Type 2 Diabetes Essay


Diabetes is a health condition that is developed when sugar level in the blood increases above normal levels. The two major types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than type 1 diabetes. This essay discusses some of the most frequently asked questions about type 2 diabetes through a sample dialogue between a patient and a doctor.

Patient: What is type 2 Diabetes and how is it developed?

Doctor: Type 2 diabetes can be described as a complication in the metabolic processes characterized by a relative shortage of insulin and high levels of glucose in the blood (Barnett, 2011). It differs from type 1 diabetes where there is a complete deficiency of insulin caused by destruction of pancreatic islet cells.

In addition, type 2 diabetes is more common in adults unlike type 1 diabetes which is prevalent amongst young people. The typical symptoms of type 2 diabetes include: recurrent urination, excessive thirst, and persistent hunger (Wilson &Mehra, 1997).

Type 2 diabetes is caused by a mixture of lifestyle and hereditary factors. Even though some factors, like nutrition and obesity, are under individual control, others like femininity, old age, and genetics are not. Sedentary lifestyle, poor nutrition and stress are the major causes of Type 2 diabetes.

Particularly, excessive consumption of sugar and fats increases the risk of infection. Genetic factors have been linked to this condition. For instance, research indicates that if one identical twin is infected, there is a 90% probability of the other twin getting infected. Nutritional condition of a mother for the period of fetal growth can as well lead to this condition. Inadequate sleep is associated with Type 2 diabetes since it affects the process of metabolism (Hawley & Zierath, 2008).

Patient: How is type 2 Diabetes transmitted?

Doctor: Type 2 diabetes cannot be transmitted from one individual to another, since it is not caused by micro-organisms that can be spread. Instead, it is a health condition where the body is unable to create sufficient insulin to maintain the blood sugar level.

Nevertheless, a child from diabetic parents is likely to develop the complication due to genetic inheritance. According to Hanas & Fox (2007), there are some genes that may result in diabetes. As in 2011, research showed that there are more than thirty-six genes that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes infection.

These genes represent 10 per cent of the entire hereditary component of the complication. For instance, a gene referred to as TCF7L2 allele, increases the probability of diabetes occurrence by 1.5 times. It is the greatest threat amongst the genetic invariants. Children from diabetic parents are, therefore, likely to get infected since genes are transferrable from parents to the offspring.

Patient: How is type 2 Diabetes treated?

Doctor: The first step in the treatment of type 2 diabetes is consumption of healthy diet. This involves avoiding excessive consumption of foods that contain sugar and fats as they are likely to increase the levels of sugar in the blood. In addition, getting involved in physical activity and losing excessive weight are also important.

These management practices are recommended because they lower insulin resistance and improve the body cells’ response to insulin. Eating healthy food and physical activity also lower the level of sugar in the blood. There are also pills and other medications that can be injected when these lifestyle changes do not regulate the blood sugar (Roper, 2006).

Type2 diabetes pills function in different ways. Some pills work by lowering insulin resistance while some raise the level of insulin in the blood or decrease the rate of food digestion. Even though the non-insulin injected medicines for this condition work in complex ways, essentially, they lower the levels of blood glucose after injection.

Insulin injection treatment basically raises the insulin level in the blood. Another treatment for type 2 diabetes is weight loss surgery that is recommended for obese people. This treatment has been proved effective since most of the patients can maintain regular levels of sugar in their blood after surgery (Codario, 2011).

Multiple prescriptions can be applied in controlling the levels of blood sugar. Actually, combination treatment is a popular remedy for Type 2 diabetes. If a single therapy is not sufficient, a health care provider may prescribe two or more different kinds of pills.

For instance, individuals with type 2 diabetes have high fat levels in the blood and high blood pressure. Therefore, doctors can prescribe medicines for treatment of these conditions at the same time. The kind of medication prescribed depends on the health condition of the patient (Ganz, 2005).

Patient: What are the chances of survival?

Doctor: Diabetes is one of the major causes of deaths in the United States each year. Statistics indicates that it contributes to approximately 100,000 deaths every year. In the United States, there are over 20 million reported cases of diabetes, the majority being Type 2 diabetes. Proper remedy including change of lifestyle and medications is known to improve the health condition of a patient. If properly used together, lifestyle changes and medication can increase the chances of survival of a patient by up to 85 per cent (Rosenthal, 2009).

Barnett, H. (2011). Type 2 diabetes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Codario, A. (2011). Type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Totowa, N.J: Humana Press.

Ganz, M. (2005). Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes . Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Hanas, R., & Fox, C. (2007). Type 2 diabetes in adults of all ages. London: Class Health.

Hawley, A., & Zierath, R. (2008). Physical activity and type 2 diabetes: Therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Roper, R. (2006). Type 2 diabetes: The adrenal gland disease : the cause of type 2 diabetes and a nutrition program that takes control! . Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

Rosenthal, S. (2009). The Canadian type 2 diabetes sourcebook. Mississauga, Ont: J. Wiley & Sons Canada.

Wilson, L., & Mehra, V. (1997). Managing the patient with type II diabetes . Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers.

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Essay on Diabetes for Students and Children

500+ words essay on diabetes.

Diabetes is a very common disease in the world. But people may never realize, how did they get diabetes and what will happen to them and what will they go through. It may not be your problem but you have to show respect and care for the one who has diabetes. It can help them and also benefited you to know more about it and have a better understanding of it. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder which is identified by the high blood sugar level. Increased blood glucose level damages the vital organs as well as other organs of the human’s body causing other potential health ailments.

essay on diabetes

Types of Diabetes

Diabetes  Mellitus can be described in two types:

Description of two types of Diabetes Mellitus are as follows

1) Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is classified by a deficiency of insulin in the blood. The deficiency is caused by the loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This type of diabetes is found more commonly in children. An abnormally high or low blood sugar level is a characteristic of this type of Diabetes.

Most patients of type 1 diabetes require regular administration of insulin. Type 1 diabetes is also hereditary from your parents. You are most likely to have type 1 diabetes if any of your parents had it. Frequent urination, thirst, weight loss, and constant hunger are common symptoms of this.

2) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by the inefficiency of body tissues to effectively respond to insulin because of this it may be combined by insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes in people.

People with type 2 diabetes mellitus take medicines to improve the body’s responsiveness to insulin or to reduce the glucose produced by the liver. This type of diabetes mellitus is generally attributed to lifestyle factors like – obesity, low physical activity, irregular and unhealthy diet, excess consumption of sugar in the form of sweets, drinks, etc.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Causes of Diabetes

By the process of digestion, food that we eat is broken down into useful compounds. One of these compounds is glucose, usually referred to as blood sugar. The blood performs the job of carrying glucose to the cells of the body. But mere carrying the glucose to the cells by blood isn’t enough for the cells to absorb glucose.

This is the job of the Insulin hormone. Pancreas supply insulin in the human body. Insulin acts as a bridge for glucose to transit from blood to the body cells. The problem arises when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body cells for some reason do not receive the glucose. Both the cases result in the excess of glucose in the blood, which is referred to as Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus.

Symptoms of Diabetes

Most common symptoms of diabetes are fatigue, irritation, stress, tiredness, frequent urination and headache including loss of strength and stamina, weight loss, increase in appetite, etc.

Levels of Diabetes

There are two types of blood sugar levels – fasting blood sugar level and postprandial blood sugar level. The fasting sugar level is the sugar level that we measure after fasting for at least eight hours generally after an overnight fast. Blood sugar level below 100 mg/dL before eating food is considered normal. Postprandial glucose level or PP level is the sugar level which we measure after two hours of eating.

The PP blood sugar level should be below 140 mg/dL, two hours after the meals. Though the maximum limit in both the cases is defined, the permissible levels may vary among individuals. The range of the sugar level varies with people. Different people have different sugar level such as some people may have normal fasting sugar level of 60 mg/dL while some may have a normal value of 90 mg/dL.

Effects of Diabetes

Diabetes causes severe health consequences and it also affects vital body organs. Excessive glucose in blood damages kidneys, blood vessels, skin resulting in various cardiovascular and skin diseases and other ailments. Diabetes damages the kidneys, resulting in the accumulation of impurities in the body.

It also damages the heart’s blood vessels increasing the possibility of a heart attack. Apart from damaging vital organs, diabetes may also cause various skin infections and the infection in other parts of the body. The prime cause of all type of infections is the decreased immunity of body cells due to their inability to absorb glucose.

Diabetes is a serious life-threatening disease and must be constantly monitored and effectively subdued with proper medication and by adapting to a healthy lifestyle. By following a healthy lifestyle, regular checkups, and proper medication we can observe a healthy and long life.

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How to Write Type 2 Diabetes Essay

Writing a type 2 diabetes essay requires one to master a few steps including how to introduce the paper, integrate evidence in the body, and present the conclusion.

How do you write a type 2 diabetes essay? 

Follow the steps below to complete the best essay for your project on diabetes mellitus.

Step 1: Draft a captivating title

Instructors usually give students essay topics.

However, others can decide to let students pick their own topics about the subject. When you have this freedom, do not ruin it. Make the opportunity count.

How do you do that?

Write a title that communicates something to the reader.

Bad title:  Type 2 Diabetes

Good title:  Exploring the relationship between type II diabetes and risk for cardiovascular disease

The second title makes the reader establish an expectation: is there a link between diabetes and cardiovascular disease or not?

Step 2: Read your essay prompt at least twice

There is nothing as irritating as reading an off-topic essay. Your teacher will award you a zero for disregarding essay prompts.

If the paper is about type II diabetes, it is important to stick to that and focus on nothing else.

However, type 2 diabetes is a broad topic that may need to be broken down further.

For instance, your essay could focus on specific areas such as:

  • Causes of diabetes
  • Effects on individuals and healthcare systems.
  • Treatment and management

Based on your essay prompt, the paper should be narrowed down enough to communicate a very specific idea.

Step 3: Keep the introduction less than 150 words long

Remember that if your type 2 diabetes introduction is too long, it will most likely ruin the focus of your paper.

The narrower your topic is, the more likely you are to write a short, concise introduction.

Anything longer than 150 words in the introduction could also highlight too many points and confuse the reader about the thesis of your essay.

Assuming your topic for the diabetes essay is “The impact of lifestyle change on reducing type 2 diabetes,” the introduction should focus on describing lifestyle behaviors and some changes people can undertake.

Step 4: Write the thesis

Using our example above, your essay should have a clear thesis. It is the foundation from which all your arguments emerge.

Lifestyle/behavior change is effective in managing type 2 diabetes because it helps to achieve healthy body weight and facilitates insulin regulation to achieve optimal blood glucose control.

Once you have a clear thesis such as the one above, you will have a clear direction to take and avoid wandering to unnecessary areas.

Step 5: Brainstorm 3-4 points for the argument

Usually, the body of an essay contains a couple of paragraphs. Depending on the length of your diabetes essay, you might have to include fewer or more points.

A 2-page type 2 diabetes essay might need only 3 key points to discuss.

Meanwhile, if the essay is longer than 1,500 words, the number of paragraphs could be more.

Step 6: Use proper formatting in the body

Type II diabetes is a widely studied subject. Therefore, you should expect to find a lot of literature online and in books.

Citation is important in all academic writing.

Whether it is MLA, APA, Harvard, Chicago, or any other referencing style, always ensure you follow the citation guidelines.

A poorly referenced paper is almost similar to a plagiarized paper, but you do not want to send a plagiarized essay to your professor.

Use online citation tools or read resources about your preferred citation style from your university library. 

Other than in-text citations, the body of your essay could have sub-titles. 

  • Use proper formatting for different levels of sub-headings.
  • Seek help from an expert if you’re unable to format the body paragraphs correctly.

Step 7: Writing the conclusion

To write your type 2 diabetes essay conclusion, restate your thesis from the introduction without doing it verbatim (word for word). Proceed to summarize what you have discussed in the body paragraphs.

The last part, which is also the most interesting is to include at least one personal perspective. This could be in the form of recommending future research, discouraging the use of a particular intervention for diabetes, offering a new technique that could improve management of the disease, and much more.

Remember to avoid adding any new ideas in the conclusion.

Do not include citations in the conclusion for your type 2 diabetes essay.

Step 8: Add your references

Many students still forget to include a list of references at the end of their essays. Ensure that you list all the references cited in your body paragraphs at the end of your type 2 diabetes essay.

To do this, move to a new page after writing your conclusion and paste your sources there.

See your university guidelines on how to format your reference lists.

Diabetes Essay Topics

Students studying medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and other related courses will find these topics helpful for their diabetes essays or research papers.

  • Strategies to improve diabetes awareness among school children.
  • Does improving diet lead to better insulin regulation?
  • What is the prevalence of diabetes among Native Americans?
  • The contribution of the fast-food industry to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes.
  • Impacts on type 2 diabetes on the healthcare system.
  • The relationship between obesity and onset of type 2 diabetes. 
  • Significance of early screening on the management of type 2 diabetes.
  • Is there a link between diabetes and dementia in adults?
  • The effectiveness of insulin therapy for physically disabled elderly.
  • Wound care management in patients with diabetes mellitus. 

Depending on your level of study, your diabetes topic will vary in complexity and word count.

From Research to Reflection: A Step-by-Step Guide to Writing an Essay on Diabetes

how to write an essay on type 2 diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by high blood glucose levels, which can lead to various complications if left untreated. One of the most significant complications of diabetes is its impact on cardiovascular health.

The link between diabetes and cardiovascular disease is well-established. People with diabetes are two to four times more likely to develop cardiovascular disease than those without the disease.

The reasons for this are complex, but they include that diabetes can damage blood vessels and nerves throughout the body, including those that supply the heart and brain. This can lead to a range of cardiovascular problems, such as heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral artery disease .

We can guarantee you that most people are not even aware of this much information on diabetes. This is why writing an essay on diabetes makes sense.

What’s more, while writing an essay on diabetes, you make yourself aware of this disease and work towards reflecting on it.

Influence Of Diabetes On The Society

Diabetes can have a significant impact on society in a number of ways.

Here are some examples:

  • Healthcare costs: Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires ongoing medical care, including regular check-ups, medications, and in some cases, hospitalization. The cost of treating diabetes can be substantial, both for individuals and for society as a whole. In 2017, the total cost of diabetes in the US was estimated to be $327 billion, including direct medical costs and lost productivity.
  • Public health: Diabetes is a major public health issue , with an estimated 463 million adults worldwide living with the disease. Diabetes can lead to various health complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and blindness. As a result, diabetes is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide.
  • Lifestyle changes: Diabetes is closely linked to lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. As a result, efforts to prevent or manage diabetes often involve promoting healthy lifestyle habits such as regular exercise and a balanced diet. These lifestyle changes can have a broader impact on society by promoting overall health and well-being.
  • Stigma: Diabetes can be stigmatized, with some people blaming individuals with diabetes for their disease. This can lead to discrimination and social isolation, which can have a negative impact on mental health and well-being.
  • Education and awareness: Diabetes education and awareness campaigns can play an important role in reducing the impact of diabetes on society. By promoting an understanding of the disease and its risk factors and encouraging early diagnosis and treatment, these campaigns can help to improve health outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

Diabetes can significantly impact society, both in terms of healthcare costs and public health outcomes. By promoting education and awareness and encouraging healthy lifestyle habits, we can work to reduce the impact of diabetes on individuals and society as a whole.

Why Such A Subject?

While there are many subjects to write essays on, why write an essay on such a difficult subject? Well, when an educational institution asks you to write an essay, they look at your writing skills and try to figure out your personality along with it.

If you are writing about something that can bring change in society, it can impress them. Writing an essay on diabetes will allow you to stand out from all the other students who have submitted essays on almost the same topic.

Below are a few reasons why writing an essay on diabetes is a good idea.

  • To Raise Awareness: Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide, yet many people are still unaware of its causes, symptoms, and complications. Writing an essay on diabetes can help raise awareness about the disease, its impact on individuals and communities, and the importance of prevention and management.
  • To Educate: Diabetes is a complex disease that requires careful management and monitoring. Writing an essay on diabetes can help educate individuals about the different types of diabetes, risk factors, signs and symptoms, and treatment options.
  • To Promote Research: There is ongoing research on diabetes, including new treatments and management strategies. Writing an essay on diabetes can help promote research by highlighting the importance of funding and supporting research efforts.
  • To Advocate For Change: Writing an essay on diabetes can help advocate for policy changes that improve access to diabetes care, support for those with diabetes, and prevention efforts.
  • To Demonstrate Understanding: Writing an essay on diabetes can be an opportunity to demonstrate an understanding of the disease and its impact on individuals and communities. It can also showcase critical thinking skills and research abilities.

Writing an essay on diabetes can help raise awareness, educate, promote research, advocate for change, and demonstrate an understanding of the disease. It can be an important way to promote public health and improve the lives of individuals with diabetes.

A Step-by-Step Guide To Writing An Essay On Diabetes

Writing an essay on diabetes requires thorough research and reflection. You can’t just proceed with a diabetes essay like any normal essay topic. When writing an essay on diabetes, you can’t get wrong with your facts and information. One mistake in your information can affect your whole efforts.

When you are doing research for your essay, ensure that you are picking information from credible resources.

Follow the steps below to write a high-quality essay.

Step 1: Choose A Specific Topic

The topic of diabetes is vast, so it is essential to narrow it down to a specific area you can thoroughly explore in your essay. Consider the audience, the essay’s purpose, and the assignment’s scope. For instance, you could focus on the causes of diabetes, the different types of diabetes, the impact of diabetes on a particular population, or the latest treatment options for diabetes.

Step 2: Conduct Research

Once you have a specific topic, conduct thorough research to gather relevant information from credible sources such as academic journals, government publications, and reputable websites. Take notes on key points, statistics, and quotes that you can use to support your arguments.

Step 3: Develop A Thesis Statement

Based on your research, develop a clear and concise thesis statement that summarizes the main argument of your essay. Your thesis statement should be debatable and provide a roadmap for the rest of your essay.

Step 4: Create An Outline

Use your research and thesis statement to create an outline for your essay. Organize your ideas into logical sections and subsections, and ensure each point supports your thesis statement.

Step 5: Write The Essay

Using your outline as a guide, write your essay. Start with an introduction that provides background information and a clear thesis statement. Use the body paragraphs to present your arguments and support them with evidence from your research. End with a conclusion that restates your thesis and summarizes your main points.

Step 6: Edit And Proofread

After you have written your essay, edit and proofread it carefully to ensure it is clear, concise, and error-free. Check for spelling and grammatical errors, and ensure your ideas flow logically.

Step 7: Reflect On Your Essay

Finally, take some time to reflect on your essay. Consider the strengths and weaknesses of your argument, and think about what you could have done differently. This reflection can help you improve your writing skills and prepare for future assignments.

By following this step-by-step guide, you can write a well-researched and thoughtful essay on diabetes. Remember to choose a specific topic, conduct thorough research, develop a clear thesis statement, create an outline, write the essay, edit and proofread, and reflect on your work.

However, if you find it difficult to write an essay on diabetes, but the opportunity is too good to miss, ask a professional to ‘ write my essay for me ’.

Things To Consider!

Define your purpose.

Before you start writing, it’s important to clarify why you’re writing about diabetes.

Are you trying to educate readers about the disease? Discuss a specific aspect of diabetes research or treatment. Argue for a particular approach to diabetes prevention or management.

Defining your purpose can help guide your writing and ensure that you stay focused on your main goals.

Know Your Audience

Who will be reading your essay? Are they experts in diabetes, or are they general readers who may not be familiar with the disease? Understanding your audience can help you tailor your writing style and language to make your essay as accessible and engaging as possible.

Research Thoroughly

Diabetes is a complex and multi-faceted disease, so it’s important to do your research to ensure you comprehensively understand the topic. Find reputable sources, such as peer-reviewed journals, government websites, or expert organizations like the American Diabetes Association.

Consider Multiple Perspectives

There are many different viewpoints on diabetes, from healthcare providers to patients to public health advocates. When writing your essay, consider different perspectives and present a balanced view of the topic.

Use Clear, Concise Language

Diabetes is a technical topic with many medical terms and concepts that may be unfamiliar to some readers. To make your essay as accessible as possible, try to use clear, concise language that is easy to understand. Use layman’s terms when appropriate, and define any technical terms you use.

Use Examples And Anecdotes

Diabetes can be a dry and technical topic, so using examples and anecdotes can help to bring your writing to life and make it more engaging for readers. Consider including real-life stories of people with diabetes or describing specific research studies or medical interventions in detail.

Edit And Proofread Carefully

Finally, edit and proofread your essay carefully before submitting it. Look for spelling and grammar errors and any unclear or confusing language. Consider having someone else read your essay to get a fresh perspective and catch any mistakes you may have missed.

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Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) over a prolonged period of time.

Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst and increased appetite.

There are three main types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and Gestational diabetes.

Family history, obesity, lack of exercise, genetics, air pollution, etc.

More than 37 million people in the United States have diabetes, and 1 in 5 of them don’t know they have it. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than doubled as the American population has aged and become more overweight or obese.

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how to write an essay on type 2 diabetes

Home Essay Examples Health Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

  • Category Health
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  • Topic Type 2 Diabetes

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Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease that is classified by hyperglycemia due to disruption of normal insulin activity (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2010). Hyperglycemia can be caused by disruption of insulin production or the body may be unable to respond to insulin (Toniolo et al. 2019). There are various forms of diabetes, for example, Type 1, Type 2, and gestational diabetes. The first type of diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results in complete insulin deficiency caused by the attack of B-cells in the pancreas (ADA, 2010).

While the second type of diabetes is classified as only relative insulin deficiency, typically caused by a secretion defect or insulin resistance (ADA, 2010). Gestational diabetes is restricted to pregnancy and typically goes away after delivery, but does increase the risk for later developing type 2 (ADA, 2010). However, type 2 diabetes is responsible for up to 90% of diagnosed cases (Chireh & D’Arcy, 2019). Common symptoms for diabetes include unexpected weight loss, fatigue, frequent urination, dry mouth, and losing feeling in your feet (Ramachandran, 2014). There are various risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes. The greatest risk factor is obesity, which is typically caused by poor diet and an inactive lifestyle (Reinehr, 2013). Cases of type 2 diabetes has increased greatly in the last 20 years in both children and adults, resulting in a need for prevention awareness (Reinehr, 2013). Type 2 diabetes is expensive and requires a lot of self-monitoring in order to maintain healthy insulin levels, which can put a lot of stress onto affected individuals and their loved ones. According to the American Diabetes Association (2018), the financial weight of diabetes was $327 billion in 2017, which is a rise of $82 billion within the last six years. Since cases and costs are increasing, this disease should be considered as a serious health issue. The concern of type 2 diabetes in adults can be better understood from analyzing the causes, diagnosis, and available treatments.

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The exact cause of Type 2 diabetes is undetermined, there are multiple well-known factors that contribute to its development. The most common risk factor for Type 2 diabetes is obesity, which can likely cause the body to develop resistance to insulin (ADA, 2010). A combination of inefficient diet choices and absence of physical activity can be a source of obesity. Another known risk factor of diabetes type 2 is genetics. A family history increases the risk of development, in fact it can increase by up to 40% when parents are diagnosed (Toniolo et al, 2019). While family history increases the risk of developing diabetes, it may have both genetic and environmental dynamics. This means that obese family members may impact the risk of their loved ones by normalizing poor diet choices and sedentary routines. However, genetics can impact the risk by passing down effected alleles like PPARD and PPARGC1A (Temelkova-Kurktschiev et al. 2011). These certain alleles can negatively influence how successful healthy diet choices and physical activity are to these individuals. Which means that even if effected individuals make proactive decisions on diet choices and staying physically active, their bodies do not properly show it and may result in obesity. In addition, certain alleles can be the source of insulin deficiency by reducing the body’s ability to respond to insulin. Type 2 diabetes can be attributed to various environmental and genetic factors.

A variety of serious health problems can arise as a result of type 2 diabetes. The most common cause of death for this form of diabetes is cardiovascular disease (Wu et al. 2014). Cardiovascular disease is a serious health problem because the heart is detrimental to the wellness of the body. Other increased health issues include diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopath (Wu et al. 2014). The complication of diabetic neuropathy is losing feeling in body parts due to nerve damage (Wu et al. 2014). Foot amputations are a common consequence of diabetic neuropathy because it causes patients to lose awareness of their feet, making them vulnerable to infections. And untreated infections can spread throughout the body, becoming more serious complications. Nephropathy is a kidney disease complication that occurs when protein is found in urine (Wu et al. 2014). Another complication can result in vessels of the retina being damaged, possibly causing hemorrhage or fluid pooling in the retina (Wu et al. 2014). These health issues can progress slowly so it is important to be aware of the possible complications in order to be prepared. It has been found that the number of health issues is reduced by early detection (Aschner et al. 2016). A simple way to avoid serious health problems is staying alert and on top of your diagnosis. This means keeping up with doctor appointments and doing routine checks on your body, especially foot care in order to catch any problems early. Type 2 diabetes is a serious chronic disease that when untreated can cause severe health issues.

Most common available treatments for type 2 diabetes include lifestyle modifications, oral medicines, and insulin injections. Primary care providers have multiple treatment options available for patients with diabetes that range from prescription drugs to devices (Aschner et al. 2016). The most effective treatment to reduce high levels of glucose in blood is insulin injections (Wu et al. 2014). Insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose levels in blood by converting glucose to cellular energy. So these insulin injections allow people with high levels of glucose in their bodies return to normal levels. A few oral medications that can help regulate type 2 diabetes include biguanides, sulfonylureas, and thiazolidinediones (Wu et al. 2014). These types of medications work in different ways varying from decreasing glucose production to insulin sensitizers to increasing secretion of insulin (Wu et al. 2014). There are various treatment options, yet the most vital part is patient cooperation. Patients with diabetes need to take an active role once they are diagnosed because most treatments are self-monitored and lifestyle changes depend on their actions. There is a diversity in available treatments for diabetes that are individually determined for each patient based on their severity and ability to manage.

Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic disease that impacts people all over the world. While there is not one definite cause of this form of diabetes, genetic and environmental factors have been found to increase the risk (ADA, 2010). Practicing a healthy lifestyle by choosing nutritious diets and maintaining physical activity can reduce both the risk of development and the progression of serious health complications. Cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, nerve loss, and retina damage are serious health issues that can arise from diabetes (Wu et al. 2014). Without proper self monitoring, such serious health issues can slowly progress and turn into life threatening consequences. While oral medicines and insulin injections are common treatments, lifestyle modification is a non-hormonal treatment option available as well (Wu et al. 2014). Primary care providers commonly come into contact with diabetes and it is their responsibility to determine the best fit treatment for each patient. It is very important to understand the risk factors, complications, and treatment options of type 2 diabetes because it is a very common disease.

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  • Aschner, P. M., Muñoz, O. M., Girón, D., García, O. M., Fernández-Ávila, D. G., Casas, L. Á., Bohórquez, L. F., Arango T, C. M., Carvajal, L., Ramírez, D. A., Sarmiento, J. G., Colon, C. A., Correa G, N. F., Alarcón R, P., & Bustamante S, Á. A. (2016). Clinical practice guideline for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, management and follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Colombia Medica (Cali, Colombia), 47(2), 109–131.
  • Chireh, B., & D’Arcy, C. (2019). Shared and unique risk factors for depression and diabetes mellitus in a longitudinal study, implications for prevention: an analysis of a longitudinal population sample aged ⩾45 years. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 10, 10-15. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042018819865828
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Hypothesis and theory article, type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pathophysiologic perspective.

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  • Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by chronically elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia) and elevated blood insulin (hyperinsulinemia). When the blood glucose concentration is 100 milligrams/deciliter the bloodstream of an average adult contains about 5–10 grams of glucose. Carbohydrate-restricted diets have been used effectively to treat obesity and T2DM for over 100 years, and their effectiveness may simply be due to lowering the dietary contribution to glucose and insulin levels, which then leads to improvements in hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Treatments for T2DM that lead to improvements in glycemic control and reductions in blood insulin levels are sensible based on this pathophysiologic perspective. In this article, a pathophysiological argument for using carbohydrate restriction to treat T2DM will be made.


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by a persistently elevated blood glucose, or an elevation of blood glucose after a meal containing carbohydrate ( 1 ) ( Table 1 ). Unlike Type 1 Diabetes which is characterized by a deficiency of insulin, most individuals affected by T2DM have elevated insulin levels (fasting and/or post glucose ingestion), unless there has been beta cell failure ( 2 , 3 ). The term “insulin resistance” (IR) has been used to explain why the glucose levels remain elevated even though there is no deficiency of insulin ( 3 , 4 ). Attempts to determine the etiology of IR have involved detailed examinations of molecular and intracellular pathways, with attribution of cause to fatty acid flux, but the root cause has been elusive to experts ( 5 – 7 ).


Table 1 . Definition of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

How Much Glucose Is in the Blood?

Keeping in mind that T2DM involves an elevation of blood glucose, it is important to understand how much glucose is in the blood stream to begin with, and then the factors that influence the blood glucose—both exogenous and endogenous factors. The amount of glucose in the bloodstream is carefully controlled—approximately 5–10 grams in the bloodstream at any given moment, depending upon the size of the person. To calculate this, multiply 100 milligrams/deciliter × 1 gram/1,000 milligrams × 10 deciliters/1 liter × 5 liters of blood. The “zeros cancel” and you are left with 5 grams of glucose if the individual has 5 liters of blood. Since red blood cells represent about 40% of the blood volume, and the glucose is in equilibrium, there may be an extra 40% glucose because of the red blood cell reserve ( 8 ). Adding the glucose from the serum and red blood cells totals about 5–10 grams of glucose in the entire bloodstream.

Major Exogenous Factors That Raise the Blood Glucose

Dietary carbohydrate is the major exogenous factor that raises the blood glucose. When one considers that it is common for an American in 2021 to consume 200–300 grams of carbohydrate daily, and most of this carbohydrate is digested and absorbed as glucose, the body absorbs and delivers this glucose via the bloodstream to the cells while attempting to maintain a normal blood glucose level. Thinking of it in this way, if 200–300 grams of carbohydrates is consumed in a day, the bloodstream that holds 5–10 grams of glucose and has a concentration of 100 milligrams/deciliter, is the conduit through which 200,000–300,000 milligrams (200 grams = 200,000 milligrams) passes over the course of a day.

Major Endogenous Factors That Raise the Blood Glucose

There are many endogenous contributors that raise the blood glucose. There are at least 3 different hormones that increase glucose levels: glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol. These hormones increase glucose levels by increasing glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis ( 9 ). Without any dietary carbohydrate, the normal human body can generate sufficient glucose though the mechanism of glucagon secretion, gluconeogenesis, glycogen storage and glycogenolysis ( 10 ).

Major Exogenous Factors That Lower the Blood Glucose

A reduction in dietary carbohydrate intake can lower the blood glucose. An increase in activity or exercise usually lowers the blood glucose ( 11 ). There are many different medications, employing many mechanisms to lower the blood glucose. Medications can delay sucrose and starch absorption (alpha-glucosidase inhibitors), slow gastric emptying (GLP-1 agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors) enhance insulin secretion (sulfonylureas, meglitinides, GLP-1 agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors), reduce gluconeogenesis (biguanides), reduce insulin resistance (biguanides, thiazolidinediones), and increase urinary glucose excretion (SGLT-2 inhibitors). The use of medications will also have possible side effects.

Major Endogenous Factors That Lower the Blood Glucose

The major endogenous mechanism to lower the blood glucose is to deliver glucose into the cells (all cells can use glucose). If the blood glucose exceeds about 180 milligrams/deciliter, then loss of glucose into the urine can occur. The blood glucose is reduced by cellular uptake using glut transporters ( 12 ). Some cells have transporters that are responsive to the presence of insulin to activate (glut4), others have transporters that do not require insulin for activation. Insulin-responsive glucose transporters in muscle cells and adipose cells lead to a reduction in glucose levels—especially after carbohydrate-containing meals ( 13 ). Exercise can increase the glucose utilization in muscle, which then increases glucose cellular uptake and reduce the blood glucose levels. During exercise, when the metabolic demands of skeletal muscle can increase more than 100-fold, and during the absorptive period (after a meal), the insulin-responsive glut4 transporters facilitate the rapid entry of glucose into muscle and adipose tissue, thereby preventing large fluctuations in blood glucose levels ( 13 ).

Which Cells Use Glucose?

Glucose can used by all cells. A limited number of cells can only use glucose, and are “glucose-dependent.” It is generally accepted that the glucose-dependent cells include red blood cells, white blood cells, and cells of the renal papilla. Red blood cells have no mitochondria for beta-oxidation, so they are dependent upon glucose and glycolysis. White blood cells require glucose for the respiratory burst when fighting infections. The cells of the inner renal medulla (papilla) are under very low oxygen tension, so therefore must predominantly use glucose and glycolysis. The low oxygen tension is a result of the countercurrent mechanism of urinary concentration ( 14 ). These glucose-dependent cells have glut transporters that do not require insulin for activation—i.e., they do not need insulin to get glucose into the cells. Some cells can use glucose and ketones, but not fatty acids. The central nervous system is believed to be able to use glucose and ketones for fuel ( 15 ). Other cells can use glucose, ketones, and fatty acids for fuel. Muscle, even cardiac muscle, functions well on fatty acids and ketones ( 16 ). Muscle cells have both non-insulin-responsive and insulin-responsive (glut4) transporters ( 12 ).

Possible Dual Role of an Insulin-Dependent Glucose-Transporter (glut4)

A common metaphor is to think of the insulin/glut transporter system as a key/lock mechanism. Common wisdom states that the purpose of insulin-responsive glut4 transporters is to facilitate glucose uptake when blood insulin levels are elevated. But, a lock serves two purposes: to let someone in and/or to keep someone out . So, one of the consequences of the insulin-responsive glut4 transporter is to keep glucose out of the muscle and adipose cells, too, when insulin levels are low. The cells that require glucose (“glucose-dependent”) do not need insulin to facilitate glucose entry into the cell (non-insulin-responsive transporters). In a teleological way, it would “make no sense” for cells that require glucose to have insulin-responsive glut4 transporters. Cells that require glucose have glut1, glut2, glut3, glut5 transporters—none of which are insulin-responsive (Back to the key/lock metaphor, it makes no sense to have a lock on a door that you want people to go through). At basal (low insulin) conditions, most glucose is used by the brain and transported by non-insulin-responsive glut1 and glut3. So, perhaps one of the functions of the insulin-responsive glucose uptake in muscle and adipose to keep glucose OUT of the these cells at basal (low insulin) conditions, so that the glucose supply can be reserved for the tissue that is glucose-dependent (blood cells, renal medulla).

What Causes IR and T2DM?

The current commonly espoused view is that “Type 2 diabetes develops when beta-cells fail to secrete sufficient insulin to keep up with demand, usually in the context of increased insulin resistance.” ( 17 ). Somehow, the beta cells have failed in the face of insulin resistance. But what causes insulin resistance? When including the possibility that the environment may be part of the problem, is it possible that IR is an adaptive (protective) response to excess glucose availability? From the perspective that carbohydrate is not an essential nutrient and the change in foods in recent years has increased the consumption of refined sugar and flour, maybe hyperinsulinemia is the cause of IR and T2DM, as cells protect themselves from excessive glucose and insulin levels.

Insulin Is Already Elevated in IR and T2DM

Clinical experience of most physicians using insulin to treat T2DM over time informs us that an escalation of insulin dose is commonly needed to achieve glycemic control (when carbohydrate is consumed). When more insulin is given to someone with IR, the IR seems to get worse and higher levels of insulin are needed. I have the clinical experience of treating many individuals affected by T2DM and de-prescribing insulin as it is no longer needed after consuming a diet without carbohydrate ( 18 ).

Diets Without Carbohydrate Reverse IR and T2DM

When dietary manipulation was the only therapy for T2DM, before medications were available, a carbohydrate-restricted diet was used to treat T2DM ( 19 – 21 ). Clinical experience of obesity medicine physicians and a growing number of recent studies have demonstrated that carbohydrate-restricted diets reverse IR and T2DM ( 18 , 22 , 23 ). Other methods to achieve caloric restriction also have these effects, like calorie-restricted diets and bariatric surgery ( 24 , 25 ). There may be many mechanisms by which these approaches may work: a reduction in glucose, a reduction in insulin, nutritional ketosis, a reduction in metabolic syndrome, or a reduction in inflammation ( 26 ). Though there may be many possible mechanisms, let's focus on an obvious one: a reduction in blood glucose. Let's assume for a moment that the excessive glucose and insulin leads to hyperinsulinemia and this is the cause of IR. On a carbohydrate-restricted diet, the reduction in blood glucose leads to a reduction in insulin. The reduction in insulin leads to a reduction in insulin resistance. The reduction in insulin leads to lipolysis. The resulting lowering of blood glucose, insulin and body weight reverses IR, T2DM, AND obesity. These clinical observations strongly suggest that hyperinsulinemia is a cause of IR and T2DM—not the other way around.

What Causes Atherosclerosis?

For many years, the metabolic syndrome has been described as a possible cause of atherosclerosis, but there are no RCTs directly targeting metabolic syndrome, and the current drug treatment focuses on LDL reduction, so its importance remains controversial. A recent paper compared the relative importance of many risk factors in the prediction of the first cardiac event in women, and the most powerful predictors were diabetes, metabolic syndrome, smoking, hypertension and BMI ( 27 ). The connection between dietary carbohydrate and fatty liver is well-described ( 28 ). The connection between fatty liver and atherosclerosis is well-described ( 29 ). It is very possible that the transport of excess glucose to the adipose tissue via lipoproteins creates the particles that cause the atherosclerotic damage (small LDL) ( Figure 1 ) ( 30 – 32 ). This entire process of dietary carbohydrate leading to fatty liver, leading to small LDL, is reversed by a diet without carbohydrate ( 26 , 33 , 34 ).


Figure 1 . Key aspects of the interconnection between glucose and lipoprotein metabolism.

Reducing dietary carbohydrate in the context of a low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet reduces hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, IR and T2DM. In the evaluation of an individual for a glucose abnormality, measure the blood glucose and insulin levels. If the insulin level (fasting or after a glucose-containing meal) is high, do not give MORE insulin—instead, use an intervention to lower the insulin levels. Effective ways to reduce insulin resistance include lifestyle, medication, and surgical therapies ( 23 , 35 ).

The search for a single cause of a complex problem is fraught with difficulty and controversy. I am not hypothesizing that excessive dietary carbohydrate is the only cause of IR and T2DM, but that it is a cause, and quite possibly the major cause. How did such a simple explanation get overlooked? I believe it is very possible that the reductionistic search for intracellular molecular mechanisms of IR and T2DM, the emphasis on finding pharmaceutical (rather than lifestyle) treatments, the emphasis on the treatment of high total and LDL cholesterol, and the fear of eating saturated fat may have misguided a generation of researchers and clinicians from the simple answer that dietary carbohydrate, when consumed chronically in amounts that exceeds an individual's ability to metabolize them, is the most common cause of IR, T2DM and perhaps even atherosclerosis.

While there has historically been a concern about the role of saturated fat in the diet as a cause of heart disease, most nutritional experts now cite the lack of evidence implicating dietary saturated fat as the reason for lack of concern of it in the diet ( 36 ).

The concept of comparing medications that treat IR by insulin-sensitizers or by providing insulin itself was tested in the Bari-2D study ( 37 ). Presumably in the context of consuming a standard American diet, this study found no significant difference in death rates or major cardiovascular events between strategies of insulin sensitization or insulin provision.

While lifestyle modification may be ideal to prevent or cure IR and T2DM, for many people these changes are difficult to learn and/or maintain. Future research should be directed toward improving adherence to all effective lifestyle or medication treatments. Future research is also needed to assess the effect of carbohydrate restriction on primary or secondary prevention of outcomes of cardiovascular disease.

Data Availability Statement

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/supplementary material, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author/s.

Author Contributions

The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication.

Conflict of Interest

EW receives royalties from popular diet books and is founder of a company based on low-carbohydrate diet principles (Adapt Your Life, Inc.).

Publisher's Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Keywords: type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, pre-diabetes, carbohydrate-restricted diets, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia

Citation: Westman EC (2021) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Pathophysiologic Perspective. Front. Nutr. 8:707371. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.707371

Received: 09 May 2021; Accepted: 20 July 2021; Published: 10 August 2021.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2021 Westman. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Eric C. Westman, ewestman@duke.edu

This article is part of the Research Topic

Carbohydrate-restricted Nutrition and Diabetes Mellitus

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Type 2 Diabetes Background about the disease- Type 2 Diabetes is a disorder caused by an imbalance of insulin. It is the more common form of diabetes, mostly seen in adults but now increasingly observed in young adults as well. Also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, this lifelong disease causes your blood glucose level to rise above the normal range. Pathophysiology and causes- Type 2 diabetes stems from several factors. It can develop when your body becomes resistant to insulin or […]

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History and Types of Diabetes

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Growing Problem of Diabetes

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The Basic Problem of Diabetes

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Characteristic of Type Two Diabetes

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Diabetes and its Main Types

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Why you should Learn about Diabetes

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Adverse Health Effect of Environmental Heavy Metals on Diabetes

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What should you Know about Diabetes

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Diabetes: One of the Hardest Illness

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Connection between Genetics and Diabetes

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An Evolution of Diabetes

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Treatment of Diabetes in Adolescents

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Importance of Nursing Theories

Nursing theories are important tools for the designing, understanding, and application of diabetes patient education (Anderson, Funnell, & Hernandez, 2005). Imogene King is one of the nursing theorists who has made significant contributions to nursing. King's Conceptual Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment (TGA) is valuable in the care of diabetes patients and adherence to treatment. In my unit most commonly-used nursing theories include, King's theory of goal attainment to the care of the adult with diabetes mellitus. TGA theory […]

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A Problem of Diabetes

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Importance of Speech about Diabetes

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My Work as a Nurse

I work at Overlake Hospital Medical Center on a Medical Surgical and Oncology Unit. As a bedside nurse, my job and responsibility not only centered around vigilant monitoring for physiological changes and immediate needs of patients but also centered around an emotional aspect of caring and advocating. Our 37-bed unit provides care for various medical-surgical conditions, chemotherapy infusion, blood transfusion, dialysis, oncology with hospice, and end of life care patients on a day to day basis. As a bedside nurse, […]

My Understanding of Diabetes

For this essay I'll be covering the topic of diabetes. I've always found diabetes as an interesting topic; maybe because it's a huge problem for most people in the United States. you might be wonder what diabetes is, Diabetes is a disease in which the body response to the hormone insulin is impaired or not fully functional, resluting  in complications with the metabolism. Having high glucose is also one of the main reasons people get diabetes. Having high glucose in […]

My Research on Diabetes

Diabetes is a type of illness which is metabolic in nature leading to deficiencies in insulin. There are 2 types of diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2). Type 1 Diabetes (5-10% with diabetes), is known to be dependent in insulin, and would usually occur during childhood. This type of diabetes is a result of an autoimmune obliteration of Pancreatic ??-cell function. Another is Type 2 or the non-insulin dependent, correlates for 90-95% of those people with the diabetes. The onset […]

Diabetes Type 2: a Chronic Disease

Diabetes type 2 is a chronic disease which is widespread around the world. According to Mayo Clinic, type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes that occurs due to high blood sugar and the lack of ability of the body to use insulin properly or make enough of it. Diabetes type 2 does not have a cure. However, it can be prevented or delayed. The most common causes of diabetes relate to people's lifestyle and their genetics. Physical […]

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Essay on Diabetes


Diabetes is a healthcare condition that has continued to affect so many people, both young and old. Understanding more about Diabetes will help people live a healthy lifestyle by avoiding all the possible things that might cause it. In this assignment, I will assess why Diabetes is a significant health issue to individuals and the world. I will discuss the background of Diabetes, its definitions, and the types of Diabetes. Besides, I will discuss what is needed to promote individual and group health for people who have Diabetes. By the end of the assignment, one will have better knowledge about Diabetes since I will also discuss the causes and preventive measures that can be undertaken to prevent the disease. Towards the end of the assignment, I will describe three achievable health promotion goals, hence helping fight against Diabetes. I will also describe some of the interventions and roles that different people, groups, and organizations play to reduce the high cases of Diabetes in the world.

During the medieval ages, being diagnosed with Diabetes was like a death sentence. The pioneers of diabetes treatment were Thomas Willis, Sushruta, and Arataeus (Mandal, 2021). The three were Greek physicians who encouraged people to exercise on horsebacks to prevent excess urination. They also described other therapies like overfeeding and taking wine to reduce starvation and excessive loss of fluids (Mandal, 2021). On the other hand, the ancient Indians would test for Diabetes by taking ants near a person’s urine. If the human urine attracted the ants, then the person would be diagnosed with urine (Mandal, 2021). Diabetes is a disease that is the leading cause of high blood sugar levels. People who have Diabetes have bodies that cannot make enough insulin, or their bodies cannot use the insulin they have effectively (Healthline, 2021). Insulin is the hormone that moves sugars from the blood to the body cells. There are several types of Diabetes, including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, prediabetes, and Diabetes insipidus (Healthine, 2021). All these types affect our bodies differently, and they all have different effects, hence different coping strategies.

The rationale for Choosing Diabetes

Diabetes is among the most severe health issues in the world. This is the reason why I chose to discuss it to create awareness about it. The bad thing with Diabetes is that one can get it and not know that they have it. By the time they realize that they have Diabetes, the condition is worse, and the person is highly affected. According to Genesis Medical Associates (2015), one out of three adults have higher blood sugar levels; a condition referred to as prediabetes. If the persons do not change their lifestyles, the sugar levels increase, leading to other types of Diabetes (Genesis Medical Associates, 2015). Learning about Diabetes will allow people to support each other in the fight against Diabetes. This includes eating healthy meals and maintaining a healthy lifestyle through exercising (Dowshen, 2021). Another reason why I chose to discuss Diabetes is to learn more about the causes and how to manage the disease. Since most people do not know about the condition, it is crucial to educate them so that in case they feel any symptoms, and they can get the treatment as early as possible (Dowshen, 2021). It is easy to deal with Diabetes as long as the signs are detected early enough and the patient follows the given guidelines on healthy living.


Diabetes is a significant health concern since it affects so many people in the world. Diabetes can affect any person. However, some ethnic groups are affected more than others. The Alaska Natives and the American Indians are more affected by Diabetes as compared to all other ethnic groups. In terms of age, more than sixty-five years are more prone to getting diabetes than young people. According to Shaikh (2021), % of the people who are more than 65 years have diabetes. However, the young people are also affected but at a meager percentage compared to the older people.

The risk factors for Type 1 diabetes are hereditary, hence easily transferred from parents to children. Type 1 diabetes primarily affects young children and teenagers. Also, white Americans are at a higher risk of getting the disease than African Americans and Latino Americans (Shaikh, 2021). Type 2 diabetes affects middle and old age persons. Also, other risk factors for type 2 diabetes include genes, being overweight, a history of gestational pregnancy, and giving birth to a baby that is more than 9lbs (Shaikh, 2021).

It is important to note that diabetes is more prone in rural areas where people do not have access to health services and education. In the United Kingdom, 28% of the people with diabetes have issues obtaining medication due to a lack of health services and knowledge on how to go about diabetes treatment (Whicher et al., 2019 p.243). Besides, most of the people who are in the rural do not go for annual health checkups; hence their conditions get worse daily.

Assessment and assessment tools for Diabetes

Different tools are used during the assessment of diabetes. Assessing diabetes is very important as it helps differentiate between different types of diabetes and the extent of the condition. The Diabetes Prevention Screening Tool helps identify the persons at risk of getting diabetes (Diabetes Education Services, 2021). Such people are encouraged to join the CDC prevention program. There is also the Risk Test for Pre Diabetes patients to understand the risks they face as pre-diabetics (Diabetes Education Services, 2021).

The Diabetes Risk calculator is a tool that is used to detect undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes. The social Support Assessment Tool helps diabetic patients to have a support system (Diabetes Initiative, 2020). Patients who have Diabetes need a lot of support from family and friends. The support shown will help them adhere to the doctor’s instructions, hence improving the chances of being better. Another assessment is the Mental Health Progress Report. The report is filled up during the patient’s follow-up visits. The assessment involves questions determining if the patient is affected by the condition mentally (Diabetes Initiative, 2020). It helps the doctors to guide the patient on how they can cope mentally with Diabetes.

Health Promotion Goals that you will like to Achieve

One of the goals that I would like to achieve is to reduce the high number of people diagnosed with Diabetes. I will encourage people to ensure they exercise at least thirty minutes a day to become physically fit. To make this goal achievable, I will create small groups that will act as support systems. This will help push people towards healthy living, preventing them from being diagnosed with the condition (Cecelia Health, 2021). My goal is realistic since it is easy to adopt a good eating habit and exercise at least thirty minutes daily. Still, it becomes easier when these activities are done in groups so that members feel motivated. To ensure that the goal is achieved, I will set a time frame of three months. Each member must have dropped at least 10 pounds within three months and managed to exercise at least 30 minutes daily, consistently.

The second goal is to enhance a better diabetes management program. Most people who have diabetes do not know what they should avoid, while others ignore the advice given to them by the doctors. In this case, I will form a group of people of different ages who are diabetic. The group formed will be a support system that will help each other cope with Diabetes. I will encourage the group members to remain healthy by eating the right food and exercising daily (McDermott, 2020). For those that are older, they can do simple exercises like jogging and walking a few kilometers daily. After five months, I will assess each patient’s changes in sugar levels and the general healthcare status (McDermott, 2020). I expect the sugar levels to be expected or close to normal for most patients within this period. Besides, the patients will have adapted to the new lifestyle since they got used to it.

Interventions for your health promotion goals

As indicated above, the first goal is to reduce the high numbers of people diagnosed with diabetes. The first health intervention is by ensuring that people are engaging in vigorous activities and exercises. Before one retires to bed, they must ensure that they have done a bit of practice to increase the metabolic activities of their bodies (Harvard T.H CHAN, 2021). Exercising helps maintain a moderate weight; hence, the high obesity and overweight people will reduce significantly. Besides, exercise helps increase insulin sensitivity in the body. As a result, the body cells can consume the sugars that are in the bloodstream.

For this intervention to work, both individuals and groups work together. A person must know that they have a personal responsibility to ensure that they maintain healthy body weight. Besides, organizations can play a significant role by ensuring that they create team-building activities (Harvard T.H CHAN, 2021). Organizations can set a day or two per month whereby all the employees and employers are involved in various team-building activities. This will help to ensure that at least all members keep fit, even if some of the members might not be keeping fit at a personal level. Since young people are also at a very high risk of getting diabetes, schools should develop a schedule to see all the students engage in exercise activities (John Muir Health, 2021). For example, the school can decide to have a physical exercise lesson after every two days.

Another intervention that will see few people being diagnosed with diabetes is maintaining a healthy eating lifestyle. Most people, especially teenagers, eat food that is full of calories. First, one should ensure they increase the fiber intake (Science Daily, 2018). Fiber is essential as it helps to slow down the digestion of carbs and sugars. Foods that contain more fibers include legumes, vegetables, and whole grains. Too many carbs place a person at a very high risk of getting diabetes. Another healthy eating habit is taking plenty of water to stay hydrated at all times (John Muir Health, 2021). When one takes a lot of water, it also helps the kidney eliminate excess sugars through the urine (Science Daily, 2018). A well-hydrated person is at a lower risk of getting diabetes. However, one should avoid sugar-sweetened drinks as they raise the level of glucose in the blood.

Both individuals and organizations have a role to play when it comes to maintaining a healthy eating lifestyle. Families should ensure that they prepare meals that are balanced diet. As an individual, one has a choice to eat whatever they want. Following this, one should avoid taking foods with high carb content instead of increasing the intake of high fiber meals. Organizations should also participate in this intervention by preparing healthy meals for their employees (Science Daily, 2018). Communities should be encouraged to grow more fibers and take the origin foods rather than rely on ready-made foods with high calories. Also, schools can be involved by ensuring that they have a reasonable timetable for all the meals, and the fiber intake for each student should be higher than the carb intake.

The second goal is enhancing better management for people who are living with diabetes. Individuals have a tremendous responsibility to ensure that they follow the given guidelines to stabilize sugar levels efficiently. As a diabetic patient, one should know the type of diabetes they are suffering from and the measures they are supposed to take to become better (NIH, 2021). The first step that a diabetic person should take is to ensure that they are not stressed. Stress triggers sugar levels, hence raising them. To reduce stress triggers, one can listen to their favorite music, take a walk, breathing in and out, or doing their favorite activities (Diabetes UK, 2021). Also, a person needs to have a support system to reach out in case they feel stressed.

The second step that one can take to deal with diabetes is ensuring that they eat well. After being assessed by the doctor, a health care team should help the sick person come up with a meal plan (Diabetes UK, 2021). The meal plan should contain fewer calories, fewer sugars and salt, and high saturated fats. Also, a diabetic person should eat foods that have high fiber, like rice and bread. Instead of drinking sweetened juices, a diabetic person should ensure that they take plenty of clean drinking water. This helps to keep the body hydrated at all times.

Both individuals and groups have a significant role in ensuring that diabetic persons are taken care of. They have the necessary things needed for them to reduce sugar levels. Health facilities should make sure that they do follow-ups so that if a patient has forgotten to go for checkups, they can go upon being reminded. Besides, other organizations like NGOs should develop fiber for needy people who might not afford such things.

Evaluation of your Health Promotion Care

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle through exercise is not hard to achieve as long as the people involved know the benefits of exercising. Exercising is an effective strategy that will help prevent diabetes and prevent other diseases like heart attack and stroke (Diabetes UK, 2021). However, people should be allowed to choose the kind of exercise that they want to do. Instead of going for a run, one can engage in other activities like playing football, netball, or swimming (Harvard T.H CHAN, 2021). Since people are not the same, one should not be forced to go for a morning jog, yet they like swimming. If this is done, the exercises will be more effective since people will be doing them willingly. I would recommend that the government makes it paramount for organizations to have different days from engaging in other activities like swimming, running, jogging, etc. Also, schools should ensure that there are various exercises for all the students to have one or two activities that they can engage in easily.

The second promotion of care was encouraging people to eat healthy meals. From the above discussion, it is evident that people need to engage in healthy lifestyles. Whether a person has diabetes or not, engaging in a healthy lifestyle is very important (Science Daily, 2018. Following this, one should ensure that they avoid high calories and have high fibers. This healthcare plan can be effective only if the government and other non-governmental organizations are willing to provide the proper meals for the people in need. Some diabetic people do not have access to medical care; hence they cannot do follow-ups about their conditions. As a result, the health care plan will become hard to achieve if the doctors and health care workers do not follow up on their patients to ensure they have taken the right medicines and that the sugar levels are not increasing (John Muir Health, 2021. For this, I would recommend that treatment of diabetes becomes free of charge in all public healthcare institutions. This will make it easy for the poor diabetic people to go for checkups since they know they will not be asked for any money to get the services they need. During the Diabetes Awareness week in the country, the government led by the health care sector should ensure that people are educated about diabetes. This will help people learn more about it and engage in activities that will help reduce diseases.

Tannahill Health Promotion Model

The Tannahill Health Promotion Model helps in the prevention of diabetes and protection of people who have diabetes. As discussed above, diabetes can be prevented through eating the right foods and ensuring that one is physically fit. The Tannahill Health promotion strategy also suggests a good communication flow between the patient and the health care providers (Queens University Belfast, 2021). In this case, the healthcare providers should do the follow up’s for their patients. The third aspect of the Tannahill Health promotion program is that the citizens should be given health protection through the legislature, social measures, and financial measures (Queens University Belfast, 2021). This includes helping needy people eat healthy meals and ensuring that organizations and companies give their employees the proper meals. Besides, Companies, organizations, and schools should set aside specific days where each person is engaged in other activities like swimming, ring, and playing their favorite games.

Diabetes is indeed one of the most severe diseases in the world. Diabetes affects both the young and the old and people of all ages. Although people at the age of 65 and older are more prone to being diagnosed with diabetes, other factors also determine if a person is prone to getting diabetes (Healthline, 2021). For example, a child can get diabetes from their parents; hence they get hereditary diabetes. Women who have experienced gestational diabetes are also at a very high risk of contracting the disease again (Shaikh, 2021). People who are not physically fit are also prone to getting diabetes. Following this, it is evident that although some people are more prone to getting diabetes, several other factors play a significant role.

Although diabetes is a severe condition worldwide, it can be controlled and the high rates reduced. This can be achieved through two maintaining it; exercising and eating suitable meals. Since some people cannot afford the healthy diet recommended for diabetic people, the government and other non-governmental organizations can provide such meals to the people (Whicher et al., 2019 p.243. Also, ensuring that the medication services are accessible at the public hospitals will encourage most people to go for follow-ups. Exercising is easy since there are so many activities that help burn calories (Shaikh, 2021). That is why it is essential to let the person choose activities they are good at and concentrate on them. Generally, although diabetes is a serious condition, it is easy to prevent and manage it if all resources are available.

Cecelia Health, 2021.  How to Set and Achieve SMART Goals — in Life and Diabetes – Cecelia Health . [online] Cecelia Health. Available at: <https://www.ceceliahealth.com/how-to-set-and-achieve-smart-goals-in-life-and-diabetes/> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

Diabetes Education Services, 2021.  Screening Tools for Diabetes – Diabetes Education Services . [online] Diabetes Education Services. Available at: <https://diabetesed.net/screening-tools-for-diabetes/> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

Diabetes Initiative, 2020.  Tools: Assessment Instruments . [online] Diabetesinitiative.org. Available at: <http://www.diabetesinitiative.org/resources/type/assessmentInstruments.html> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

Diabetes UK, 2021.  10 Tips for Healthy Eating with Diabetes . [online] Diabetes UK. Available at: <https://www.diabetes.org.uk/guide-to-diabetes/enjoy-food/eating-with-diabetes/10-ways-to-eat-well-with-diabetes> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

Dowshen, S., 2021.  Diabetes Control: Why It’s Important (for Teens) – Nemours KidsHealth . [online] Kidshealth.org. Available at: <https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/diabetes-control.html> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

Genesis Medical Associates, 2015.  The Importance Of Understanding And Preventing Diabetes – Genesis Medical Associates, Inc . [online] Genesismedical.org. Available at: <https://www.genesismedical.org/blog/the-importance-of-understanding-and-preventing-diabetes> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

Harvard T.H CHAN, 2021.  Simple Steps to Preventing Diabetes . [online] The Nutrition Source. Available at: <https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/disease-prevention/diabetes-prevention/preventing-diabetes-full-story/> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

Healthline, 2021.  Everything You Need to Know About Diabetes . [online] Healthline. Available at: <https://www.healthline.com/health/diabetes#:~:text=Diabetes%20mellitus%2C%20commonly%                                                                                 20known%20as,the%20insulin%20it%20does%20make.> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

John Muir Health, 2021.  Preventing Diabetes . [online] Johnmuirhealth.com. Available at: <https://www.johnmuirhealth.com/health-education/conditions-treatments/diabetes-articles/preventing-diabetes.html> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

Mandal, A., 2021.  History of Diabetes . [online] News Medical. Available at: <https://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Diabetes.aspx#:~:text=The%20term%20diabetes%20was%20probably,sweet%20taste%20of%20the%20urine.> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

McDermott, A., 2020.  7 Long-Term Goals for Better Diabetes Management . [online] Healthline. Available at: <https://www.healthline.com/health/type-2-diabetes/living-better-with-type-2-diabetes/long-term-goals-everyone-with-type-2-diabetes-should-make> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

NIH, 2021.  4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life | NIDDK . [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available at: <https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/managing-diabetes/4-steps> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

Queens University Belfast, 2021.  Health Promotion.  [online] Queens University Belfast. Available at  https://www.qub.ac.uk/elearning/public/HealthyEating/HealthPromotion/  [Accessed 1 June 2021]

Science Daily, 2018.  Physical exercise reduces the risk of developing diabetes, study shows . [online] ScienceDaily. Available at: <https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180220102420.htm> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

Shaikh, J., 2021.  What Population Is Most Affected by Diabetes? . [online] MedicineNet. Available at: <https://www.medicinenet.com/what_population_is_most_affected_by_diabetes/article.htm> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

Whicher, C., O’Neill, S., and Holt, R., 2019. Diabetes in the UK: 2019.  Diabetic Medicine , [online] 37(2), pp.242-247. Available at: <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/dme.14225> [Accessed 1 June 2021].

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  • Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a condition that happens because of a problem in the way the body regulates and uses sugar as a fuel. That sugar also is called glucose. This long-term condition results in too much sugar circulating in the blood. Eventually, high blood sugar levels can lead to disorders of the circulatory, nervous and immune systems.

In type 2 diabetes, there are primarily two problems. The pancreas does not produce enough insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into the cells. And cells respond poorly to insulin and take in less sugar.

Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes, but both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can begin during childhood and adulthood. Type 2 is more common in older adults. But the increase in the number of children with obesity has led to more cases of type 2 diabetes in younger people.

There's no cure for type 2 diabetes. Losing weight, eating well and exercising can help manage the disease. If diet and exercise aren't enough to control blood sugar, diabetes medications or insulin therapy may be recommended.

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Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can be living with type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. When symptoms are present, they may include:

  • Increased thirst.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Increased hunger.
  • Unintended weight loss.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Slow-healing sores.
  • Frequent infections.
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet.
  • Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck.

When to see a doctor

See your health care provider if you notice any symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

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Type 2 diabetes is mainly the result of two problems:

  • Cells in muscle, fat and the liver become resistant to insulin As a result, the cells don't take in enough sugar.
  • The pancreas can't make enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels within a healthy range.

Exactly why this happens is not known. Being overweight and inactive are key contributing factors.

How insulin works

Insulin is a hormone that comes from the pancreas — a gland located behind and below the stomach. Insulin controls how the body uses sugar in the following ways:

  • Sugar in the bloodstream triggers the pancreas to release insulin.
  • Insulin circulates in the bloodstream, enabling sugar to enter the cells.
  • The amount of sugar in the bloodstream drops.
  • In response to this drop, the pancreas releases less insulin.

The role of glucose

Glucose — a sugar — is a main source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues. The use and regulation of glucose includes the following:

  • Glucose comes from two major sources: food and the liver.
  • Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters cells with the help of insulin.
  • The liver stores and makes glucose.
  • When glucose levels are low, the liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose to keep the body's glucose level within a healthy range.

In type 2 diabetes, this process doesn't work well. Instead of moving into the cells, sugar builds up in the blood. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas releases more insulin. Eventually the cells in the pancreas that make insulin become damaged and can't make enough insulin to meet the body's needs.

Risk factors

Factors that may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes include:

  • Weight. Being overweight or obese is a main risk.
  • Fat distribution. Storing fat mainly in the abdomen — rather than the hips and thighs — indicates a greater risk. The risk of type 2 diabetes is higher in men with a waist circumference above 40 inches (101.6 centimeters) and in women with a waist measurement above 35 inches (88.9 centimeters).
  • Inactivity. The less active a person is, the greater the risk. Physical activity helps control weight, uses up glucose as energy and makes cells more sensitive to insulin.
  • Family history. An individual's risk of type 2 diabetes increases if a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes.
  • Race and ethnicity. Although it's unclear why, people of certain races and ethnicities — including Black, Hispanic, Native American and Asian people, and Pacific Islanders — are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than white people are.
  • Blood lipid levels. An increased risk is associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the "good" cholesterol — and high levels of triglycerides.
  • Age. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age, especially after age 35.
  • Prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. Left untreated, prediabetes often progresses to type 2 diabetes.
  • Pregnancy-related risks. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is higher in people who had gestational diabetes when they were pregnant and in those who gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms).
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome. Having polycystic ovary syndrome — a condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth and obesity — increases the risk of diabetes.


Type 2 diabetes affects many major organs, including the heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Also, factors that increase the risk of diabetes are risk factors for other serious diseases. Managing diabetes and controlling blood sugar can lower the risk for these complications and other medical conditions, including:

  • Heart and blood vessel disease. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure and narrowing of blood vessels, a condition called atherosclerosis.
  • Nerve damage in limbs. This condition is called neuropathy. High blood sugar over time can damage or destroy nerves. That may result in tingling, numbness, burning, pain or eventual loss of feeling that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward.
  • Other nerve damage. Damage to nerves of the heart can contribute to irregular heart rhythms. Nerve damage in the digestive system can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. Nerve damage also may cause erectile dysfunction.
  • Kidney disease. Diabetes may lead to chronic kidney disease or end-stage kidney disease that can't be reversed. That may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.
  • Eye damage. Diabetes increases the risk of serious eye diseases, such as cataracts and glaucoma, and may damage the blood vessels of the retina, potentially leading to blindness.
  • Skin conditions. Diabetes may raise the risk of some skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.
  • Slow healing. Left untreated, cuts and blisters can become serious infections, which may heal poorly. Severe damage might require toe, foot or leg amputation.
  • Hearing impairment. Hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes.
  • Sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is common in people living with type 2 diabetes. Obesity may be the main contributing factor to both conditions.
  • Dementia. Type 2 diabetes seems to increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease and other disorders that cause dementia. Poor control of blood sugar is linked to a more rapid decline in memory and other thinking skills.

Healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent type 2 diabetes. If you've received a diagnosis of prediabetes, lifestyle changes may slow or stop the progression to diabetes.

A healthy lifestyle includes:

  • Eating healthy foods. Choose foods lower in fat and calories and higher in fiber. Focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
  • Getting active. Aim for 150 or more minutes a week of moderate to vigorous aerobic activity, such as a brisk walk, bicycling, running or swimming.
  • Losing weight. If you are overweight, losing a modest amount of weight and keeping it off may delay the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. If you have prediabetes, losing 7% to 10% of your body weight may reduce the risk of diabetes.
  • Avoiding long stretches of inactivity. Sitting still for long periods of time can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Try to get up every 30 minutes and move around for at least a few minutes.

For people with prediabetes, metformin (Fortamet, Glumetza, others), a diabetes medication, may be prescribed to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. This is usually prescribed for older adults who are obese and unable to lower blood sugar levels with lifestyle changes.

More Information

  • Diabetes prevention: 5 tips for taking control
  • Professional Practice Committee: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes — 2020. Diabetes Care. 2020; doi:10.2337/dc20-Sppc.
  • Diabetes mellitus. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/diabetes-mellitus-and-disorders-of-carbohydrate-metabolism/diabetes-mellitus-dm. Accessed Dec. 7, 2020.
  • Melmed S, et al. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 14th ed. Elsevier; 2020. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 3, 2020.
  • Diabetes overview. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/all-content. Accessed Dec. 4, 2020.
  • AskMayoExpert. Type 2 diabetes. Mayo Clinic; 2018.
  • Feldman M, et al., eds. Surgical and endoscopic treatment of obesity. In: Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 11th ed. Elsevier; 2021. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 20, 2020.
  • Hypersmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/diabetes-mellitus-and-disorders-of-carbohydrate-metabolism/hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-state-hhs. Accessed Dec. 11, 2020.
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/diabetes-mellitus-and-disorders-of-carbohydrate-metabolism/diabetic-ketoacidosis-dka. Accessed Dec. 11, 2020.
  • Hypoglycemia. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/diabetes-mellitus-and-disorders-of-carbohydrate-metabolism/hypoglycemia. Accessed Dec. 11, 2020.
  • 6 things to know about diabetes and dietary supplements. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/tips/things-to-know-about-type-diabetes-and-dietary-supplements. Accessed Dec. 11, 2020.
  • Type 2 diabetes and dietary supplements: What the science says. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/providers/digest/type-2-diabetes-and-dietary-supplements-science. Accessed Dec. 11, 2020.
  • Preventing diabetes problems. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/preventing-problems/all-content. Accessed Dec. 3, 2020.
  • Schillie S, et al. Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Recommendations and Reports. 2018; doi:10.15585/mmwr.rr6701a1.
  • Caffeine: Does it affect blood sugar?
  • GLP-1 agonists: Diabetes drugs and weight loss
  • Hyperinsulinemia: Is it diabetes?
  • Medications for type 2 diabetes

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In a special series of the ADA Journals' podcast Diabetes Core Update , host Dr. Neil Skolnik interviews special guests and authors of this clinical compendium issue. Listen now at Special Podcast Series: Focus on Diabetes or view the interviews on YouTube at A Practice Guide to Diabetes-Related Eye Care .

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Thomas W. Gardner; Summary and Conclusion. ADA Clinical Compendia 1 July 2022; 2022 (3): 20. https://doi.org/10.2337/db20223-20

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Diabetes is a multifactorial disease process, and its long-term management requires the active involvement of people with diabetes and their families, as well as a large multidisciplinary care team to ensure optimal health, quality of life, and productivity. Keeping up with new medications, emerging technology, and evolving treatment recommendations can be challenging, and the language and care processes commonly used by practitioners in one discipline may be less familiar to other diabetes care professionals.

In the realm of diabetes-related eye care, our ability to prevent the progression of diabetes-related retinal disease and thereby preserve vision has never been greater. However, far too many people with diabetes still are not receiving appropriate screening to identify eye disease early and ensure its timely treatment.

It is our hope that this compendium has provided information and guidance to improve communication and encourage collaboration between eye care professionals and other diabetes health care professionals and allow them to more effectively cooperate to reduce barriers to care and improve both the ocular and systemic health of their shared patients.

Editorial and project management services were provided by Debbie Kendall of Kendall Editorial in Richmond, VA.

Dualities of Interest

B.A.C. is a consultant for Genentech and Regeneron. S.A.R. is a speaker for Allergan, Inc., and VSP Vision Care. No other potential conflicts of interest relevant to this compendium were reported.

Author Contributions

All authors researched and wrote their respective sections. Lead author T.W.G. reviewed all content and is the guarantor of this work.

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of VSP Vision Care, Regeneron, or the American Diabetes Association. The content was developed by the authors and does not represent the policy or position of the American Diabetes Association, any of its boards or committees, or any of its journals or their editors or editorial boards.

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