CT skills to help them apply their metacognition and cognition to act efficiently. CT allows learners to stop, step back, think deeply, and assess themselves (Syairofi et al., 2022 ; Zhang et al., 2020 ).

AE is an affective-motivational attribution highlighting learners’ willingness, and involvement in educational activities (Shu, 2022 ). Engaged learners have high levels of dedication and they are completely immersed in the class activities (Burić & Macuka, 2017 ; Deng et al., 2022 ; Topchyan & Woehler, 2020 ). Today’s continuously challenging environment calls for engaged learners to be self-initiated and self-reliant. Engagement can be regarded as an incentive to extend the level of motivation and progress in individuals’ education. (Namaziandost, Heydarnejad, Rahmani Doqaruni, & Aziai, 2022 ). In other words, LE can be considered a measure that illustrates the extent and depth of students' participation in all aspects of their education.

SE as a psychological construct is individuals’ beliefs about themselves and their emotional states. Smith and Mackie ( 2007 ) stated that " SE is the positive or negative evaluations of the self, as in how we feel about it.” In the educational context, SE refers to the learners’ confidence in their own worth or abilities. SE among learners is more likely to flourish in learning situations when self-assessment is encouraged (Faramarzzadeh & Amini, 2017 ). Students with a healthy level of self-esteem work toward finding solutions when challenges arise; they also respect generally accepted social rules (Zhang, 2022a , 2022b ). It is worth highlighting that practicing SE prepares learners to cope with the demands of the modern world (Mandokhail et al., 2018 ). Thus, prerequisite factors for the development and attainment of SE are necessary to be taken to the surface layer of educational research. Despite the potential role of CSA, CT, AE, and ES in the well-being of the learners, there remains a paucity of evidence on the extent and direction of the interplay among them. In seeking to understand their associations better, the present study set forth to fill this educational gap. In the following section, the related literature was critically reviewed.

Literature review

The core of self-assessment (csa).

Assessment is the systematic basis for making inferences about students’ progress and their learning (Bachman, 2015 ). Through the years, different methods were defined to facilitate assessment and increase its validity and reliability. CSA is a type of assessment in which learners are actively involved in the “assessment or evaluation of oneself or one's actions, attitudes, or performance. That is why each learner should be encouraged and trained to go through a process of self-assessment”, (Bachman et al., 2010 , p. 12). According to Andrade ( 2019 ), CT, metacognition, monitoring, and self-regulated learning are the major principles of CSA. Furthermore, Judge et al. ( 1997 ) CSA is considered a type of higher-order trait involving self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, neuroticism, and locus of control.

CSA can be generated intrinsically and extrinsically (Bourke & Mentis, 2007 ). External values, feedback from others, and grades define the extrinsic phase of CSA. Internal values and goal setting define the extrinsic phase of CSA. Sociocultural settings as well as the learner’s self-determination and self-identity are critical in CSA formulation (Bourke & Mentis, 2007 , 2013 ). Learners need to evaluate their learning process and be involved in solving problems. The high levels of CSA armed learners to overcome different challenges and decide thoughtfully (Al-Mamoory & Abathar Witwit, 2021 ). According to Hu ( 2022 ), CSA empowers learners to regulate their emotions. It means that self-assessment influences both cognitive and affective aspects of learners’ educational lives. The high state of CSA, especially in language learning can manage emotional experiences and improve academic achievement (Bijani et al., 2022 ; Punpromthada et al., 2022 ).

As the literature on CSA echoes, practicing self-assessment inhibits cognitive and metacognitive skills among EFL learners (Heydarnejad et al., 2022 ; Nemati et al., 2021 ; Wei, 2020 ). Moreover, Jahara et al. ( 2022 ) found that levels of coping style among EFL learners change the state of CSA and stress management. It was also approved that self-assessment is affected by self-efficacy beliefs (Amirian et al., 2022 ; Zheng et al., 2022 ), academic emotion (Pekrun et al. 2017 ), metacognitive skills (Wei, 2020 ), and critical thinking (Zhang, 2022a , 2022b ; Li et al., 2022 ). Additionally, the impact of L2 grit on CSA and foreign language learning anxiety was investigated by Heydarnejad et al. ( 2022 ). The results of SEM indicated that L2 grit increased the level of CSA. That is, gritter students are more powerful in self-monitoring. They can also control and manage the anxiety that may be experienced in language classes.

Critical thinking (CT)

The concept of CT was born about two centuries ago by Socrates, who assumed that reasoning, analyzing, and evaluating were the critical aspects of individuals’ thinking (Fisher, 2001 ). Despite the long introduction and vast application of CT, no agreed-upon definition is suggested (Fasko, 2003 ; Halonen, 1995 ). As Paul ( 1988 ) and Halpern ( 2003 ) stipulated, CT is a higher-order thinking skill that activates mental processes and cognitive skills. Moreover, Dewey ( 1933 ) defined CT as dynamic processes of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation to get an acceptable conclusion. In the definition of CT by Ennis ( 1996 ), the intellectual and disciplined process of mind, which is developed by critical reflection, is highlighted. In the same line of inquiry, Thomas and Lok ( 2015 ) considered knowledge, skills, and disposition as the basis of CT.

The introduction of CT as an essential part of education was first done by Dewey ( 1933 ). Based on his proposal, higher-order thinking skills should be implemented in schools and universities. In this regard, Mason ( 2008 ) noted that CT strategies should be taught and teachers should learn how to apply them in the classroom. Reviewing the related literature on CT highlighted the crucial role of teachers in implementing and practicing CT. For instance, Heydarnejad, Fatemi, and Ghonsooly ( 2021 ) concluded that EFL teachers’ attitudes toward CT and self-regulation influence their style of teaching. The contribution of CT to the identity formation of the teachers (Sheybani & Miri, 2019 ), reflective thinking (Heydarnejad et al., 2018 ), self-efficacy (Amirian et al., 2022 ), L2 grit (Zheng et al., 2022 ), and emotion regulation (Namaziandost, Heydarnejad, Rahmani Doqaruni, & Aziai, 2022 ). When teachers are empowered with higher-order thinking skills, they are more able to help their students cultivate CT skills (Li et al., 2022 ).

Due to the immense influence of CT on learners’ academic achievement, various studies attempted to investigate the practical strategies for implementing CT among learners. In this regard, Rashtchi and Khoshnevisan ( 2020 ) suggested practicing CT strategies by writing tasks among EFL learners. In another study by Sheikhy Behdani and Rashtchi ( 2019 ), the role of process writing and its contribution to fostering CT was highlighted. Moreover, Davoudi and Heydarnejad et al. ( 2022 ) practice reflective thinking among EFL learners and they found that reflective thinking as a higher-order thinking skill could enhance the student’s language achievement. Zare et al. ( 2021 ) also documented that students’ reading comprehension skills were improved with the help of developing dynamic assessment, which is based on CT. From another perspective, Wale and Bishaw ( 2020 ) confirmed that inquiry-based learning boosted CT skills in the EFL context. Additionally, Wahyudi et al. ( 2019 ) conducted a study to explore the effect of a discovery learning-based assessment module to enhance CT. Based on their findings, the discovery learning-based assessment could improve CT and creativity of the learners, especially in their speaking production.

Academic engagement (AE)

Engagement is a multidimensional construct and entails different aspects. It affects the motivation, cognition, behavior, and emotions of the learners (Robinson & Hullinger, 2008 ; Sharma & Bhaumik, 2013 ). Engagement in the domain of education was defined and studied from different perspectives: school engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004 ), study engagement (Schaufeli et al., 2002 ), student course engagement (Handelsman et al., 2005 ; Xu et al., 2022 ), and teacher engagement (Deng et al., 2022 ; Namaziandost, Heydarnejad, Rahmani Doqaruni, & Aziai, 2022 ). To describe engagement different models and theories were proposed. Fredricks et al. ( 2004 ) Model of Engagement and Schaufeli et al. ( 2002 ) Model of Engagement are the two comment models of engagement due to their reliability and usage in different empirical studies.

Fredricks et al. ( 2004 ) Model of Engagement defines engagement as a dynamic and malleable construct including behavioral, cognitive, and emotional dimensions. They believe that these three dimensions are integrated. Engagement from the eyes of Schaufeli et al. ( 2002 ) consists of absorption, vigor, and dedication. These two models assess different aspects of students’ engagement, but they believe that engagement is one of the vital aspects of learners’ academic engagement. In these two models, learners’ cognitive engagement and enthusiasm are described as their involvement in school-related activities and willingness to learn (Rezai et al., 2022 ; Tuominen-Soini & Salmela-Aro, 2014 ). Fredricks et al. ( 2004 ) and Schaufeli et al. ( 2002 ) also conceptualize that AE increases learners’ resilience, persistence, and positive attitudes toward learning.

Through the years, AE and its correlation were studied and its contributions to learners’ well-being were highlighted in various empirical studies. For instance, Alonso-Tapia et al. ( 2022 ) discovered that AE positively relates to motivation, self-efficacy, emotion, self-regulation, and satisfaction. The reciprocal relationships between AE, school engagement, and motivation were found by Hosseinmardi et al. ( 2021 ). Likewise, Amerstorfer and Freiin von Münster-Kistner ( 2021 ) conducted a study to investigate the factors that affect AE. As they discussed, AE depends on personal characteristics, the teacher, the teaching methodology, peers, and the learning atmosphere. They believed that cognitive, metacognitive, affective, social, task-related, and foreign language-related factors influence AE. In a recent study by Namaziandost, Heydarnejad, and Rezai ( 2022 ), the mediator role of emotion regulation in fostering engagement, self-efficacy, and anger in higher education was confirmed. They concluded that a healthy state of emotion regulation will guarantee a sense of engagement and self-efficacy among university teachers. In such a situation, they can better manage and regulate their anger.

Self-esteem (SE)

SE is confidence in one’s own worth or abilities (Mackinnon, 2015 ). It is the offspring of the individual’s beliefs about their skills, abilities, and social relationships (Wang & Ollendick, 2001 ). SE is associated with the generation of self-image and self-conscience. According to Manning et al. ( 2006 ), SE is linked to self-evaluation and involves cognitive appraisals relevant to self-worth and affective experiences. Additionally, Dörnyei and Ryan ( 2015 ) argued that SE is related to self-concept and self-evaluation. Self-concept refers to individuals’ self-image and self-evaluation addresses the procedures involved in the formation of individuals’ SE. More precisely, Lawrence ( 2006 ) defined self-concept as an umbrella term and includes SE, self-image, and ideal self.

SE influences students’ learning and academic success. It means that learners with higher SE are more confident and define higher goals for themselves despite challenges and difficulties (Murk, 2006 ). Their persistence in attempts helps them to become more successful. SE can also foster self-regulatory strategies as well as the emotional states of individuals (Hosseinmardi et al., 2021 ). According to Brown ( 2000 ), “no successful activity can occur without some degree of self-esteem” (p.145). SE is related to students’ autonomy and can increase their reading comprehension (Zhang, 2022a , 2022b ). The mediator role of SE in shaping spoken skills among advanced and intermediate language learners was concluded by Faramarzzadeh and Amini ( 2017 ). Based on their findings, language learners with high levels of self-esteem were more successful in total spoken words, total spoken turns, and interruptions in mixed groups. It was also documented that teachers’ positive SE helps the development of positive SE in their students (Mandokhail et al., 2018 ).

Objectives of the present study

As the review of the existing literature reflected, CSA, CT, AE, as well as SE are student-attributed constructs that foster learning and learners’ well-being. When learners are armed with CSA, CT, AE, and SE, they can act more skillfully and decide better, especially in the face of chaos and complexity. Despite their immense contributions, the possible relationships between CSA, CT, AE, and SE remained uncharted territories, particularly in the realm of language learning. Therefore, the present study intended to take a step forward and uncover the association between CSA, CT, AE, and SE among EFL university students. In this regard, a model was proposed (Figure 1 ) to picture the relationships between CSA, CT, AE, and SE with the aim of advancing more meaningful learning and initiating future research. This model, based on previous studies and relevant theories, proposed the possible association between CSA, CT, AE, and SE. Thus, the possible contributions of CSA and CT to AE and SE in the EFL context as well as higher education were explored in this study. In so doing, the suggested model was tested via Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and SEM. The outcomes of this research can both theoretically and empirically assist learners and teachers. Cultivating CSA and higher-order thinking skills can empower learners to be active in their learning processes and the procedures involved in their assessment. To reach these objectives, the following research questions were posed:

RQ1: To what extent does EFL university learners’ CSA influence their AE?

RQ2: To what extent does EFL university learners’ CSA influence their SE?

RQ3: To what extent does EFL university learners’ CT influence their AE?

RQ4: To what extent does EFL university learners’ CT influence their SE?

figure 1

Theoretical structural equation model

In this regard, the following null hypotheses were formulated:

H01. EFL university learners’ CSA does not influence their AE.

H02. EFL university learners’ CSA does not affect their SE.

H03. EFL university learners’ CT does not influence their AE.

H04. EFL university learners’ CT does not affect their SE.


In this section, the methodological steps are described in detail:


This research was conducted among 427 university students (158 males and 269 females) at the MA level from Iran. They were studying different branches of English in state universities of Iran. Among 427 participants, 221 students were studying English Teaching, 54 English Literature, and 152 were English Translation. The criteria for selecting the participants were convenience or opportunity sampling procedures.


The core of self-assessment questionnaire (csaq).

To investigate the level of EFL university students’ CSA, the Core of Self-assessment Questionnaire (CSAQ) was employed. This instrument was developed by Judge et al. ( 2003 ) with 12 items on a five-point Likert scale. The range of obtained scores was from 12 to 60. High scores reflect high levels of self-assessment, while low scores indicate low levels of self-assessment. Based on the report of Cronbach’s alpha (α= 0.879), the reliability of this instrument in our study was acceptable.

Watson–Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-form A (WGCTA)

University students’ CT was assessed via the Watson–Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Form A by Watson and Glaser ( 1980 ). This scale involves five sections: inference (16 items), recognizing assumptions (16 items), making deductions (16 items), interpretation (16 items), and evaluation (16 items). In this research, the report of Cronbach alpha was satisfactory (α = 0.865).

The SInAPSi Academic Engagement Scale (SAES)

The SInAPSi (Services for active participation and inclusion of university students) Academic Engagement Scale (SAES) was designed and validated by Freda et al. ( 2021 ). This instrument aims to gauge university students’ AE. This instrument comprises six dimensions on a five-point Likert scale as follows: (1) university value and sense of belonging (6 items), (2) perception of the capability to persist in the university choice (4 items), (3) value of university course (7 items), (4) engagement with university professors (4 items), (5) engagement with university peers (5 items), and (6) relationships between university and relational net (3 items). In the current investigation, the report of Cronbach was 0.891, which indicated acceptable reliability.

The Foreign Language Learning Self-esteem Scale (FLLSES)

To explore EFL university students’ self-esteem, the Foreign Language Learning Self-esteem Scale (FLLSE) was used. This instrument was developed by Rubio ( 2007 ) on a five-point Likert scale (from 1—strongly disagree to 5—strongly agree). FLLSE includes 25 items in four dimensions: (1) language capability, (2) real in-class language utilization, (3) in-class correlations, and 4) attitude toward / behavior in the class of foreign language. The reliability of this instrument was estimated in this study and the result of the Cronbach alpha coefficient was (α = 0.851) acceptable.

This study was administered through a web-based platform. The data collection started in May and ended in August 2022. The university students at the MA level were asked to complete an electronic survey form including the CSEQ, WGCTA, FLLSES, and SAES via Google Forms. On the whole, 427 forms were received and the return rate was 85.2%. No data were missed due to the design of the electronic survey that all parts should be linked necessarily. More importantly, in electronic surveys, researchers can gather data from different regions with varying age groups and sociocultural backgrounds.

Data analysis

Firstly, the normality of the data was examined through Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. Due to the normal distribution of the data, parametric methods were suggested to analyze the data. Thus, CFA and SEM using LISREL (linear structural relationships) 8.80 were applied. As Hair et al. ( 1998 ) assert, CFA is used to validate the latent variables. Furthermore, SEM is a robust multivariate procedure to take a confirmatory hypothesis-testing approach for the proposed structural theory (Schreiber et al. 2006 ).

The results of statistical analysis employed to gauge the relationships between CSA, CT, FLLSE, and SAE are displayed in this part. At first, the descriptive statistics were calculated and displayed in Table 1 .

Based on Table 1 , the mean score of CSA was 39.129 (SD = 11.076). Among the subscales of CT, interpretation ( M = 56.838, SD = 12.005) was at the highest level and evaluation was at the lowest level ( M = 20.386, SD = 4.784). Furthermore, in-class correlations got the highest mean score ( M = 13.494, SD = 4.183) and real in-class language utilization ( M = 13.494, SD = 4.183) received the lowest mean score among the subscales of FLLSES. Considering the subscales of SAES, the highest mean score is related to the perception of the capability to persist in the university choice ( M = 13.494, SD = 4.183) and the lowest mean score is related to university value and sense of belonging ( M = 11.712, SD = 2.170).

Following this step, the normal descriptions of the data were explored via the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to decide on applying convenient statistical methods. Table 2 reports the results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.

Based on Table 2 , the sig values for all the instruments and their subscales were higher than 0.05, which showed that the data were normally distributed and that applying parametric methods was logical. Therefore, the LISREL 8.80 statistical package was employed to explore the structural relationships among CSA, WGCTA, FLLSE, and SAE. The chi-square magnitude, the root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), the comparative fit index (CFI), and the normed fit index (NFI) were utilized to evaluate the model fit. Based on Jöreskog ( 1990 ), the chi-square/df ratio should be lower than three and the chi-square should be non-significant. The root means square error of approximation (RMSEA) is recommended to be lower than 0.1 (Jöreskog, 1990 ). Moreover, the cut values for the NFI, GFI, and CFI are assumed to be greater than 0.90 (Jöreskog, 1990 ).

As Table 3 presented, the chi-square/df ratio (2.789) and the RMSEA (0.065) were acceptable. Furthermore, GFI (0.921), NFI (0.917), and CFI (0.952) reached the acceptable fit thresholds.

The standardized estimates and t values were examined to inspect the strengths of the causal relationships among the variables. According to Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 , the impact of CSA on FLLSE (β = 0.70, t = 17.65) and SAE (β = 0.65, t = 17.65) was statistically significant and in a positive direction. The influence of CT on FLLSE (β = 0.89, t = 22.69) and SAE (β = 0.76, t = 18.66) was significantly positive. In Table 4 , the report of the fit indices in the second model was displayed. The chi-square/df ratio (2.915) and the RMSEA (0.067) presented the acceptable fit thresholds. In addition, GFI (0.916), NFI (0.913), and CFI (0.932) were acceptable.

figure 2

Schematic representation of path coefficient values for the relationships between CSA, CT, FLLSE, and SAE (model 1)

figure 3

T values for path coefficient significance (model 1)

The contributions of CSA and CT to FLLSE and SAE subscales are shown in Figs. 4 and 5 (model 2). Based on Figs. 4 and 5 , CSA significantly and in a positive direction influenced language capability (β = 0.89, t = 33.89), real in-class language utilization (β = 0.81, t = 30.74), in-class correlations (β = 0.73, t = 25.72), attitude toward behavior (β = 0.66, t = 16.64), university value (β = 0.62, t = 13.67), perception of the capability (β = 0.84, t = 29.60), value of university course (β = 0.76, t = 25.59), engagement university professors (β = 0.71, t = 20.70), engagement university peers (β = 0.69, t = 15.85), and relationships (β = 0.56, t = 12.80). Moreover, the effects of CT on FLLSE and SAE subscales were as follows: language capability (β = 0.78, t = 27.56), real in-class language utilization (β = 0.72, t = 21.71), in-class correlations (β = 0.63, t = 14.65), Attitude toward Behavior (β = 0.82, t = 31.85), university value (β = 0.61, t = 14.72), perception of the capability (β = 0.75, t = 25.63), value of university course (β = 0.79, t = 28.78), engagement university professors (β = 0.68, t = 15.66), engagement university peers (β = 0.57, t = 13.55), and Relationships (β = 0.52, t = 11.14)

figure 4

Schematic representation of path coefficient values for the relationships between CSA, CT, FLLSE subscales, and SAE subscales (model 2)

figure 5

T values for path coefficient significance (model 2)

As the next step, a Pearson product-moment correlation was applied to explore the correlation between CSA, CT, FLLSE subscales, and SAE subscales.

Based on Table 5 , CSA and CT correlated significantly and positively with FLLSE subscales and SAE subscales. The correlation between CSA and FLLSE subscales as well as SAE subscales was as follows: language capability ( r = 0.912, p < 0.01), real in-class language utilization ( r = 0.853, p < 0.01), in-class correlations ( r = 0.708, p < 0.01), attitude toward behavior ( r = 0.752, p < 0.01), university value ( r = 0.684, p < 0.01), perception of the capability ( r = 0.891, p < 0.01), value of university course ( r = 0.802, p < 0.01), engagement university professors ( r = 0.733, p < 0.01), engagement university peers ( r = 0.712, p < 0.01), and relationships ( r = 0.612, p < 0.01).

Additionally, the correlation between CT and FLLSE subscales as well as SAE subscales were as follows: language capability ( r = 0.804, p < 0.01), real in-class language utilization ( r = 0.744, p < 0.01), In-class Correlations ( r = 0.689, p < 0.01), attitude toward behavior ( r = 0.881, p < 0.01), university value ( r = 0.683, p < 0.01), perception of the capability ( r = 0.789, p < 0.01), value of university course ( r = 0.812, p < 0.01), engagement university professors ( r = 0.716, p < 0.01), engagement university peers ( r = 0.603, p < 0.01), and relationships (r=0.573, p < 0.01).

The current research intended to investigate the association between CSA, CT, AE, and SE in the Iranian EFL context. In so doing, the researchers of this study proposed a model to display the association between these constructs and it was tested via SEM. The outcomes of the survey reflected that CSA and CT could predict AE and SE significantly. Model 1 and model 2 portray their relationships and highlight the mediator roles of CSA and CT in fostering learner-oriented assessment in the classroom. Thereby, the first null hypothesis (EFL university learners’ CSA does not influence their AE), the second null hypothesis (EFL university learners’ CSA does not affect their SE), the third null hypothesis (EFL university learners’ CT does not influence their AE), and the fourth one (EFL university learners’ CT does not affect their SE) were rejected.

Based on the findings relevant to the first research question (To what extent does EFL university learners’ CSA influence their AE?), the role of CSA on AE was statistically significant. It means that high levels of CSA enable EFL university learners to be more active in all class activities. In such a situation, university learners feel more responsible for their tasks and assessments. They invest more time in their evaluation, social interaction, and group works. They can cope with difficulties and feel less anxious. The class activities and learning-oriented assessment engage university learners. According to the second model, CSA influenced the subcomponents of AE positively. That is, CSA influenced university value and sense of belonging, perception of the capability to persist in the university choice, the value of university courses, engagement with university professors, engagement with university peers, and relationships between the university and relational net.

This outcome can be discussed theoretically. The idea of CSA is theoretically supported by self-determination and self-identity theories (Bourke & Mentis, 2007 , 2013 ). It can be inferred that learner-oriented assessment explicitly and implicitly helps EFL university learners to achieve positive self-identity, which provides positive attitudes toward learning and educational values. It also affects the students’ social relationships. Furthermore, this finding is in accord with Huang’s findings ( 2022 ), who concluded that self-assessment contributes to self-regulation and self-efficacy. Up to now, no empirical studies have ever been conducted to inspect the relationships between CSA and AE and the current research is the first attempt.

Considering the second research question (To what extent does EFL university learners’ CSA influence their SE?), the results indicated that CSA directs university learners’ SE. It means that learners’ attitudes toward self-assessment and self-monitoring affect how they perceive themselves. The more university students practice self-assessment, the higher they find their personal worth and values. It was also concluded and illustrated in the second model that CSA affected the subcomponents of SE (language capability, real in-class language utilization, in-class correlations, and attitude toward behavior in the class of foreign language).

Regarding the third research question (To what extent does EFL university learners’ CT influence their AE?), it was also found that EFL university learners’ CT influenced their AE. It means that higher levels of cognitive and metacognitive skills would guarantee learners’ AE. This outcome can be investigated from the lens of CSA. According to the results of the first research question, CSA and learner-oriented assessment provide the situation for the learners to be involved directly in their assessment and learning procedure. University students, who are armed with higher-order thinking skills are more successful in evaluation, monitoring, and metacognition (Davoudi & Heydarnejad, 2020 ). Thus, it can be inferred that more investment in CSA increases students’ engagement, especially in higher education. As Deng et al. ( 2022 ) concluded, self-monitoring makes individuals aware of the positive and negative aspects of their educational lives and increases self-efficacy and engagement. In the same line of inquiry, Namaziandost, Heydarnejad, and Rezai ( 2022 ) evidenced that higher-order thinking skills influence individuals’ well-being to a great extent.

As the second model indicated, the effect of CT on the subcomponents of AE was great and in a positive direction. To put it another way, CT gives direction to learners’ university value and sense of belonging, perception of the capability to persist in the university choice, the value of university courses, engagement with the university professors, engagement with university peers, and relationships between the university and relational net. This outcome seems logical considering the fact that CT skills open the minds of the learners. The findings of the study also displayed that CT could play a mediator role in university learners’ SE (To what extent does EFL university learners’ CT influence their SE?). It means CT skills give a better understanding of self. In other words, CT sets the tone of EFL university learners’ self-image and SE. The more they practice CT strategies, the better they adjust their thoughts and beliefs. That is, CT enables learners to improve their SE. Additionally, the second model presented that CT influenced the subscales of SE (language capability, real in-class language utilization, in-class correlations, and attitude toward behavior in the class of foreign language). This result corroborates with those of Amirian et al. ( 2022 ), Heydarnejad, Hosseini Fatemi, and Ghonsooly ( 2021 ), and Xiyun et al. ( 2022 ). They evinced that higher-order thinking skills, self-regulatory strategies, SE, as well as self-efficacy beliefs are closely related.

Conclusion and implications

In a nutshell, this research documented the contribution of CSA and CT to AE and SE in EFL higher education. The findings pictured that CSA and CT facilitate learning-oriented assessment in the classroom. They promote learners’ AE and SE. In other words, CSA and CT act like a compass for EFL learners and help them to focus on every step taken on the educational road. CSA and CT could have a significant impact on the personal growth and development of their SE. Moreover, CSA opens the eyes of learners in general and EFL learners in partiture. Learning-oriented assessment taps the actual use of language in language learning and deserves more attention from testing specialists. Actually, research on the relationship between CSA, CT, AE, and SE in the educational context, particularly in the EFL context, is quite rare and calls for more attention. The present research was the first attempt to portray the relationship between CSA, CT, AE, and SE. Therefore, the findings can open a new window in educational research and foster the implementation of learning-oriented assessment in the classroom, especially in the EFL domain.

Some pedagogical implications for educators, particularly in higher education are suggested. The provision of learning-oriented assessment in the classroom has received great emphasis. Thus, language learners need to develop and practice CSA and CT while at the same time respecting learners’ attempts in making their own statements and conceptualization. This golden opportunity boost AE and encourage SE. Thus, language teachers need to acquire the related knowledge to implement CSA and CT in classes. In this regard, pre-service and in-service teacher training programs are strongly recommended. Teacher training courses can be developed to teach effective strategies for practicing learning-oriented assessment in the classroom This awareness is also crucial for language teachers, language testers, as well as learners, especially those in higher education should become alert about the advantages of practicing CSA and CT. They also need to learn efficient strategies to practice CSA and CT. The investment in higher-order thinking skills can be achieved through designing and developing appropriate educational materials and tasks as well as functional practice and assessment. Language learners should also learn that they play a crucial role in their process of AE and SE. Thus, they need to practice useful strategies to improve AE and SE.

Similar to other research in the realm of education, this study was limited in some aspects. Firstly, the current investigation is quantitative in nature, thus getting a deeper understanding of the causal links between CSA, CT, AE, and SE. Future studies can apply mixed-method approaches to complete the related outcomes. Secondly, demographic variables and their possible effects on CSA, CT, AE, and SE were not the targets of this study; therefore, they can be a recommendation for future research. Additionally, as a further research avenue, it is suggested to explore the influence of CSA, CT, AE, and SE on other learner-related constructs (i.e., academic buoyancy, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and evaluation apprehension).

Availability of data and materials

The authors state that all the data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article.


English as a Foreign Language

Core of Self-assessment

Core of Self-Assessment Questionnaire

  • Critical thinking

Watson–Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-form A

  • Academic engagement

The SInAPSi Academic Engagement Scale

  • Self-esteem

The Foreign Language Learning Self-esteem Scale

Good Fit Index

Linear structural relations

Normed Fit Index

Root-mean-squared error of approximation

Confirmatory factor analysis

Structural equation modeling

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Tahereh Heydarnejad

Department of English, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran

Elham Saberi Dehkordi

Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Bengkulu, Bengkulu, Indonesia

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All authors had equal substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and writing the manuscript. The authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Tahereh Heydarnejad is a university lecturer at the department of English language, University of Gonabad, Gonabad, Iran. She published many papers in different local and international journals.

Riswanto was born on April 10th 1972 at a small cold town named Curup in Bengkulu province. He is a senior English lecturer at Universitas Islam Negeri Fatmawati Sukarno Bengkulu. He has been teaching at this university since 1999. He finished his Sarjana degree at Bengkulu University 1997 on English education majoring. He completed his master degree from State University of Padang 2007 and in 2014 He was awarded Ph.D. degree from University of Science Malaysia on TESOL Methodology department. The writer is very active in academic activities such as seminars, conferences and workshops both in Indonesia and overseas programs. Besides, the writer is also active in writing scientific papers and references book, book chapters and proceedings as well as journal articles both national and international journals.

Elham Saberi Dehkordi is a lecturer at department of English, Islamic Azad University of Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran.

Bambang Parmadi was born on May 6, 1974 in Sumenep Regency, East Java Province. He is a lecturer in Music Arts Education, Regional Cultural Studies, and Educational Philosophy at Bengkulu University. He has taught at this university since 2010, previously teaching as a teacher at a high school and junior high school in Bengkulu. Completed his undergraduate degree at the Padang Teaching and Education Institute in 1998 majoring in Music Arts Education. He completed his master’s degree from the Surakarta Indonesian Art Institute majoring in Art Creation (Karawitan) in 2008 and in 2018 he was awarded the title of Dr. Cultural Studies of Ethnomusicology Concentration from Udayana University, Denpasar. The author is very active in academic activities such as seminars, conferences and workshops both at home and abroad. In addition, the author is also active in writing scientific papers and reference books, book chapters and proceedings as well as journal articles in both national and international journals.

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Riswanto, Heydarnejad, T., Saberi Dehkordi, E. et al. Learning-oriented assessment in the classroom: the contribution of self-assessment and critical thinking to EFL learners’ academic engagement and self-esteem. Lang Test Asia 12 , 60 (2022).

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class contribution self evaluation essay

Home — Essay Types — Self Evaluation Essay

Self Evaluation Essay Examples

The majority of self-evaluation essays that you will encounter as a college student will refer to all the possible topics as there are no limitations as long as you explore some ideas correctly by using specific structure. Turning to our free self-evaluation essay examples, you will see that it’s necessary to apply analysis and talk about what kind of challenges you have encountered with some subject or what ideas have been overly complex to you as you started researching them. Students also explore their grammar and sentence structure skills as well. The main purpose here is to apply criticism to your writing and estimate what you have learned or how your understanding of some problem may have changed. Think about the reasons why it has happened, refer to your past assignments, and check up with your grading rubric to ensure that you are on the right track. 

Speaking of a self-evaluation structure , it should include the following obligatory sections: 

  • Introduction paragraph where you discuss your objectives and talk about what kind of work has been done in the past or what subject you have researched.
  • Your research methodology paragraph where you discuss your methods and explain what you would like to achieve. 
  • Analysis of your findings or the evaluation itself, which is the body part of your self-evaluation essay. 
  • Topic importance and discussion of your findings and discoveries. 
  • Conclusion paragraph must sum up what you have learned and talk about your future aspirations. 

As a rule, no references are needed for this kind of writing as you have to reflect and research your own skills and knowledge, turning to your past works. Take your time to check our self-evaluation essay checklist: 

  • You have provided an introduction with your evaluation objectives.
  • Your essay tone is analytical.
  • You create a special timeline between your past state and the current achievements.
  • You talk about what you could discover and evaluate things.
  • You present a clear method of researching based on certain aspects.
  • Your conclusion paragraph talks about your key findings.

Make sure that you add the list of references if you have used any external sources. Talk to your academic advisor regarding using the parts from your past essays. It can easily lead to self-plagiarism issues. Always check with your grading rubric when in doubt! 


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What is a self-evaluation essay?

Also known as the reflection essay, it is a common type of writing that most students receive regardless of their course. A popular example is a nursing self-evaluation essay where one must describe an experience and talk about what has been learned and how the goals have been achieved. As the paper is being structured, you must write in the first person and keep to an analytical narrative tone.

How to write self-evaluation essays?

Remember that most topics that require self-evaluation must contain ideas that deal with your personal experience. As a rule, such essays do not contain references but talk about your progress and the lessons learned. See our self evaluation-essay examples to understand the tone and style of such writing. Start with a brief introduction and the statement of facts. Such an essay must end with a reflection summary or an analytical paragraph.

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class contribution self evaluation essay

The best self-evaluation examples for performance reviews

class contribution self evaluation essay

Asking employees to do what's known as a  self-evaluation is a normal part of the performance review process . In other words, we ask them to analyse and reflect on their performance and their contribution to the company throughout a given period and put it in writing. To ensure we receive accurate, complete and honest self-evaluations, especially when doing so for the first time, we recommend looking at other employee self-evaluation examples or use pre-designed templates . The HR team can also provide a script or questionnaire on how to write a performance evaluation self-evaluation as a reference for employees. Below, we take a look at some examples of self-evaluations for performance reviews to clear any doubts:

Self-evaluation examples

Harvey Mudd College proposes a questionnaire that enables the user to choose which questions they want to answer and customise their self-evaluation. The questions are also split into categories to make it easier to understand.

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Job description

  • How would you describe your main responsibilities?
  • Have these responsibilities changed over time
  • Do you carry out any other tasks, and if so, which?
  • Is there anything in your work you would like to change, and if so, how would you do it?
  • What could your line manager do to help you be more successful in your job?
  • How do you think your department could improve?

Performance vs achievements

  • What action have you taken to fulfil your responsibilities?
  • Do you feel you've been successful during this period?
  • Do you think you could have done anything better?
  • How do you think you have contributed to our department during this period?
  • What are your main strengths?
  • In which areas do you feel you could improve?
  • What objectives have you reached during this period?
  • Which ones did you not manage to achieve, and why?
  • What objectives do you propose for the next period?
  • Do you think you need help or extra resources to reach these objectives?

Professional development

  • What training programmes have you taken part in?
  • Are there any areas you would like to train in?
  • Do you need extra resources or training to do your job?
  • What could your line manager do to help you achieve your professional development goals?

Free Self Evaluation Template

To help you and your employees with their next self evaluation, we've created this self evaluation template that you can download for free. With this template, you and your employees will be able to prepare themselves in no time for their next performance review - with the added benefit that all your future self evaluations will be consistent in style and form. If you do have any additional questions that you would like to add to our template, you are of course more than welcome to modify it. 

Kenjo Self Evaluation Template

Self-evaluation sample answers

Properly preparing the self-evaluation answers is just as important as having a script, as they will be a part of the company's final assessment. Some inspiration for possible answers:

1. Collaboration and teamwork

Positive option: " I believe that my skills and my ability to work in a team have been valuable during this period. I have taken an active role in my department, working with confidence and expressing my ideas and opinions." Negative option: "I realise that I can be too controlling in a project, and I don't give other members of the team enough room to contribute or develop their ideas. I must learn to give others more space and let them take the initiative too."

2. Motivation

Positive option: "I have consistently shown commitment and motivation ever since I joined the company. I meet set deadlines and objectives on time." Negative option: "As I'm a perfectionist, I think that I sometimes spend too much time on one task. I must learn to use resources more efficiently."

3. Leadership

Positive option: " I feel that I lead my team by example. My actions are what defines my work." That's why I spend time thinking about how to solve the problems and challenges that may arise." Negative option: "Maybe I should try harder to promote the company's culture and values within my team. While I regularly hold meetings with this in mind, I should focus on boosting team spirit and collaboration."

self evaluation examples for work

4. Problem-solving

Positive option: "I have demonstrated my problem-solving skills several times during my time in the company." I manage to solve difficult situations efficiently, always taking the rest of the team into consideration." Negative option: "I sometimes feel overwhelmed when having to make an important decision, so I ask others for advice. I need to work on my ability to solve complex problems."

5. Decision-making skills

Positive option: "When faced with a difficult decision, I make a rational assessment of the positives and negatives, as well as the possible outcomes." I do research and seek expert advice to make an informed decision." Negative option: "When it comes to making decisions, I tend to fall back on past experiences instead of looking for new solutions. I should spend more time reflecting and avoid making the same mistakes."

6. Working under pressure

Positive option: "I manage my time effectively to meet deadlines, however tight they may be." I have the ability to prioritise the most important tasks, and if I can't do it, I'll delegate to others who have the experience." Negative option: "Time management is one of my weaknesses. I usually leave the more difficult or least appealing tasks until the last minute. My attention to details gets worse as the stress builds."

7. Communication

Positive option: "I value conversation and debate among colleagues. I actively listen to my team and encourage joint decision-making. I try to build positive relationships when communicating with clients." Negative option: "I need to work on my ability to deal with emotions and not let them affect my working relationships. I sometimes find it hard to communicate."

8. Adaptability

Positive option: "I adapt to change and I try to do my bit during transitions." I appreciate feedback when things don't go well, I stay calm and positive." Negative option: "I must work on supporting change and avoid micromanagement. I find it difficult to take on new tasks or those that don't fall under my responsibility."

9. Negotiation and problem-solving

Positive option: "I successfully negotiated (fill in as applicable) during this period which resulted in (add information about gains) for the company. I'm an analytical thinker which enables me to accurately assess situations and steer the conversation towards achieving results." Negative option: "While I feel I have progressed with my negotiation skills, I still think there's room for improvement. I approach meetings appropriately, and I always try to use active listening."

10. Emotional intelligence

Positive option: "I'm aware of my strengths and weaknesses, which enables me to deal with emotions more easily. I try to understand and listen to everyone." Negative option: "I often feel frustrated, and I find it hard to communicate when faced with certain behaviours by other team members. I get distracted and don't take other people's opinions into consideration."

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Tips on how to write a performance evaluation self-assessment

As well as taking these self-evaluation examples into consideration, below are some general tips that can be useful when writing the document.

1. Use numbers to your advantage

Include figures that add value to your work, if possible. It's always better if you use numbers to speak for themselves. Also, a self-evaluation should include metrics and KPIs. For example: Wrong: "I achieved great success in 2020." Correct: "I exceeded my sales targets by 135% in 2020."

2. Mention results

Don't take anything for granted or think that numbers speak for themselves. Mention and explain every one of your achievements during the period in question. Don't expect your boss to remember every single one. For example: "In the third quarter, the marketing campaign achieved twice as much visibility than the previous quarter."

3. Take the company's objectives into account

One good way to stand out in your evaluation is to consider the company's objectives and explain how your work has contributed to achieving them. Find specific figures and justify them. For example: "I increased my own sales by 10% as part of the department's general sales strategy."

4. Record your achievements in real-time

Make notes throughout the year in preparation for the self-evaluation. Record them regularly, or even at the time, instead of having to remember everything at the eleventh hour. If we don't think this system is feasible, we can also go back through the schedule to remind ourselves what happened at each stage. This is a good exercise for jolting the memory.

5. Take your time

A well-written self-evaluation takes time. It's not something you can do in 20 minutes, nor in a day. Spend whatever time it takes to ensure that it shows your worth. Try to reserve a few days in your calendar before the deadline to work on the text.  

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60+ Self-Evaluation Examples to Empower your Workforce

  • Performance Management , Personal Development

Self-Evaluation Examples: Empower Your Workforce for Success


  • October 27, 2023

Fuel success with 60+ examples of self evaluation to unleash your team’s potential!

Self-evaluation is a crucial cornerstone of a successful 360-degree performance review process. It’s not just a mere checkbox on the to-do list; it’s a critical element that can make or break the effectiveness of the entire evaluation process. It’s the moment when employees have the chance to tell their story, showcasing their achievements and areas of career growth. But here’s the catch: if they don’t fill it out correctly, it can leave HR professionals in the dark, struggling to gauge an accurate picture of an employee’s performance . 

This is why aiding employees in crafting an effective self-evaluation is important.

In this blog, we aim to provide you with a practical solution. We’ll share over 60 self-evaluation examples that your employees can easily utilize to gain a better understanding of how to construct their self-appraisals.

Before diving in, make sure to set clear goals and communicate expectations to your team based on their KPIs. This ensures that employees understand what’s expected of them and allows them to assess their work performance, backed by data for a comprehensive evaluation. With Peoplebox, aligning self-appraisal with performance goals becomes a seamless process for you and your team.

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What Criteria Does the Self-evaluation Form Include?

Before your employees begin writing their self-appraisals, it’s essential that they have a clear understanding of the key criteria on which they should evaluate their own performance. Here are the fundamental criteria that make up an effective self-evaluation form, share it with your employees to assist them in crafting more insightful and impactful self-appraisals.

Key criteria of self-evaluation forms


In any performance evaluation, aligning accomplishments with organizational goals is paramount. Encourage employees to detail their achievements that directly contribute to the company’s mission and objectives. For instance, if an employee played a pivotal role in increasing sales by 20% or completed a project ahead of schedule, these are noteworthy accomplishments that should be highlighted.

Areas of Improvement

The ability to recognize and acknowledge areas for improvement is a crucial trait in professional growth. Employees should candidly discuss areas where they believe they can enhance their performance. Whether it’s a need for additional training or a particular skill set, this self-evaluation criterion fosters a proactive approach to self-improvement.

On job competencies

Understanding one’s strengths is as important as recognizing weaknesses. Employees should list their core competencies and strengths, emphasizing how these attributes contribute to their team and the organization as a whole. This encourages employees to take pride in their skills and boosts their confidence.

Things you value in the company

Incorporating this element into the self-evaluation process demonstrates an employee’s commitment to the organization’s values and culture. Encourage employees to share what they value most about the company, whether it’s the collaborative work environment, the opportunities for growth, or the company’s commitment to social responsibility. This not only reinforces the alignment between the employee and the company’s values but also helps in understanding organizational culture from an employee perspective.

Goals for next quarter

The forward-looking aspect of self-evaluation is often underestimated. Employees should set goals for the upcoming quarter or evaluation period. Whether it’s setting specific performance targets, acquiring new skills, or taking on additional responsibilities, this criterion reflects an employee’s commitment to personal and professional development.

Performance management platforms like Peoplebox make goal-setting and tracking easy. With options to assign owners, choose goal cycles, and track progress every step of the way, goal setting becomes a streamlined and collaborative process.

How to set employee goals for performance review on Peoplebox

Social and Soft Skills

In today’s interconnected workplace, social and soft skills are invaluable. During self-appraisal, employees should reflect on how their communication, teamwork, leadership, and adaptability skills have contributed to their effectiveness within the organization. Encouraging employees to provide concrete examples of situations where their soft skills made a difference adds depth to their self-assessment.

With a performance management software like Peoplebox, you can seamlessly integrate self-evaluation into your feedback process. This fosters a proactive approach to personal growth by encouraging employees to candidly discuss areas for improvement and recognize their core competencies.

Now that we have covered the key criteria to consider, let us dive into 60+ self-evaluation examples to empower your workforce for success.

But before that, it’s crucial to recognize that the quality of the answers is directly linked to the quality of the questions posed. Unsure about the right questions for a performance review? We’ve got you covered! Download our FREE ebook, filled with a curated list of impactful questions designed to enhance your performance review process. 

Performance review questions ebook

60+ Employee Self-evaluation Examples

To make the self-evaluation process more effective, we’ve compiled an extensive list of specific examples of self-evaluation. These employee self-evaluation examples are categorized into achievements and areas for growth, covering a wide range of job-related skills and personal development aspects.

Self-evaluation Examples for Work To Assess Teamwork And Collaboration Skills

Effective teamwork and collaboration are at the heart of a thriving workplace. To evaluate these essential skills, employees should be prepared to reflect on their ability to work cohesively with others during self-appraisals.

Here are some key questions to consider:

How well do you work with your team? Can you share an example where your contribution to the team helped the company reach or near its business goal?

Example 1: “I consistently fostered a positive team environment by actively participating in group discussions and encouraging open communication. This led to our team consistently meeting project deadlines.”

Example 2: “I played a key role in resolving a team conflict by mediating between two conflicting parties, which resulted in improved collaboration and better productivity.”

Areas for Improvement

Example 1: “While I work well within my immediate team, I need to actively seek cross-functional collaboration to leverage diverse perspectives and insights.” Example 2: “I sometimes struggle to express my new ideas clearly in group settings, which occasionally leads to misunderstandings. I aim to enhance my communication skills in team meetings.”

Self Assessment Examples For Assessing Job Performance

Evaluating job performance is pivotal in any organization. Employees should critically assess their contributions to the company’s goals.

Here are some guiding questions for this self-evaluation:

What are your major accomplishments in your current role? How have you contributed to the organization’s success?

Example 1: “I consistently exceeded my quarterly sales targets by implementing innovative sales strategies and maintaining strong client relationships.”

Example 2: “I played a pivotal role in optimizing our project management system, which resulted in a 20% reduction in project completion time.”

Example 1: “I occasionally struggle with time management, which leads to minor delays in project completion. I plan to improve my time management skills to meet deadlines more consistently.”

Example 2: “While my technical skills are strong, I want to enhance my soft skills to improve client interactions and public speaking, and maintain better relationships.”

Self evaluation To Assess Job Performance And Future Goals

Self-assessment for job performance isn’t just about the present; it’s also an opportunity to envision and plan for the future with clear expectations.

Consider these questions:

Have you achieved your previous job performance goals? What are your future career goals and how are you working towards them?

Self appraisal examples highlighting accomplishments

Example 1: “I achieved all the goals set in my last performance review, and I’m on track to meet my long-term career objectives, which include securing a leadership role within the next two years.”

Example 2: “I consistently seek opportunities for professional growth and have completed four online courses in the last year to enhance my skills and knowledge.”

Self appraisal examples highlighting areas for Improvement

Example 1: “I sometimes find it challenging to align my daily tasks with my long-term goals. I plan to create a more structured career development plan to bridge this gap.”

Example 2: “While I excel in my current role, I lack experience in a few critical areas required for future leadership. I intend to seek mentorship and training in those specific areas.”

Self-evaluation Focused On KPIs

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) provide clear benchmarks for success. Self-evaluation in this context involves analyzing one’s alignment with these metrics.

Reflect on these questions during your self-assessment process:

How have you performed against your KPIs? Have you contributed to improving the KPIs within your department or team?

Example 1: “I consistently met or exceeded all my Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for the year, leading to a 15% increase in departmental efficiency.”

Example 2: “I successfully streamlined our KPI tracking process, reducing manual work and allowing for real-time updates on progress.”

Example 1: “While I perform well on established KPIs, I need to work on setting more challenging KPIs to continue driving growth in our department.”

Example 2: “I sometimes struggle to adapt to new KPIs introduced mid-year. I plan to become more flexible in my approach to ensure better performance.”

Work Environment And Company Culture Self-evaluation

Company culture is essential to employee satisfaction and productivity. To evaluate one’s impact on the work environment and culture , consider these questions:

How have you contributed to fostering a positive work environment and company culture? Have you actively addressed workplace issues or conflicts?

Self appraisal comments highlighting accomplishments

Example 1: “I actively contributed to our company’s culture of diversity and inclusion by organizing a cultural awareness workshop, which received positive feedback from colleagues.”

Example 2: “I played a key role in maintaining a positive work environment by consistently addressing workplace issues and fostering a sense of belonging among my team members.”

Self assessment comments covering areas for Improvement

Example 1: “While I am an advocate for workplace culture, I sometimes struggle to balance my commitments in this area with my core job responsibilities.”

Example 2: “I aim to improve my conflict resolution skills to help address any arising tensions within the team effectively .”

Leadership Skills Self-evaluation Examples

Leadership skills are key for personal growth and team success. To assess these skills, think about your actions as a leader and how they influence your team.

What leadership accomplishments can you highlight? How have you mentored or inspired your team members?

Example 1: “I successfully led a cross-functional team through a challenging project, resulting in a 30% increase in project efficiency and a 15% cost reduction.”

Example 2: “I actively mentor team members, and my team’s overall performance improved by 20% this year, thanks to my leadership and guidance.”

Example 1: “While I excel in day-to-day leadership, I need to enhance my long-term strategic planning abilities to guide the team towards broader objectives.”

Example 2: “I aim to improve my delegation skills to empower team members more effectively and reduce the pressure on myself.”

Self-evaluation To Assess Communication And Interpersonal Skills

Effective communication is the cornerstone of workplace relationships. To evaluate your communication and interpersonal skills, reflect on these questions:

How well do you communicate with your colleagues, superiors, and clients? Have you actively sought and incorporated feedback from others?

Example 1: “I am proficient in delivering clear and concise presentations, and I received positive feedback from clients for my effective communication.”

Example 2: “I actively seek feedback from team members and colleagues, which has led to better collaboration and more open communication within our department.”

Example 1: “I occasionally struggle with written communication, so I am working to improve my written correspondence skills to ensure clarity and professionalism.”

Example 2: “I need to work on my active listening skills to ensure that I fully understand the perspectives of others in meetings and discussions.”

Self Assessment Examples To Evaluate Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is increasingly recognized as a vital skill. To assess your emotional intelligence, ask yourself:

How do you handle workplace conflicts and challenging emotional situations? Are you aware of your own emotions and their impact on your decision-making and interactions?

Example 1: “I consistently handle workplace conflicts with empathy and understanding, fostering a more harmonious work environment.”

Example 2: “I have developed a high degree of emotional resilience, which has allowed me to manage stressful situations effectively and ensure a positive impact on others.”

Example 1: “While I am emotionally intelligent, I sometimes struggle with recognizing and addressing emotions in others. I aim to enhance my empathy skills further.”

Example 2: “I need to work on my self-awareness to better understand how my emotions can impact my decision-making and interactions with others.”

Self-evaluation Examples for Work To Assess Problem Solving And Decision Making Skills

Problem solving and decision making are integral to professional growth. To evaluate these skills, consider the following:

How have you tackled complex problems and challenges in your role? Do you make well-informed decisions and analyze data effectively?

Example 1: “I consistently resolve complex problems by breaking them down into manageable steps and collaborating with team members, leading to a XX% reduction in project delays.”

Example 2: “I have a track record of making well-informed decisions by thoroughly analyzing data and considering potential risks, resulting in successful project outcomes.”

Example 1: “While I excel in routine problem-solving, I aim to improve my ability to think ‘outside the box’ and explore more creative solutions.”

Example 2: “I sometimes hesitate in decision-making, which can cause minor delays. I plan to enhance my confidence in making quick, effective decisions.”

Self-evaluation Examples for Work To Evaluate Time Management And Productivity

Time management and productivity are crucial in any job. For self-assessment, ponder these questions:

How well do you manage your time to meet deadlines and prioritize tasks? Have you adopted effective time management techniques to boost productivity?

Example 1: “I consistently meet deadlines and prioritize tasks effectively, resulting in a 10% increase in my daily productivity .”

Example 2: “I actively use time management techniques, like the Pomodoro method, to stay focused and achieve my daily tasks efficiently.”

Example 1: “I sometimes struggle with multitasking, which can impact my efficiency. I plan to work on improving my ability to juggle multiple tasks effectively.”

Example 2: “I aim to minimize distractions during work hours to further enhance my time management skills and boost my overall productivity.”

Self-evaluation To Assess Ethical Conduct

Maintaining ethical conduct and work ethics is essential for personal and organizational integrity. To assess your adherence to these values, ask yourself:

How consistently do you uphold your company’s ethical standards? Have you actively promoted ethical practices within your team or department?

Self appraisal comments highlighting strength 

Example 1: “I adhere to our company’s code of ethics without exception and consistently model ethical behavior for my team, resulting in a culture of integrity.”

Example 2: “I have actively promoted ethical practices by reporting any unethical behavior or violations, thereby upholding our organization’s values.”

Self appraisal comments highlighting areas for Improvement

Example 1: “I need to work on my ability to handle ethical dilemmas more effectively, seeking guidance when necessary to make the right decisions.”

Example 2: “I aim to enhance my ethical decision-making by further understanding our company’s specific ethical guidelines and their implications.”

Self-evaluation To Assess Adaptability And Resilience

In a constantly changing world, adaptability and resilience are invaluable traits. Reflect on these questions for self-assessment:

How well do you adapt to changes in your work environment and projects? Are you resilient in the face of challenges and setbacks?

Example 1: “I effectively adapted to a sudden shift in project priorities, ensuring that our team remained productive and delivered results ahead of schedule.”

Example 2: “I consistently maintain a positive attitude in the face of challenges, which has been recognized by colleagues and has inspired a resilient mindset within the team.”

Example 1: “While I handle most changes well, I occasionally find it challenging to adapt to significant shifts in project scope. I am working on improving my adaptability in such cases.”

Example 2: “I aim to enhance my stress management skills to maintain resilience in high-pressure situations.”

Self-evaluation Examples Evaluating Customer Service Skills

In roles involving customer interactions, customer service skills are vital. To assess these skills, consider the following:

  • How well do you handle customer interactions and address their needs?
  • Have you built strong relationships with clients to enhance repeat business and referrals?

Example 1: “I consistently receive positive feedback from clients for my responsive communication and problem-solving abilities, resulting in a 20% increase in customer satisfaction.”

Example 2: “I have developed strong relationships with key clients, which has led to increased repeat business and referrals.”

Example 1: “While I excel in customer interactions, I sometimes need to improve my product knowledge to answer more technical questions.”

Example 2: “I occasionally struggle with handling irate customers effectively. I am working on de-escalation techniques to improve in this area.”

Critical Thinking Self-appraisal Examples

Critical thinking is the foundation of effective decision-making. To evaluate your critical thinking skills, ask yourself these questions while self-evaluating:

How do you approach problems and make decisions by considering different perspectives? Have you promoted a culture of critical thinking and innovation within your team?

Example 1: “I consistently approach problems with a critical mindset, analyzing data and considering multiple perspectives to arrive at well-informed decisions.”

Example 2: “I have successfully trained my team to think critically, fostering a culture of innovation and efficiency.”

Example 1: “I aim to enhance my problem-solving creativity to generate more out-of-the-box solutions to complex challenges.”

Example 2: “I sometimes find it challenging to maintain critical thinking under tight deadlines. I plan to improve my ability to think clearly in high-pressure situations.”

 Self-appraisal Examples To Evaluate Negotiation Skills

Negotiation skills are crucial in many roles. To assess your negotiation skills, think about your approach and effectiveness in negotiations. Reflect on these questions:

How well do you negotiate to achieve favorable outcomes? Are you assertive and well-prepared in negotiations, and do you maintain a collaborative approach?

Example 1: “I negotiate advantageous terms in contracts, saving the company XX% on supplier agreements.”

Example 2: “I have successfully mediated between team members in conflict, helping them find common ground and reach mutually beneficial solutions.”

Example 1: “I sometimes struggle with assertiveness during negotiations. I am working on improving my ability to stand firm on key points while maintaining a collaborative approach.”

Example 2: “I aim to enhance my negotiation preparation skills to enter discussions with more information and leverage.”

Self-evaluation Examples For Start, Stop, Continue Feedback

The “Start, Stop, Continue” approach is a simple yet effective way to assess your work habits. To use this approach for self-evaluation, ask yourself:

What new habits or actions should you start implementing for personal and professional growth? What existing habits or actions should you stop to improve your performance? What current practices or behaviors should you continue because they contribute positively to your work and development?

Peoplebox simplifies start/stop/continue feedback with its built-in templates, making the process effortless.

Use Peoplebox performance management platform to collect self appraisals

Self-evaluation Examples for New Tasks You Must Start

Example 1: “I plan to start actively seeking cross-functional projects to broaden my skills and knowledge within the organization.”

Example 2: “I intend to start providing more constructive feedback to my peers to foster a culture of growth and improvement within the team.”

Self-evaluation Examples for Tasks You Must Stop

Example 1: “I recognize that I need to stop procrastinating on certain tasks and start addressing them promptly to improve productivity.”

Example 2: “I should stop engaging in non-essential tasks during work hours and stay focused on my core responsibilities.”

self-reviews template

Self-evaluation Examples for Tasks You Must Continue

Example 1: “I will continue actively participating in team-building activities to maintain a positive work environment.”

Example 2: “I intend to continue my daily routine of reviewing industry news to stay updated on current trends and best practices.”

Align Performance Review with Business Goals Using Peoplebox

Feedback and reviews are the cornerstone of your company’s success. When implemented correctly, it sets a culture of continuous improvement and growth. With advancements in digital technology, performance management tools like Peoplebox can come in handy. 

It seamlessly integrates with your existing collaboration tools like Slack and Team and help you streamline your employee feedback and reviews. 

Client review about Peoplebox’s integration capabilities

By integrating Peoplebox with your Slack/Microsoft Teams application, you can:

  • Conduct customized 360-degree reviews 
  • Administer employee engagement and life surveys 
  • Send personalized nudges for 1:1s, check-ins, and goal updation
  • Discuss and align on progress around goals & strategic initiatives
  • Run meaningful 1:1s with agenda and talking points
  • Onboard new employees

With Peoplebox by your side, remove unnecessary hassle from your HR process and get ready to give your employees the magical experience they deserve. 

Talk to our solutions experts to know how Peoplebox can help.

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  1. Self Evaluation Sample Essay

    class contribution self evaluation essay

  2. How To Write A Self Evaluation Essay

    class contribution self evaluation essay

  3. 19 Printable self evaluation essay Forms and Templates

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  4. My Self Evaluation

    class contribution self evaluation essay

  5. 😍 How to start a self evaluation paper. Self Evaluation Essay. 2022-10-17

    class contribution self evaluation essay

  6. Self Evaluation Examples

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  1. Overcoming The Emptiness Within

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  3. My Class Teacher

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  5. Final Project Demo

  6. Essay Types


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    Evaluation of Strengths. During this semester, I have identified several strengths in my class participation that I am proud of: Active Engagement: I consistently attended class sessions and actively engaged with the course material. I found the topics interesting, which motivated me to participate regularly.

  2. Self-Reflection on Course Participation Essay (Critical Writing)

    Participation in class discussions and online activities is important in any learning endeavor because it promotes effective learning activities, stimulates creativity, and instills confidence. Active contribution to discussions is a reflection of competency of the skills I have gained in class. This paper provides a self-reflection on course ...

  3. How to Write a Self Evaluation (With Examples)

    Self evaluations are performance assessments that bring you and your manager together to rate your performance over a given time span (quarterly, semi-annually, annually) either using a scale (one to 10 or one to five) or by answering open-ended questions. You complete the evaluation and so does your manager. During the performance review, the two of you compare notes to arrive at a final ...

  4. PDF Encouraging and Evaluating Class Participation

    Czekanski, Kathleen E. and Wolf, Zane Robinson, Encouraging and Evaluating Class Participation, Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 10(1), 2013. Research Online is the open access institutional repository for the University of Wollongong. For further information contact the UOW Library: [email protected].

  5. PDF Student Self-Assessment: The Key to Stronger Student Motivation and

    Self-monitoring, a skill necessary for effective self-assessment, involves focused attention to some aspect of behavior or thinking (Schunk 2004). Self-monitoring students pay deliberate attention to what they are doing, often in relation to external standards. Thus, self-monitoring concerns awareness of thinking and progress as it occurs, and ...

  6. Self Evaluation Essay Examples

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  8. Participation Self-Assessment

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    Instruction on evaluation criteria can be part of classroom instruction in preparation for peer review or as a way to support students' self-evaluation practices. The teacher models the process of giving feedback, collaboratively practices it with students on papers of unknown others, and gives students time to practice prior to their self ...

  11. (PDF) Self-reflection in the Course Evaluation

    Therefore, this paper explores and discusses a concept of self-reflection and in particular a self-reflection essay, which was used as a form of evaluation in the Course of Academic Writing in the ...

  12. Tips for Writing a Strong Self-Evaluation (With Examples)

    Acknowledge the full spectrum of your experiences, including any specific examples you might feel hesitant to highlight in your formal performance review. Coming up with an unfiltered version will help you understand how your perspective comes across, and you can always make edits once you start writing.‍. 2. Review your goals.

  13. Self Evaluation Essay

    Self-evaluation can also offer confidence, strong relationships and good decision making. When you are asked to write for a self-evaluation, you are more likely to reflect and demonstrate your value in an organization where you have found an avenue to grow. 7+ Self Evaluation Essay Examples 1. Self Evaluation Form Template

  14. Grading participation in the classroom: The assumptions, challenges

    When using a rubric for self-evaluation of class participation, students should be provided with clear expectations of what constitutes good participation. The rubric should include criteria such as speaking up in class, active listening, engagement in group discussions, contributing to class activities, and preparation.

  15. How to write a Self-Evaluation

    Fairhaven College classes do not use the A-to-F grading system. Students evaluate their own performance in detail for each Fairhaven college course. The student self-evaluation, combined with their faculty member's narrative assessment of the student's work, records the individual qualities of student academic performance in Fairhaven coursework.

  16. Self-Evaluation of Teaching

    A formal self-evaluation of a course you have just completed is likely to be a written document of 1-3 pages. Consider beginning with some specifics that will provide helpful context for your audience: Basic course information: Any other relevant specifics. Information about how the course fits into your own experience:

  17. Learning-oriented assessment in the classroom: the contribution of self

    The core of self-assessment (CSA) and critical thinking (CT) empower learners to observe and evaluate themselves. Although the literature on CSA and CT reflects a long history, little is known about their contributions to the learners' academic engagement (AE) and self-esteem (SE), particularly in the EFL context. Therefore, the present investigation intended to explore a structural model of ...

  18. Free Self Evaluation Essay Examples. Best Topics, Titles

    Employee self-ealuation is a process where employees assess their own performance and prode feedback to their supersors. The purpose of self-ealuation is to promote self-reflection, self-awareness, and professional growth. It is an opportunity for employees to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses, set goals and…. Human Resources.

  19. The best self-evaluation examples for performance reviews

    For example: "I increased my own sales by 10% as part of the department's general sales strategy." 4. Record your achievements in real-time. Make notes throughout the year in preparation for the self-evaluation. Record them regularly, or even at the time, instead of having to remember everything at the eleventh hour.

  20. PDF Self-Evaluation of Faculty Performance in Teaching, Research and

    This document is intended to help faculty members evaluate elements of their teaching, research and original creative work, and service to help them plan strategies for maintaining their strengths and improving their work where needed. The nature of faculty members' assignment of responsibility will influence their responses to the items below.

  21. PDF Self-evaluation after a presentation

    Self-evaluation after a presentation Giving a presentation at university is a learning opportunity, so it is always a good idea to reflect on how to improve for next time. Use the following questions to support your reflection. If the answer to any of the questions is 'no', decide what action you will take to improve for next time. Content

  22. 60+ Self-Evaluation Examples That Can Make You Shine

    Self-evaluation Examples for Tasks You Must Stop. Example 1: "I recognize that I need to stop procrastinating on certain tasks and start addressing them promptly to improve productivity.". Example 2: "I should stop engaging in non-essential tasks during work hours and stay focused on my core responsibilities.".