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1954 schwinn phantom

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1954 Schwinn Phantom Bicycle

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1954 Schwinn Phantom Bicycle

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1954 Schwinn Dealer Catalog

1954 schwinn dealer catalog front page

Schwinn... America's finest bicycles balloon and lightweight models

35 Beautiful balloon tired models - each one available in a variety of attractive color combinations. Make the big Schwinn line the most complete ever offered.

24 Lightweight models - for touring, sports, or racing from popular-priced juvenile bikes to custom-built professional models, make the Schwinn line the largest, best-selling American-made lightweights.

1954 schwinn dealer catalog index-page

Schwinn Phantom 26 inch

The most beautiful bicycle in the World!

1954 schwinn phantom 26 inch

  • Model B-19 26-inch

The Phantom is the finest balloon- tired bike in the big Schwinn line!

Look at these features built into America's most beautiful bicycle! The famous Schwinn patented cantilever frame, chrome plated fenders, Schwinn spring fork, Schwinn Cycle-lock, automatic stop and tail light, chrome-trimmed tank, chrome rims, and genuine leather saddle. Get all this and more as standard equipment on the new Schwinn Phantom -- guaranteed against theft loss for one year. Available in many attractive color combinations.

Specifications

  • Frame- Electro-forged, exclusive Cantilever construction, fully streamlined, removable seat post clamp.
  • Fork Schwinn patented spring fork with built-in Cyclelock.
  • Crank Set Drop forged high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones, turned from fine grain bar steel, chrome steel balls, two point ball bearing races.
  • Rear Hub- Standard coaster brake.
  • Front Hub- Schwinn built with removable bearing cups.
  • Handlebar Stem- standard extension, best quality.
  • Handlebar- Chrome plated, SB 26 x 8.
  • Kickstand- Patented dust and rattle proof construction.
  • Chain Guard- Embossed design, secured directly to frame.
  • Head Set- Schwinn built, turned from special fine grain steel, triple heat treated cups and cones, chrome steel balls.
  • Tank- Embossed design, chrome trim, with self contained horn unit.
  • Fenders- Chrome plated, extra wide, reinforced, rigid semi-tubular braces. Rear braces attached directly to frame.
  • Head light- Schwinn built, streamlined, self contained fenderlite.
  • Luggage Carrier- Streamlined with built in exclusive stop and tail light.
  • Tires- Schwinn Typhoon Whitewall 26 x 2 1/8" cord balloon.
  • Rims- Schwinn built, tubular chrome plated S-2.
  • Saddle- Schwinn approved Deluxe, top grain leather.
  • Reflector- 3" Stimsonite approved reflector.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved Deluxe, finest quality.
  • Shipping Weight- 67 pounds.
  • Colors- Red and Black, Green and Black or Black and Red.

Schwinn Phantom 24"

Juvenile model of America's finest Bicycle!

1954 schwinn phantom 24 inch

  • Model J-29 24-inch

The Superb design of the 26-in. Phantom built into a 24-in. model!

Newest addition to the Schwinn family- the dazzling 24-inch Phantom - truly America's most beautiful bicycle!

Just like it's "big brother", it has the famous Schwinn patented Cantilever frame, chrome plated fenders, Spring Fork, Schwinn Cyclelock, chrome trimmed tank with built-in horn, Rocket Ray headlight, built-in kickstand, and many other outstanding Schwinn Quality Features. Available in many attractive color combinations. Fully protected by the Schwinn Guarantee.

  • Frame- Electro-forged, exclusive Cantilever construction fully streamlined, removable seat post clamp.
  • Fork- Schwinn patented spring fork with built in cyclelock.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones. Cones turned from fine grain steel, chrome steel balls, two point ball races.
  • Handlebar Stem- Extension type.
  • Kickstand- Detachable.
  • Handlebar- scout bar.
  • Fenders- Chrome plated reinforced, rigid semi-tubular braces. Rear braces attached directly to frame.
  • Headlight- Rocket ray
  • Tires- Whitewall typhoon, 24" x 2 1/8".
  • Rims- Schwinn built, tubular, chrome plated S-2.
  • Saddle- best grade tab top, chrome springs.
  • Reflector- 1 3/4" Stimsonite.
  • Grips- plastic, schwinnn approved.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved deluxe quality.
  • Shipping Weight- 59 lbs.
  • Colors- red and black, green and black or black and red.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Phantom .

Schwinn jaguar.

Equipped with three speed gears and hand brakes

1954 schwinn jaguar 26 inch

  • Model D-17 26-inch

A dashing new model with Schwinn Exclusive Cantilever frame!

A smartly styled balloon bike with the pedaling ease of lightweight. A fully equipped model that's a delight to own, a breeze to ride. Equipment includes 3-speed gears, front and rear hand brakes that assure fast, smooth stops, cantilever frame, kickstand, chainguard, luggage carrier, balloon tires, plus Schwinn Quality Features. Fully protected by the Schwinn Guarantee.

  • Frame- Electro-forged, fully streamlined, exclusive cantilever construcation. Made from Schwinn built tubing.
  • Fork- Special solid forged steel construction.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel. Triple heat treated cups and cones. Chrome steel balls.
  • Front Hub- Schwinn precision built with removable bearing cups.
  • Rear Hub- Three speed sturmey archer AW hub with finger tip trigger control.
  • Head Set- Schwinn precision built with triple heat treated cups and cones, with chrome steel balls.
  • Handlebar- Chrome plated continental bend.
  • Handlebar- Set standard extension stem, best quality.
  • Kickstand- Schwinn patented, dust and rattleproof construction.
  • Fenders- Chrome plated, deep type, reinforced, with rigid semi-tubular fender braces. Rear braces attached directly to frame
  • Tires- Schwinn Typhoon whitewall 26 x 1 1/8" cord balloon. Royal Rider blackwall tires optional.
  • Rims- Schwinn built, tubular, chrome plated, S2.
  • Saddle- Schwinn approved, tan koroseal top with chrome springs and side rails.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved special touring type.
  • Shipping weight- 60 pounds.
  • Colors- Dark red, blue, green or black. Opalescent red, blue, green, gold, or violet.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Jaguar .

Schwinn panther.

A brilliant new ultra-modern bike design!

1954 schwinn panther 26 inch

  • Model D-18 26-inch
  • Model D-68 26-inch

The Schwinn Panther is loaded with deluxe features and swell equipment!

Just check the outstanding combination of features on this bicycle! Famous Schwinn spring fork, Rocket Ray headlight, super-streamlined Schwinn Frame, and new tan Koro-seal-top saddle with chrome side rails and springs. Five-times stronger Schwinn chrome Tubular rims, white wall tires, sparkling chrome-plated fenders, chrome-trimmed tank, sleek chainguard and sturdy luggage carrier. Choice of several modern two-tone color combinations.

  • Frame- Electro-forged, fully streamlined, made from Schwinn built steel tubing, removable seat post clamps.
  • Fork- Schwinn patented spring fork.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones, cones turned from fine grain bar steel, chrome steel balls, two point ball bearing.
  • Handlebar Stem- Standard extention stem, best quality.
  • Handlebar- Chrome plated, SB 26 x 8 on D18, Boy Scout on D68.
  • Kickstand- Shwinn patented dust and rattle proof construction.
  • Head Set- Schwinn built, triple heat treated cups and cones.
  • Tank Embossed design, chrome trim, with self contained horn unit.
  • Fenders Chrome plated, deep type, reinforced, rigid semi-tubular braces. Rear braces attached directly to frame.
  • Head light Rocket Ray with chrome trim.
  • Tires Schwinn Typhoon 26 x 2 1/8" whitewall cord balloon.
  • Rims Schwinn built, tubular chrome plated S-2.
  • Saddle Tan Korosel top, felt padded with side rails.
  • Reflector 1 3/4" Stimsonite.
  • Pedals Schwinn approved with adjustable bearings.
  • Luggage Carrier Streamlined, attached directly to frame.
  • Shipping Weight D18, 65 pounds; D68, 63 pounds.
  • Colors: Black and Red or Two-tone red, Blue, or Green.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Phanter .

Schwinn streamliner 26 inch.

The finest in smart design, smooth riding.

1954 schwinn streamliner 26 inch

  • Model D-16 26-inch

A sleek looking value with the exclusive cantilever frame.

Please every youngster and every budget with this great bicycle value. Outstanding in its price class. High quality Schwinn contruction throughout. A real beauty in design and trim appearance. Complete equipment includes streamlined tank with built-in horn, powerful Rocket-Ray headlight, sturdy luggage carrier and truss rods. Available in many attractive color combinations. Fully guaranteed by Schwinn.

  • Fork- solid forged steel construction with patented truss rods.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones, cones turned from fine grain bar steel, chrome steel balls, two point ball bearing races.
  • Handlebar Stem- standard extention stem, best quality.
  • Head Set- Schwinn built, tripple heat treated cones.
  • Tank- Streamline design with self contained horn unit.
  • Fenders- Deep type, reinforced, rigid semi-tubular braces.
  • Head light- rocket ray.
  • Tires- Schwinn Typhoon 26 x 2 1/8" cord balloon.
  • Saddle- tan koroseal top, felt padded.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved, adjustable bearings.
  • Luggage carrier- Streamlined, attached directly to frame.
  • Shipping- Weight 63 pounds.
  • Colors- Dark Red, Blue, Green, Black or lime and black.

Schwinn Streamliner 24"

Cantilever design, fully equipped 24-inch bike!

1954 schwinn streamliner 24 inch

  • Model J-26 24-inch

The best looking, most popular bike for the 7 to 9 year old group

Here is an outstanding choice for those parents who want a fully equipped, sturdy bicycle for their growing boy or girl. They'll be sure to appreciate the sparkling colors and attractive styling, the easy pedalling and durable construction. Equipment includes streamlined tank with built-in horn, brilliant rocket ray headlight, bright chrome truss rods, and all the famous Schwinn Exclusive Quality Features. Fully protected by the famous Schwinn guarantee.

  • Frame- Electro-forged, fully streamlined, made fron Schwinn built tubing, boys model has patented Cantilever design.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones, cones turned from fine grain bar steel, chrome steel balls.
  • Head Set- Schwinn built, tripple heat treated cups and cones with chrome steel balls.
  • Handlebar- Boy Scout Junior.
  • Kickstand- Schwinn patented dust and rattle proof construction.
  • Fenders- Deep type, reinforced, rigid semi-tubular braces. Rear braces attached directly to frame.
  • Tires- Schwinn Typhoon 24 x 2 1/8" cord balloon.
  • Saddle- Koroseal top, felt padded, tan, top.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved, juvenile, adjustable bearings.
  • Shipping weight- J26, 56 pounds.
  • Colors- Dark red, blue, coach green, black or lime and black.

Schwinn Streamliner 20"

Fully equipped to delight the younger set.

1954 schwinn streamliner 20 inch

  • Model J36 20-inch

A popular scaled down model favorite of the 5 to 7 age group.

Rugged construction by experienced Schwinn craftsmen make this bike a leading favorite with parents of younger children. When it's built by Schwinn they know it's safe! Smart styling and beautiful bright enamel finish with chrome plated fittings attract every youngster's eye!

Popular deluxe equipment includes streamlined tank with built-in horn, powerful torpedo headlight, built-in kick stand, and shiny chrome plated truss rods. It's a honey!

  • Frame- Electro-forged, fully streamlined, made from Schwinn built tubing, has patented Cantilever design.
  • Head set- Schwinn built, triple heat treated cups and cones with chrome steel balls..
  • Handlebar- Boy scout junior.
  • Handlebar stem- straight type.
  • Tank- fully streamline with self contained horn unit.
  • Head light- juvenile.
  • Tires- Schwinn Typhoon 20 x 2 1/8" cord balloon.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved, juvenile adjustable bearings.
  • Shipping Weight- 47 pounds.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Streamliner .

Schwinn starlet.

Dainty, luxurious, and completely feminine!

1954 schwinn starlet 26 inch

  • Model D-66 26-inch

The Starlet is the finest bicycle styled especially for young ladies

A brilliant new bicycle design from the Schwinn drawing boards - the Starlet is queen of the line! You can choose from such gorgeous fashion-wise hues as Holiday Rose and Summer Cloud White, Windswept Green and Luscious Lavender combinations. These sparkling pastel colors are further set off by a White Koroseal-top saddle and white grips. Complete with streamlined tank, brilliant Rocket-Ray lamp, sturdy luggage carrier, and sleek chainguard.

  • Frame- Electro-forged, fully streamlined, made from Schwinn built tubing. Removable seat post clamp.
  • Fork- Solid forged steel construction, patented truss rods. No brazing.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones, cones turned from fine grain bar steel, chrome steel balls, two point ball bearing races.
  • Handlebar Stem- Standard extension stem, best quality.
  • Handlebar- Chrome plated, Boy Scout.
  • Tank- Streamlined design, with self contained horn unit.
  • Head light- Rocket Ray with chrome trim.
  • Rims- Schwinn built tubular, chrome plated S-2.
  • Saddle- White Koroseal top, felt padded.
  • Luggage Carrier- Streamlined, attached directly to frame.
  • Shipping- Weight 61 pounds.
  • Colors- Windswept Green with Luscious Lavender trim, Summer Cloud White with Holiday Rose trim, or Summer Cloud White with Powder Blue trim, lime with black trim, dark, red, blue, green, or black.

Schwinn Starlet 24"

1954 schwinn starlet 24 inch

  • Model J-76 24-inch
  • Shipping Weight- 62 pounds.

Schwinn Starlet 20"

A riding delight for tiny tot girls!

1954 schwinn starlet 20 inch

  • Model J86 20-inch

A brilliant new bicycle design from the Schwinn drawing boards - the Starlet is queen of the line! You can choose from such gorgeous fashion-wise hues as Holiday Rose and Summer cool White, Windswept Green and Luscious Lavender combinations. These sparkling pastel colors are further set off by a White Koroseal-top saddle and white grips. Complete with streamlined tank, brilliant Rocket-Ray lamp, sturdy luggage carrier, and sleek chainguard.

  • Handlebar Stem- Straight type.
  • Shipping- Weight 46 pounds.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Starlet .

Schwinn leader.

Top notch quality at an attractive price!

1954 schwinn leader 26 inch

  • Model D-13 26-inch
  • Model D-63 26-inch

A smartly stlyed yet sturdy bike - designed for utility and pleasure riding

The Shciwnn Leader includes such fine equipment as smart truss rods, powerful torpedo headlight, patented built-in Kickstand, and full width fenders. It is quality- built to assure fast, smooth riding, easy coasting, and dependable service. Choose from many attractive colors in finest baked-on enamels. Fully protected by the famous Schwinn Guarantee. Boys and girls will be enthusiastic over this bike - it's a big value at a low price!

  • Frame Electro-forged, fully streamlined, made from Schwinn built tubing, removable seat post clamp.
  • Fork Solid forged steel construction with patented truss rods. No brazing.
  • Crank Set Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones. Cones turned from fine grain bar steel, chrome steel balls, two point ball bearing races.
  • Front Hub Schwinn built with removable bearing cups.
  • Rear Hub Standard coaster brake.
  • Head Set Schwinn built, triple heat treated cups and cones, with chrome steel balls.
  • Handlebar Stem Standard extension stem, best quality.
  • Handlebar Chrome plated, SB 26 x 8 on D13, Boy Scout on D63.
  • Kickstand Schwinn patented dust and rattle proof.
  • Fenders Deep type, reinforced, rigid semi-tubular braces. Rear braces attached directly to frame.
  • Head light Torpado type.
  • Chain Guard Embossed design, secured directly to frame.
  • Tires Schwinn Typhoon Whitewall 26 x 2 1/8" cord balloon.
  • Rims Schwinn built, tubular, enameled S-2.
  • Saddle koroseal top, felt padded.
  • Pedals Schwinn approved, adjustable bearings.
  • Shipping Weight D13, 60 pounds, D63, 59 pounds.
  • Colors: Dark Red, Blue, Green, Black or Lime Black.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Leader .

Schwinn wasp.

Dependability at a budget-pleasing price!

1954 schwinn wasp 26 inch

  • Model D-12 26-inch
  • Model D-62 26-inch

An ideal choice for top performance at a low, low cost! See it right now!

This low-prices Schwinn Meteor is made with all the famous Schwinn Exclusive Quality Features. Included are the Electro-forged frame, patented built-in kickstand, and streamlined chainguard.

Other Schwinn equipment such as the spring fork, Cyclelock, and expander brake may be installed on this model at a slight extra cost. Like all other standard Schwinn bicycles, this model carries the famous Schwinn Guarantee. For pleasure or utility-a top value!

  • Frame- Electro-forged, fully streamlined, made from Schwinn built tubing, boys model has patented Cantilever design.
  • Fork- Solid forged steel construction. No brazing.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones. Cones turned from fine grain bar steel, chrome steel balls, two point ball bearing races.
  • Head Set- Schwinn built, triple heat treated cups and cones, with chrome steel balls.
  • Handlebar- Chrome plated, SB 26 x 8 on D12, Boy Scout on D62.
  • Kickstand- Schwinn patented dust and rattle proof.
  • Rims- Schwinn built, tubular, enameled S-2.
  • Saddle- koroseal top, felt padded.
  • Reflector- 1 3/4" stimsonite.
  • Shipping Weight- D12, 58 pounds; D62, 57 pounds.
  • Colors- Dark Red, Blue, Green, Black, or lime and black.

Schwinn Wasp 24"

Quality constructed 24-inch unequipped model!

1954 schwinn wasp 24 inch

  • Model J-22 24-inch

A combination od smooth styling and low price for the 7 to 9 age group.

This model is sturdily constructed to stand the abuse and hard wear of active youngsters between the ages of 7 and 9.

It's tops for dependability, with the extra-strong Electro forged frame and all the other famous Schwinn quality features. Equipment includes streamlined chainguard, built-in kickstand and full width fenders. Fully protected by the famous Schwinn guarantee!

  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones. Cones turned from fine grain bar steel, chrome steel balls.
  • Shipping Weight- J22 50 pounds, J72 50 pounds.

Schwinn Wasp 20"

A wise choice for boys or girls from 5 to 7!

1954 schwinn wasp 20 inch

  • Model J-82 20-inch

Every part of this sparkling Schwinn has been designed for hard use, long wear!

Though priced to fit the strictest budget, this unequipped model is built to give youngsters many years of riding pleasure. Standard equipment on this model includes patented built-in kickstand, streamlined chainguard, full width fenders, SChwinn tubular rims, plus all the famous Schwinn quality features.

Attractive styling and sturdy construction make it an outstanding value. Fully protected by the Schwinn Guarantee.

  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones. Cones turned from fine grain steel, chrome steel balls.
  • Handlebar- Boy Scout junior.
  • Shipping Weight- J32 44 pounds, J82 57 pounds.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Wasp .

Schwinn hornet.

A combination of trim lines, smart styling

1954 schwinn hornet 26 inch

  • Model D-15 26-inch
  • Model D-65 26-inch

A Schwinn value in a equipped bike at a price that is hart-to-beat!

You get lots of fine features and sturdy equipment when you choose the Schwinn Hornet. This model includes streamlined tank, powerful headlight, chrome truss rods and sturdy luggage carrier with jeweled safety reflector.

Faultless Schwinn Construction throughout means superior performance at all times. Remember too, it's protected by the Schwinn guarantee. The Hornet is reasonably priced to fit any budget.

  • Frame- Electro-forged, fully streamlined from Schwinn built steel tubing. Removable seat post clamp.
  • Fork- Solid forged steel construction with patented truss rods. No brazing.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones. Cones turned from fine grain bar steel, chrome steel balls, 2 point ball bearing races.
  • Handlebar- Boy Scout.
  • Tank- Streamlined design, deep embossed with self contained horn unit.
  • Kickstand- detachable.
  • Fenders- 3" Crescent.
  • Head light- Torpedo type.
  • Luggage Carrier- Sturdy, streamlined, mounted directly to frame.
  • Tires- good quality, 26 x 2 1/8" cord balloon.
  • Rims- Schwinn built tubular, enameled S-2.
  • Saddle- standard, felt padded.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved.
  • Reflector- 1 1/2" Jewel.
  • Shipping Weight- D15, 61 pounds; D65, 60 pounds.
  • Colors- Light red, chinese blue, or coach green.

Schwinn Hornet 24"

Beautifully equipped 24-inch Juvenile model.

1954 schwinn hornet 24 inch

  • Model J25 24-inch

The new Schwinn Deluxe Hornet features quality equipment.

A handsome, 24 inch model that's sure to be the choice of parents who want a sturdy, fully equipped bicycle for their boy or girl. Expertly designed for easy pedaling - better balance.

Equipement includes built-in tank with electric horn, sturdy kickstand and chainguard, powerful headlight, and comfortable saddle. Beautiful baked-on enamel finish. Remember too, it's fully protected by the famous Schwinn Guarantee. See this outstanding beauty today - it's a honey!

  • Frame- Electro-forged, fully streamlined, made from best grade Schwinn built tubing.
  • Handlebar- Standard Juvenile.
  • Chain Guard- ribbed design, secured directly to frame.
  • Headlight- torpedo type.
  • Tires- good quality, 24 x 2 1/8" cord balloon.
  • Shipping Weight- J25 51 pounds, J75 51 pounds.
  • Colors- Light red, coach green, or chinese blue.

Schwinn Hornet 20"

A 20 inch beauty, fully equipped, low in price.

1954 schwinn hornet 20 inch

  • Model J35 20-inch

A brand new model beautifully equipped and superbly made!

Smooth streamlined styling and famous Schwinn Quality construction makes the Schwinn Deluxe Hornet and ideal bike for youngsters 5 to 7! Popular deluxe equipment includes streamlined tank with built-in electric horn, powerful torpedo headlight, sturdy kickstand and chainguard.

Fully protected by the famous Schwinn Guarantee. Available in attractive color combinations. See this new beauty today it's guaranteed to please any youngster.

  • Handlebar Stem- straight type.
  • Headlight- juvenile.
  • Tires- good quality, 20 x 2 1/8" cord balloon.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved, juvenile.
  • Tank- fine design, fully streamlined.
  • Shipping Weight- J35 45 pounds, J85 46 pounds.
  • Colors- Light red, chinese blue or coach green.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Hornet .

Schwinn spitfire.

Quality construction at a money-saving price!

1954 schwinn spitfire 26 inch

  • Model D-11 26-inch

A Sturdy, dependable Schwinn bike that will give years of pleasure

This unequipped Schwinn Spitfire is the ideal solution for those people who must consider price in choosing a bicycle. In this model, you get a full size, fully streamlined bicycle, constructed of dependable quality components throughout, that will stand up under years of service.

Like all Schwinn bicycles, it carries the famous Schwinn Guarantee. For dependability and service, there is no better buy at this amazing low price!

  • Head Set- Schwinn built, tripple heat treated cups and cones, with chrome steel balls.
  • Tires- Good Quality 26 x 2 1/8" cord balloon.
  • Saddle- Standard, felt padded.
  • Shipping Weight- D11, 54 pounds; D61, 54 pounds.
  • Colors- light red, chinese blue or coach green.

Schwinn Spitfire 24"

Streamlined, quality-contstructed bike buy!

1954 schwinn spitfire 24 inch

  • Model J-21 24-inch

If price is important-here is the best quality bike obtainable at a low price

The 24-inch Spitfire is outstanding in its price class above any other bicycle. Designed to give growing youngster dependable service and many years of pleasure. They will find it easy pedalling, smooth riding

Like all Schwinn bicycles, it carries the famous Schwinn Guarantee. Through unequipped, it is Schwinn Quality Constructed to withstand hard wear, and give many years of satisfactory service

  • Frame- Electro-forged, fully streamlined, made from Schwinn built tubing.
  • Tires- Good Quality 24 x 2 1/8" cord balloon.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved juvenile.
  • Shipping Weight- J21 49 pounds, J71 49 pounds.

Schwinn Spitfire 20"

Smooth, easy riding for youngster 5 to 7!

1954 schwinn spitfire 20 inch

  • Model J31 20-inch

A streamlined, easy pedalling bike that any boy or girls would be proud to own!

Here is the practival bike for 5 to 7 years old. It's beautifully streamlined and finished in bright enamel to catch every eye. All parts are of high quality materials, designed to stand up under the hard use they are sure to receive from active youngster - yet economically priced to fit the most limited budget.

Equipped with streamlined chain guard, Schwinn tubular rims - plus all the Schwinn quality features. Fully protected by the famous Schwinn Guarantee.

  • Tires- Good Quality 20 x 2 1/8" cord balloon.
  • Shipping Weight- J 31, 41 pounds; J81 42 pounds.

Schwinn Spitfire 16

Ideal "first" bike - perfect for youngster 3 to 5!

1954 schwinn spitfire 16 inch

  • Model J45 16-inch
  • Model J95 16-inch

Equipped with Cycle-aid learning to ride becomes so easy!

Here's beauty, strength, safety for tiny tots! It is the perfect bike for boys and girls from 3 to 5. With the added safety feature of the cycly-aid, beginners quickly learn to ride.

After learning, Cycle-aid wheels can be removed. Standard equipment includes puncture proof semi-pneumatic tires, streamlined chainguard, and conventional coaster brake plus all the Schwinn exclusive quality features.

  • Rear Hub- Perry coaster brake.
  • Handlebar- Chrome plated, Bantam special 3/4" diameter.
  • Fenders- Deep type, reinforced, rigid semi tubular braces. Rear braces attached directly to frame.
  • Tires- 16 x 1.75 semi-pneumatic.
  • Saddle- good quality.
  • Cycle aid- sturdily constructed, readily detached.
  • Shipping Weight- J45- 41 pounds; J95- 42 pounds.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Spitfire .

Schwinn cycle truck.

Perfect delivery vehicle for small packages!

1954 schwinn spitfire 16 inch

  • Model S-1 Small Basket
  • Model S-2 Large Basket

Solves the fast delivery problems of drug stores, delicatessens, and others.

For quick customer service, the Schwinn Cycle-Truck can't be beat! It's the perfect one-man deliver vehicle. Choice of small basket or large basket models.

Baskets are built onto frames and cannot interfere with steering. Standard equipment includes patented cantilever container brackets, heavy-duty balloon tires, chain guard, extra-wide parking stand. Wide variety of attractive enameled colors. Protected by the famous Schwinn Guarantee.

  • Frame- Electro-forged, with patented cantilever container brackets. All the latest frame features.
  • Fork- Solid forged steel construction, extra heavy form stem.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones. turned from grain bar steel, chrome steel balls, two point ball bearing races.
  • Front Hub- Special heavy duty, with heavy duty spokes.
  • Rear Hub- standard coaster brake.
  • Handlebar stem- special Schwinn gooseneck, from drop forged steel.
  • Handlebar- special cycle truck handlebar.
  • Parking stand- patented, extra wide stand, does not allow fork to turn when Cycle Truck is parked.
  • Chain Guard- embossed design, secured directly to frame.
  • Head Set- Schwinn built, turned from special fine grain steel, triple heat treated cups and cones, chrome balls.
  • Fenders- Deep type, reinforced, rigid semi tubular braces.
  • Tires- best grade, special heavy duty.
  • Saddle- deluxe, top grain, sponge rubber padding.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved, deluxe, finest quality.
  • Sign plate- enameled to match bicycle.
  • Basket- S1 24" x 16" x 11". S2 28" x 22" x 11".
  • Shipping Weight- S1 62 pounds, S2 62 pounds.
  • Colors- dark red, blue, green, black light red, light blue or yellow.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Cycle-Truck .

Schwinn traveler.

Most popular lightweight of them all!

1954 schwinn traveler 26 inch

  • Model W-18 26-inch
  • Model W-68 26-inch

America's favorite-fully equipped with 3-speed gears and accessories

This deluxe equipped lightweight is a real beauty. Perfect for sports, utility or touring. Equipment includes 3-speed gear shift, front and rear hand caliper brakes, generator with headlight and tail light, and roomy saddle bag - all the features that make touring a pleasure.

Other outstanding features include gleaming chrome fenders and built-in kickstand. For every lightweight occasion - choose a Traveler. Choice of 19, 21, or 23 - inch frame.

  • Frame- made from best grade Schwinn built tubing, electoforged construction. Men's size 19", 21", and 23". Ladies size 19".
  • Fork- Schwinn tubular, electro-forged construction, double tapered fork sides. No brazing.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones. turned from grain bar steel, chrome steel balls.
  • Rear Hub- 3 speed sturmey archer AW.
  • Brakes- front and rear caliper type.
  • Handlebar stem- standard extention, best quality.
  • Fenders- Chrome plated, special lightweight design.
  • Tires- Schwinn Whirlwind 26x 1 3/8" ir Schwinn Breeze 26x 1 1/4".
  • Rims- Schwinn built, tubular, chrome plated S-6.
  • Saddle- Full mattress type.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved, special touring type.
  • Lighting set- best grade, imported generator set with head and tail light. Dyno-hub available at additional cost.
  • Saddle bag- best grade, touring type
  • Shipping Weight- W18 56 pounds, W68 58 pounds.
  • Colors- black or opalescent red, blue, dark green, gold or violet.

Schwinn Traveler 24"

A beautifully equipped lightweight for juveniles

1954 schwinn traveler 24 inch

  • Model W-28 24-inch
  • Model W-78 24-inch

Junior member of the Traveler family - America's favorite lightweights!

Whether it be pleasure, utility, or touring, this Juvenile Traveler lives up to its name. A real beauty made in America by Schwinn. Standard equipment includes 3-speed gear shift, front and rear caliper brakes, generator light set, roomy saddle bag, sparkling chrome fenders, chrome rims and built-in kickstand.

Choice of brilliant opascent colors. Other popular accessories are available at a slight extra cost. Fully protected by the famous Schwinn Guarantee.

  • Frame- built from best grade Schwinn tubing, electro-forged construction.
  • Crank Set- drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones, turned from fine grain bar steel. Chrome steek balls.
  • Rear Hub- three speed Sturmey-archer AW.
  • Handlebar stem- standard extension, best quality.
  • Handlebar- chrome plated, continental bend.
  • Chain guard- embossed design, secured directly to frame.
  • Head Set- Schwinn built, turned from fine grain steel, triple heat treated cups and cones. Chrome steel balls.
  • Fenders- chrome plated, special lightweight design.
  • Tires- Schwinn breeze 24 x 1 1/4".
  • Saddle- full mattress type.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved with adjustable bearings.
  • Lighting set- best grade imported generator set with head and tail light. Dyno-hub available at extra cost.
  • Saddle bag- best grade touring type.
  • Shipping Weight- W28 51 pounds, W78 51 pounds.
  • Colors- Black, opalescent red, blue, dark green and gold.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Traveler .

Schwinn varsity.

Smartly stlyed 3-speed lightweight - moderately priced.

1954 schwinn varsity 26 inch

  • Model W-11S 26-inch
  • Model W-61S 26-inch

Ideal for sports or utility-favored by children and adults alike!

Superb styling and smooth performance makes the Varsity a top choice among lightweight enthusiasts. The 3-speed gear shift makes the miles roll by faster, and the front and rear hand caliper brakes assure safe, easy stops.

Add famous Schwinn construction and sleek beauty for even greater perfection. Equipped with chainguard, kickstand, and gleaming chrome rims. American-made by Schwinn- fully protected by the famous Schwinn Guarantee.

  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones, turned from grain bar steel, chrome steel balls.
  • Fenders- special lightweight design.
  • Tires- Schwinn Whirlwind 26x 1 3/8" or Schwinn Breeze 26x 1 1/4".
  • Shipping Weight- W-11S 53 pounds, W-61S 52 pounds.
  • Colors- dark red, blue, green or black. Opalescent colors available at extra cost.

Schwinn Varsity 24"

Three-speed Luxury at modest cost!

1954 schwinn varsity 24 inch

  • Model W-21S 24-inch
  • Model W-71S 24-inch

Smooth-riding quality, three-speed bike that's very popular with 9 to 12'ers!

Introducing the Varsity-designed exclusively for the younger set! Schwinn construction and sleek beauty add up to make this a hit with the juvenile tourist. Equipped with Sturmey-Archer 3-speed gears, front and rear hand caliper brakes, chainguard, built-in kickstand, and long-lasting bake-on enamel finish.

For extra accessories - generator and light set, saddle bag are available at a slight extra cost. Fully protected by the famous Schwinn Guarantee!

  • Brakes- caliper type, front and rear.
  • Fenders- special lightweight design, enameled to match frame.
  • Shipping Weight- W-21S 45 pounds, W-71S 45 pounds.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Varsity .

Schwinn sports.

New ultra modern lightweight sports model

1954 schwinn sports lightweight

  • Model W-14 26-inch

A new sports model specially styled with the latest in upright frames.

An oustanding value- the Schwinn Sports in equipped with the "extras" to please the sports rider. Features include 3-speed gears, Maes type drop bars with racing grips, rat-trap pedals, racing saddle, and front and rear caliper brakes.

For pleasure riding or in group competition the Sports is sure to be a top performer- because it gives a sharper, snappier ride! Truly, a standout in any crowd. And it's made in America by Schwinn!

  • Frame- specially designed, electro forged construction made with best grade Schwinn built tubing. 22" frame size.
  • Brakes- aluminum alloy hooded lever caliper type front and rear.
  • Handlebar stem- special tubular construction.
  • Handlebar- drop type maes style bend.
  • Head Set- Schwinn built from fine grain steel, triple heat treated cups and cones. Chrome steel balls.
  • Fenders- special lightweight design enameled to match frame.
  • Tires- Schwinn Breeze 26x 1 1/4" Tan wall.
  • Saddle- racing type stretched leather.
  • Reflector- 1 3/4" stimsonite approved.
  • Pedals- Schwinn approved rat-trap design.
  • Shipping Weight- 50 pounds.
  • Colors- Opalescent colors: Violet, terra cotta, red, blue, dark green or gold, and black enamel.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Sport .

Schwinn super sports.

Superb quality for advanced cyclists.

1954 schwinn super sports lightweight

  • Model W-15 26-inch

Here's something new and different in cycling adventure.

In additional to all the fine material and construction features of the Sports, the Super Sports has added features that bring the lightest, easiest ride possible to advanced riders.

Among these special features are Dural featherweight high pressure rims, Dural front hub, and special Dural handlebars. It's made in America by Schwinn. Fully protected by the famous Schwinn guarantee.

  • Front Hub- Dural featherweight hub with removable bearing cups.
  • Handlebar stem- Dural special tubular construction.
  • Handlebar- Dural drop type maes style bend.
  • Tires- Schwinn Puff 26x 1 1/4" high pressure. Optional: 27 X 1 1/4" Puff high pressure tires with special rims.
  • Rims- Dural featherweight high pressure.
  • Saddle- Brooks B17N Racing saddle.
  • Shipping Weight- 49 pounds.
  • Colors- Opalescent colors: Violet, terra cotta, red, blue, dark green, gold, and black enamel.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Super Sport .

Schwinn collegiate.

A leading value in American made lightweights.

1954 schwinn collegiate lightweight

  • Model W-2 26-inch
  • Model W-52 26-inch

A popular bike at a reasonable price- Schwinn quality throughout.

Now the thrills of lightweight cycling can be had at a modest cost with the beautiful Schwinn Collegiate. It's light yet sturdy Schwinn quality construction assures top-notch performance and many miles of trouble-free service.

Equipped with dependable coaster brake, chrome rims, and streamlined chainguard. Available in beautiful sparkling colors - long lasting baked on enamel. Made in America by Schwinn replacement parts easily obtainable.

  • Frame- Electro-forged construction, made with Schwinn built tubing. Men's sizes, 19", 21" and 23"; Ladies size, 19".
  • Fork- Special lightweight forget steel construction.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones, chrome steel balls.
  • Head Set- Schwinn built, triple heat treated cups and cones. Chrome steel balls.
  • Fenders- special lightweight design. Ivory color with matching stripe.
  • Tires- Schwinn Whirlwind 26x 1 3/8" or Schwinn Breeze 26 x 1 1/4".
  • Shipping Weight- W2 50 pounds, W52 50 pounds.
  • Colors- red, blue, green og black.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Collegiate .

Schwinn welterweight.

Newest idea in delivery bike design!

1954 schwinn welterweight

  • Model W-13 26-inch
  • Model W-13S 26-inch

Here's the perfect answer to carrying heavy loads - lightly and easily!

The ideal easy pedalling double duty welterweight - for newsboys, light deliveries, rentals - or for ordinary pleasure riding. Special construction features include double-bar frame and truss rods.

Equipped with heavy duty spokes, heavier tires, special convenient-reach handlebars, heavy duty front hub, coaster brake, built-in kickstand and embossed chain guard. Carries the famous Schwinn Guarantee.

  • Frame- specially designed, electro-forged construction from best grade Schwinn built tubing.
  • Fork- Special lightweight forget steel construction with patented truss rods. No brazing.
  • Crank Set- Drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones, turned from fine grain bar steel. Chrome steel balls.
  • Front Hub- Schwinn built with heavy duty hub removable bearing cups.
  • Handlebar stem- Schwinn gooseneck.
  • Handlebar- Wide box bar.
  • Fenders- special lightweight design. enameled to match frame.
  • Tires- Schwinn hurricane 26 x 1 1/2".
  • Rims- Schwinn built, tubular, chrome plated S-4.
  • Shipping Weight- W13 58 pounds.
  • Colors- dark red, blue, green or black.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Welterweight .

Schwinn tourist.

Continental design in a fine quality lightweight

1954 schwinn tourist lightweight

  • Model C-18 26-inch

Chrome molybdenum frame for extra lightness- finest Continental style

Three-speed gears, generator and light set, chrome plated fenders and roomy saddle bag are some of the extras that make this new Continental Tourist an outstanding beauty.

It's fine quality features include a special lightweight frame of finest seamless drawn moly tubing, three -piece cottered type crank set, alloy front hub and tan wall Schwinn Breeze Tires - a combination that's sure to please the expert cyclist.

  • Frame- best grade chrome-molybdenum seamles drawn tubing, 1" top tube, 1 1/8" down tube and seat mast. All joints re-inforced. Men's sizes 21" and 23"..
  • Fork- seamless drawn, double tapered fork tubes, forged steel crown and fork tips.
  • Crank Set- Three piece cottered type precision made.
  • Front Hub- special Schwinn Dural.
  • Rear Hub- 3 speed Sturney-archer AW.
  • Brakes- Aluminum alloy caliper type front and rear.
  • Handlebar- special continental bend.
  • Head Set- Special Continental type, turn from fine grain bar steel, triple heat treated. Chrome steel balls.
  • Fenders- special lightweight design, stainless steel, with high carbon wire fender braces.
  • Chain guard- embossed design, chrome trim.
  • Tires- Schwinn breeze 26 x 1 1/4" tan wall.
  • Saddle- best grade full mattress type.
  • Reflector- 1 3/4" Stimsonite approved.
  • Pedals- special Schwinn approved touring type.
  • Saddle bag- best grade Schwinn approved.
  • Shipping Weight- C18 50 pounds.
  • Colors- Black, opalescent red, blue, dark green or gold.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Tourist .

Schwinn tourist ladies.

Striking design in a ladies lightweight

1954 schwinn tourist ladies lightweight

  • Model C-68 26-inch

Here's the finest in Continental styling to thrill the heart of any girl.

The Girls Tourist has all the same fine quality fefatures and equipment as the boys model. This outstanding lightweight model offers the smoothest, easiest riding opportunity available to your ladies.

And it's made in America by Schwinn, with parts and service readily available. Here is dependable riding at its best, and like all Schwinns it's guaranteed as-long-as-you-own-it.

  • Frame- best grade chrome-molybdenum seamles drawn tubing, 1" top tube, 1 1/8" down tube and seat mast. All joints re-inforced, 19" seat mast.
  • Rear Hub- 3 speed Sturmey-archer AW.
  • Generator set- best grade Schwinn approved.
  • Colors- Black enamel, opalescent red, blue, dark green or gold.

Schwinn World 24"

A scaled down lightweight for the young set!

1954 schwinn world 24 inch lightweight

  • Model W-22 24-inch
  • Model W-72 24-inch

An ultra-smart lightweight bike at a very attractive low price!

If you want America's leading juvenile lightweight bicycle-select the Schwinn World! It has many fine features. It's sleek, durable, and finished in newest colors and trim. Equipped with coaster brake, chrome rims, mattress type saddle and built-in kickstand - plus all the famous Schwinn Quality Features.

Accessories available include 3-speed gear, lighting unit, caliper brakes. A youngster's delight in a lightweight bike.

  • Frame- Electro-forged construction, made with Schwinn built tubing.
  • Fork- special lightweight forget steel construction. No brazing.
  • Crank Set- drop forged from high carbon steel, triple heat treated cups and cones. Chrome steek balls.
  • Reflector- 1 3/4" jewel.
  • Shipping Weight- W-22 45 pounds, W-72 45 pounds.
  • Colors- red, blue, green or black.

See the complete history of the Schwinn World .

Schwinn pixie.

True lightweight styling in a 20-inch juvenile.

1954 schwinn pixie

  • Model W-32 20-inch
  • Model W-82 20-inch

Sleek lines- sturdy construction Designed for the 5 to 7 years olds!

In response to a growing demand for a lightweight juvenile bike Schwinn has produced the 20-inch Pixie. It's light in weight and easy to handle - a pleasure for youngsters to ride.

Exactly scaled down from the larger lightweights- with Schwinn Exclusive Quality Features throughout. Standard equipment includes caoster brake, chainguard, and built-in kickstand. Ideally suited for use with Schwinn No. 9906 Cycle- Aids. A real beauty!

  • Tires- Schwinn breeze 20 x 1 1/4".
  • Shipping Weight- W-32 42 pounds, W-82 42 pounds.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Pixie .

Schwinn paramount.

The world's No.1 trio of custom made bicycles!

1954 schwinn paramounts

  • Frame- made to customer's specifications from either accles and pollack or reynolds 531 seamless drawn double butted tubing. Best grade lugs, straight or drop out rear forkends. Hand built and finished throughtout.
  • Fork- to customer's specifications from best grade double tapered seamless drawn chrome-molybdenum tubing. Forged steel crown and fork tips. Special mounting lug for fenders on tourist models.
  • Crank Set- Schwinn Paramount racing quality cranks and fittings. Theree pin sprocket mounting.
  • Hubs- Schwinn Paramount racing hubs, choice of stiff hub or free wheeling unit in rear. Sturmey- Archer three speed hub optional.
  • Handlebar stem- Schwinn double adjustable, Schwinn Paramount, or tubular to customers specifications.
  • Handlebar- special continental, goullet or maes type bends to customer'r order.
  • Head Set- special Paramount design. Turned from fine grain bar steel.
  • Fenders- special lightweight design. Stainless steel with high carbon wire fender braces. Mounted onto special lugs on frame and fork on tourist models.
  • Tires- Schwinn puff 26 x 1 1/4" or 27 x 1 1/4" high pressure best grade touring tires. 26 x 1 1/4". Schwinn breeze optional on tourist models. Best grade tubular tires on racing models.
  • Rims- extruded alloy rims with Puff tires. Schwinn tubular rims with breeze tires. Best grade alloy rims on racing models.
  • Saddle- best grade full mattress type or Brooks B-17 narrow.
  • Reflector- 1 1/2" Stimsonite on tourist models.
  • Pedals- best grade special touring type or rat trap to customer's order.
  • Colors- any standard Schwinn color.
  • Shipping Weight- 43 pounds.

The Masterpiece of bicycle craftsmanship... Greatest contribution to bicycle perfection

First Choice of those who demand the best

Since their introduction, Schwinn Paramounts have carried more winners to the finish line than any other bicycle made. Amateurs and sports riders, too, find the Paramount the top performer on any ride, competitive or otherwise. No wonder! It's custom quality, safety, and style rolled into one.

Products of the famous Schwinn custom department

Every order for a Schwinn Paramount receives the individual care of master craftsman. Personalized attention to the last detail is maintained throughout it's constructions, with special inspection to assure close precision tolerances in moving parts.

Unsurpassed for elegance, dependability

From every angle, the Schwinn Paramounts are perfectly balanced bicycles with handsome lines scientifically built to produce a graceful, swift ride. And it all adds up to long life, dependable performance at all times. Paramounts are available in a wide choice of stylish colors.

Constructed of finest materials available

The finest precision made, accurately heat-treated alloys and metals are used in Paramount production. Main frame tubes are double butted; finest obtainable. Chrome alloy bearings throughout - best tires on duraluminum rims. No expense has been spared to make these the finest bicycles.

Made to your exact specifications

Whatever the rider's size or needs may be - Schwinn Paramounts are proportioned and constructed with personalized perfection. Frames and forks are hand-made to fit the rider and the conditions under which they will be used. For assistance in determining your individual specification requirements, please write the factory.

Wide selection of finest equipment

Your Schwinn Paramount may be ordered with either touring or drop-handlebars, sport or rat trap pedals, tubular or wired on tires. Stiff, free-wheeling or three-speed rear hub. Steel or alloy brakes, derailleurs and generators at added cost. Also mattress type or stretched leather saddle in racing or touring design.

Comfort and easy pedalling are constant companions on long distance rides with a Paramount

Pleasure Riding

Riding for pleasure and health is even more fun when you ride a custom-made Paramount.

Professionals

Professionals everywhere choose Paramounts for speed, easy-of-handling and dependability.

Top flight amateurs know that Paramounts shorten the road to riding championships.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Paramount .

Schwinn tandem.

It's double fun on a bicycle-built-for-two!

1954 schwinn tandem

  • Model T-5 26-inch

Sized right for easy, graceful handling - sturdily built for safety

There's no better recreation, no greater pleasure in cycling than gliding along on a beautiful Schwinn Tandem. This "Lady-Back model is built with a short wheelbase for easy steering and safe riding. Extra sturdy constructuin with frame made from seamless drawn tubing.

Equipped with specially designed Tandem hubs, fork and hangers and built-in chrome trimmed chain guard. Choice of expander or Caliper brakes and either Tandem or balloon tires on Schwinn tubular rims.

  • Frame- short coupled, lady back European type, new patented design, finest 1 1/8" diameter "Seamless Drawn" steel tubing, with 1 1/2" diameter bottom tube. Two sets of rear stays, detectable kick-stand bracket, removable seat-post clamps and built in fender and chain guard mountings. Heavy drop out rear fork ends. Large diameter head tube.
  • Fork- special heavy Tandem design throughout, special wide drop-forged steel Tandem fork crown. Fork sides are extra heavy, double-tapered with brazed-in fork tips. Fork stem 1 1/6" diameter, extra heavy.
  • Rear Crank Set- three-piece cottered type, axle and cups turned from special bar steel, cups of extra length, cranks oval designed with fixed pedal sprockets. Crank hanger assembly engineered for narrowest possible pedal tread.
  • Front Crank Set- same as rear, but mounted in an aluminum eccentric sleeve to permit front chain adjustment.
  • Head set- Tandem engineered throughout. All parts are extra large to withstand Tandem strain. Adjusting cup turned from octagonal bar to permit use of standard wrenches for adjusting cup are serrated, an extra safety feature. Head set is provided with a handlebar stem adjusting clamp to augment the standard handlebar stem expander, another double safety feature.
  • Handlebar- special Tandem. Rear handlebar fixed, not steerble.
  • Handlebar stem- Schwinn Dural double adjustable.
  • Kickstand- Schwinn-built, detachably mounted.
  • Fenders- lightweight type with semi-tubular braces fastened to lugs on frame and front fork.
  • Chain Guard- Chrome plated, mounted to lugs on the frame..
  • Chain- 1/2" pitch roller.
  • Tires- special Schwinn Hurricane 26 x 1 1/2" Tandem tire on Schwinn tubular S-4 special Tandem rims. 26 x 2 1/8" tires on S-2 Tubular rims optional.
  • Front hub- Special Tandem design, either dural hub or tandem large flange expander brake.
  • Rear hub- Special Tandem design, dural hub with foreign free-wheel unit, or Tandem large flange expander brake or coaster brake.
  • Brakes- caliper type front and rear, with dural hubs or expander type with expander brake hubs.
  • Shipping Weight- T-5 90 pounds.
  • Colors- Dark red, blue, green, black, or opalescent red, blue, dark green or gold.

See the complete history of the Schwinn Tandem .

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1954 schwinn phantom

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Posted 10 years ago

1954 schwinn phantom

Me and a few bicycle buddies got a lead on a stash of old bikes, The people gave us everything if we just move it out, been in the attic since 1970, we spent the day removing all the bikes and parts that to 6 trips to move everything and we still have 1/8 left to remove from the attic. Found many NOS part and several Skip Tooth items. Muscle bike parts including a hard to find sissy bar padded back rest, many boxes of NOS Good Year tires and tubes and so many more goodies. My favorite being the 54 Schwinn Black Phantom that I'm still going through the parts and finding pieces to put it back together.

Ritchey P22 20

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1954 schwinn phantom

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1950 Schwinn Phantom

In about September of 1949 Schwinn introduced the Phantom. Essentially the Phantom was a dressed up B6 with chrome plated fenders, a chrome tank with painted inserts, and fully optioned. The Phantom is perhaps the most iconic balloon tire bicycle ever built and was reproduced on the 100 th  Anniversary of Schwinn’s founding (1995). The original Phantoms were produced until 1959 during which time the model underwent minor changes.

The very early bikes differed from later offerings in several ways. The seat used did not have rivets on the side and some early bikes still used the Mesinger B1 saddle instead of the “Phantom style” saddle. Also the early bikes did not have “Black Phantom” or “Phantom” on the chain guard. On a few of the early bikes such as this one a Wald rear reflector was used instead of the more common deluxe Schwinn reflector.

After the war import lightweights from England became popular and the balloon tire bicycles that had dominated the American market for about 20 years started to fall out of favor. The Phantom was offered in black, green, and red. In 1955 a girls model was introduced and lasted only one year. The girls bikes were offered in the standard colors as well as blue. A 24” juvenile model was also available in 1953-4. Owner: Shawn Sweeney

1950 Schwinn Phantom

  • Post-War Balloon Tire Bicycles

1954 Schwinn Black Phantom

by Freqman1 · December 30, 2009

An almost completely original bike that even has the warranty card. Only non-original parts are tassels, valve stem caps, and repo tailight. The 55 year old Typhoons are still holding up nicely!

Entry Submitted by Shawn Sweeney

Tags: Phantom Schwinn

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1954 SCHWINN BLACK PHANTOM BICYCLE BIKE - HYBRID, RESTORED

1954 SCHWINN BLACK PHANTOM BICYCLE BIKE - HYBRID, RESTORED

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Seventeen Moments in Soviet History

  • Rebuilding of Moscow

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Subject essay: Lewis Siegelbaum

The capital city of both the RSFSR and the USSR, Moscow also served under Stalin as a beacon for world socialism. But Moscow was a nearly 800-year old city, with dozens of churches and residential structures dating from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, many narrow twisting lanes, and in a preponderance of wooden, brick, and stone buildings from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The “Master Plan for the Reconstruction of the City of Moscow,” devised by a commission under Lazar Kaganovich and co-signed by Stalin and Viacheslav Molotov on July 10, 1935, was intended as an “offensive against the old Moscow” that would utterly transform the city. Four years in the making, the plan called for the expansion of the city’s area from 285 to 600 square kilometers that would take in mostly farmland to the south and west beyond the Lenin (a.k.a. Sparrow) Hills. It involved sixteen major highway projects, the construction of “several monumental buildings of state-wide significance,” and fifteen million square meters of new housing to accommodate a total population of approximately five million. Surrounding the city would be a green belt up to a width of ten kilometers.

Even while the master plan was being drawn up, old Moscow was giving way to the new. One of the showpieces of the new Moscow was to be the Moscow Metro[politen] which broke ground in March 1932 and went into service on May 14, 1935. A second project begun in the early 1930s was the Moscow-Volga Canal, built by an army of prison laborers numbering 200,000 and opened in July 1937. Yet another project, for a monumental Palace of Soviets capable of hosting meetings of up to 15,000 people, was the subject of an architectural competition held in 1931. Entries were received from 160 Soviet and foreign architects including Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier. In June 1933, the jury headed by Molotov awarded the project to the Soviet architect, Boris Iofan. His terraced, colonnaded palace was to be the tallest building in the world, soaring eight meters above the recently completed Empire State Building. It was to be crowned with a massive, 90-meter-tall statue of Lenin.

The site selected for the colossus was, symbolically enough, the ground on which the Cathedral of Christ the Redeemer had stood before its demolition in 1931. This was one of many churches and religious abbeys destroyed in the frenzy to make over the capital. Work on the Palace of Soviets commenced in 1935 and continued until the Nazi invasion. In 1960 a giant outdoor heated swimming pool, the biggest in the Soviet Union (and reputedly, the world), opened on the site. It, in turn, gave way in the 1990s to a replica of the cathedral which was constructed under the auspices of Moscow’s flamboyant mayor, Iurii Luzhkov.

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Urban island parameters
  • 4. The urban “heat island” in Moscow
  • 5. The urban “dry island” in Moscow
  • 6. The analysis of the city development
  • 7. Conclusions

Ackerman , B. , 1987 : Climatology of Chicago area urban–rural differences in humidity . J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 26 , 427 – 430 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<0427:COCAUR>2.0.CO;2 .

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Baker , L. A. , A. J. Brazel , N. Selover , C. Martin , N. McIntyre , F. R. Steiner , A. Nelson , and L. Mussacchio , 2002 : Urbanization and warming of Phoenix (Arizona, USA): Impacts, feedbacks, and mitigation . Urban Ecosyst. , 6 , 183 – 203 , doi: 10.1023/A:1026101528700 .

Bespalov , D. P. , Ed., 1969 : Instructions for hydrometeorological stations and posts: Part I (in Russian). Gidrometeoizdat Rep. 3, 307 pp.

Böer , W. , 1964 : Technische Meteorologie ( Technical Meteorology ). B. G. Teubner Verlagsgesellschaft, 232 pp.

Central State Archive of Moscow , 1957 : Main parameters of Moscow economy and culture development: Statistical collection—1956 (in Russian). Archive Fund R-126, Inventory 10, No. 747, 166 pp.

Central State Archive of Moscow , 1963 : Moscow in numerals: Short statistical collection—1959–1962 (in Russian). Archive Fund R-126, Inventory 10, No. 750, 201 pp.

Central State Archive of Moscow , 1964 : Development of housing and communal services and automobile transport of Moscow in 1961–1963 (in Russian). Archive Fund R-126, Inventory 10, No. 631, 45 pp.

Chandler , T. J. , 1967 : Absolute and relative humidities in towns . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 48 , 394 – 399 .

Debbage , N. , and J. M. Shepherd , 2015 : The urban heat island effect and city contiguity . Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. , 54 , 181 – 194 , doi: 10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2015.08.002 .

Gallo , K. , and G. Xian , 2014 : Application of spatially gridded temperature and land cover data sets for urban heat island analysis . Urban Climate , 8 , 1 – 10 , doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2014.04.005 .

Gavrilova , I. N. , 2000 : Demographical portrait of Moscow in time of Great Patriotic War (in Russian) . Quest. Hist. , 2 , 118 – 127 .

Great Russian Encyclopedia , 1998 ; s.v. Moscow (in Russian). Great Russian Encyclopedia Scientific Publishing House (Russian Academy of Sciences), 976 pp.

Great Soviet Encyclopedia , 1980 ; s.v. Moscow (in Russian). Great Soviet Encyclopedia Publishing House, 688 pp.

Howard , L. , 1818 : The Climate of London, Deduced from Meteorological Observations, Made at Different Places in the Neighbourhood of the Metropolis. Vol. 1. W. Phillips, 346 pp.

Isaev , A. A. , 2001 : Ecological Climatology (in Russian). Scientific World, 456 pp.

Kedrolivansky , V. N. , 1937 : Meteorological Instruments (in Russian). Central Direction of Hydrometeorological Service, 318 pp.

Kratzer , P. A. , 1956 : Das Stadtklima ( The Urban Climate ). Braunschweig, 221 pp.

Kuttler , W. , S. Weber , J. Schonnefeld , and A. Hesselschwerdt , 2007 : Urban/rural water vapour pressure differences and urban moisture excess in Krefeld, Germany . Int. J. Climatol. , 27 , 2005 – 2015 , doi: 10.1002/joc.1558 .

Landsberg , H. E. , 1981 : The Urban Climate . Academic Press, 275 pp.

Landsberg , H. E. , and T. N. Maisel , 1972 : Micrometeorological observations in an area of urban growth . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 2 , 365 – 370 , doi: 10.1007/BF02184776 .

Lokoshchenko , M. A. , 2013 : Urban ‘heat island’ phenomenon and climate of Moscow city. Proc. Int. Conf. on Urban Climate and History of Meteorology , Florence, Italy, Institute of Biometeorology, 170–175.

Lokoshchenko , M. A. , 2014 : Urban ‘heat island’ in Moscow . Urban Climate , 10 , 550 – 562 , doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2014.01.008 .

Lokoshchenko , M. A. , 2015 : Long-term dynamics of the urban ‘heat island’ in Moscow. Proc. Ninth Int. Conf. on Urban Climate/12th Symp. on the Urban Environment , Toulouse, France, International Association for Urban Climate/Amer. Meteor. Soc., 17-11-4011378.

Lokoshchenko , M. A. , and E. L. Vasilenko , 2010 : Long-term changes of Moscow climate. Proc. Int. Geographical Union Regional Conf. , Tel Aviv, Israel, International Geographical Union, 0205.

Moscow Province Council , 1915 : Observation results of meteorological stations of the second category (in Russian). Yearbook of Meteorological Network of Moscow Province Council , Vol. 2, No. 1, Moscow Province Council, 860 pp.

Oke , T. R. , 1978 : Boundary Layer Climates. John Wiley and Sons, 372 pp.

Rasul , A. , H. Balzter , and C. Smith , 2015 : Spatial variation of the daytime surface urban cool island during the dry season in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan, from Landsat 8 . Urban Climate , 14 , 176 – 186 , doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2015.09.001 .

Reifer , A. B. , and Coauthors , 1971 : Handbook on Hydrometeorological Instruments and Systems (in Russian). Gidrometeoizdat, 372 pp.

Robaa , S. M. , 2003 : Urban–suburban/rural differences over greater Cairo, Egypt . Atmósfera , 16 , 157 – 171 , http://www.revistascca.unam.mx/atm/index.php/atm/article/view/8512/7982 .

Rubinstein , Ye. S. , 1979 : Homogeneity of Meteorological Rows in Time and in Space in Connection with Studying of Climate Change (in Russian). Gidrometeoizdat, 79 pp.

Shechtman , P. B. , Ed., 1953 : Climatological handbook of the USSR: Part I: Air temperature—Meteorological data for separate years (in Russian). Moscow Division of Hydrometeorological Service Rep. 8, 479 pp.

—— , 1959 : Climatological handbook of the USSR: Part V: Air humidity—Meteorological data for separate years (in Russian). Moscow Division of Hydrometeorological Service Rep. 8, Vol. 1, 298 pp.

—— , 1971 : Climatological handbook of the USSR: Part I: Air temperature—Meteorological data for separate years (in Russian). Moscow Hydrometeorological Observatory Rep. 8, 330 pp.

—— , 1972 : Climatological handbook of the USSR: Part V: Air humidity—Meteorological data for separate years (in Russian). Moscow Hydrometeorological Observatory Rep. 8, 257 pp.

Ulianova , G. N. , 2006 : Moscow, 1914–2004. Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction , Vol. 3, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1802–1810.

Unkašević , M. , O. Jovanović , and T. Popović , 2001 : Urban–suburban/rural vapour pressure and relative humidity differences at fixed hours over the area of Belgrade city . Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 68 , 67 – 73 , doi: 10.1007/s007040170054 .

Vasilenko , E. L. , and M. A. Lokoshchenko , 2009 : Centennial changes of humidity parameters in Moscow (in Russian). Proc. 13th Int. Conf. of Young Scientists , Zvenigorod, Russia, Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, 22–23.

Wilby , R. L. , P. D. Jones , and D. H. Lister , 2011 : Decadal variations in the nocturnal heat island of London . Weather , 66 , 59 – 64 , doi: 10.1002/wea.679 .

Satellite image of Moscow region. The image is based on the data of the ScanEx Research and Development Center ( http://www.kosmosnimki.ru ). The white line indicates the contours of Moscow in 1992–2011. Green patches are forests.

Horizontal field of the surface air temperature in Moscow and its long-term changes: (a) 1887–89, (b) 1915–16, (c) 1954–55, (d) 1991–97, and (e) 2010–14. The grayish doubled line indicates the contours of Moscow in 1890 for (a), in 1916 for (b), in 1960 for (c) and in 1992–2011 for (d) and (e); stars are ground meteorological stations; thick black lines are mean annual isotherms. Arrows indicate the location of some stations outside the margins of the figure and their directions.

Dynamics of the UHII in Moscow: (a) average data for five periods of several years, (b) mean annual data for each year since 1951, and (c) moving-averaged values for each five years since 1953. Values from 1951 to 2014 are calculated by the data of 5 urban and 13 rural stations that exist now.

Long-term dynamics of mean annual humidity parameters in Moscow in 1870–2015.

Horizontal field of the relative humidity in Moscow and its long-term changes: (a) 1891–97, (b) 1915–16, (c) 1954–55, (d) 1991–97, and (e) 2010–14. Doubled thin black lines indicate the contours of Moscow city in 1890 for (a), in 1916 for (b), in 1960 for (c), and from 1992 to 2011 for (d) and (e); stars are ground meteorological stations; thick blue lines indicate mean annual isovapors. The black star is the station closest to the city center, gray stars are other urban stations, and open stars are rural stations. Stations are labeled as B for Biryulyovo, T for Tushino, N for Nemchinovka, P for Pogodinka, C for CPKR, G for GAMS, and Ph for Phili. Arrows indicate the location of some stations outside the margins of the figure and their directions.

Dynamics of the UDII in the city of Moscow.

Dynamics of factors that influence the intensity of UHI: (top) dynamics of urban population and its density in Moscow, (middle) dynamics of urban population density in the center of Moscow, and (bottom) dynamics of annual electric power consumption in Moscow and the Moscow region.

The central part of Moscow. Thin black lines indicate the boundaries of old urban districts before 1992 and of new administrative districts since 1992 (except one more special enclave district—Zelenograd—that is distant from the others). The shaded gray areas were used in calculations and show the (left) central districts before 1992 and (right) central administrative district since 1992.

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Urban Heat Island and Urban Dry Island in Moscow and Their Centennial Changes

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The long-term dynamics of both urban heat island (UHI) and urban dry island (UDI) intensities over the city of Moscow, Russia, has been analyzed for the period from the end of the nineteenth century until recent years using data of the ground meteorological network. Besides traditional maximum heat/dry island intensity, an additional parameter—station-averaged intensity as a mean difference between the data of all urban and rural stations—has been used. The traditional maximum (mean annual) UHI intensity in Moscow was nearly 1.0°C at the end of the nineteenth century, 1.2°C one century ago, 1.5°–1.6°C both in the middle and at the end of the twentieth century, and 2.0°C in recent years. The station-averaged UHI intensity was equal to 0.7°–0.8°C in the second half of the twentieth century and increased up to 1.0°C in recent years. It is probable that stabilization of both parameters from the 1950s to the 1990s was connected with the extensive city growth at that time (mass resettlement of inhabitants from the overpopulated city center to the new urban periphery since the 1960s). The new increase of UHI intensities is the result of the new intensive city growth. The relative humidity in Moscow significantly decreased during the last 146 years (mostly because of warming), unlike water vapor pressure. The UDI is closely connected with the UHI; the absolute value (modulus) of its intensity is increasing in time from −4% at the end of the nineteenth century to −9% now. During the last two decades, the UDI as well as the UHI became much stronger than before.

Publisher's Note: This article was revised on 24 January 2018 to add the additional affiliation of the author, which was missing when originally published.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy ( www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses ).

The urban heat island (UHI) is a well-known phenomenon that was first discovered in London, United Kingdom, by L. Howard ( Howard 1818 ). Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, it has been analyzed almost everywhere in the world ( Böer 1964 ; Kratzer 1956 ; Landsberg 1981 ; Oke 1978 ; etc.). As is known, almost every city and even every village creates its own canopy UHI (i.e., warmer air temperatures on average than the surrounding rural area, at least in the evening, at night, and in the early morning). The only exceptions are specific geographical conditions: for example, some cities are cooler than their outskirts in dry tropical deserts because of the urban “oasis effect”: Beersheba, Israel, all the year round before 1985 (O. Potchter 2011, personal communication); Cairo, Egypt, in late autumn ( Robaa 2003 ); Arbīl, Iraq, in Kurdistan during the dry season ( Rasul et al. 2015 ); irrigated urban areas of Phoenix, Arizona, during the daytime ( Baker et al. 2002 ); and so on. Some general conclusions about the UHI in different cities are made in Lokoshchenko (2014) .

It is usual to study only daily and/or seasonal variability of the UHI, but another interesting and important direction is the analysis of UHI long-term centennial changes. This analysis for Moscow, Russia, was first made ( Lokoshchenko 2013 ) for the period from 1915 to 1955; it was then expanded for the period from 1887 to 1997 ( Lokoshchenko 2014 ), and stabilization of the UHI intensity in the second half of the twentieth century was discovered. It was supposed ( Lokoshchenko 2014 ) that the deceleration of the UHI intensity growth is connected with the extensive development of the city, but adding new data for recent years surprisingly shows a new sharp growth of the UHI intensity during the last two decades ( Lokoshchenko 2015 ). Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to study long-term changes of Moscow UHI from the 1880s until nowadays and to explain its dynamics using all of the available data on urban population and its density and energy consumption.

In addition, another climatic phenomenon—the urban dry island (UDI)—and its centennial dynamics for the same period have also been studied for the first time. It is probable that the UDI was first described in Berlin and Munich, Germany ( Kratzer 1956 ), but usually this phenomenon is known only by data averaged over more or less shorter periods. As one knows, relative humidity F depends on two parameters: water vapor pressure e and air temperature T because F = e / E × 100%, where saturation vapor pressure E is a function of T . Thus, the UDI is closely connected with the UHI and is the direct result of higher T in the city. In addition, the urban dry island is also the result of less evaporation in a city because of small green areas, anthropogenic precipitation drainage, and so on. As is known, the relative humidity in cities is usually lower than in the rural zone (e.g., Kratzer 1956 ; Landsberg 1981 ). For example, the mean monthly difference of F inside and outside the city of Belgrade, Serbia, ranges from −11% to +5% ( Unkašević et al. 2001 ). The difference of F in Chicago, Illinois, and in its outskirts is usually from −3% to −11% depending on the season and the time of day ( Ackerman 1987 ). According to Landsberg and Maisel (1972) , the average daily difference of F inside and outside the city of Columbia, Maryland, is −4%, and one-half of this value is the result of UHI, whereas the other half is the result of lower urban evapotranspiration.

The geographical basis of reliability of the UHII A as a new parameter is the well-known fact that a heat island often represents a “plateau” form in the field of T with a sharp increase of air temperatures close to city margins ( Landsberg 1981 ). It is evident that if the density of urban development is nearly the same everywhere inside a city then T C ~ T U and parameters UHII MAX and UHII A are close to each other. On the other hand, the more inhomogeneous an urban area inside a city is, the bigger the difference between T C and T U is. Of course, the UHII A value may be analyzed only if the ground meteorological network is dense, that is, if several weather stations operate inside a city simultaneously. Note that the traditional parameter UHII MAX strongly depends on the environs and data quality of only one central urban station. The values of UHII MAX may be biased in time if the close vicinity of a central station has significantly changed or if a central station was displaced. For this reason, UHII A seems to be a more statistically trustworthy parameter than UHII MAX . A similar approach (calculation of UHII A ) was used for gridded data for mean annual values of T on the basis of 1 km × 1 km grid cells by Gallo and Xian (2014) and for minimum T on the basis of 1 km × 1 km grid cells by Debbage and Shepherd (2015) . Below, we shall use both parameters in their comparison with each other.

Note that, since at least the end of the nineteenth century, the air temperature T was measured in the Russian Empire and then in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation at the 2-m level above the surface using classical August psychrometers (which include dry and wet mercury thermometers) in special meteorological boxes—in the “Russian box” (Wild box) from 1874 until 1910–14 and later in the “English box” (Stevenson box). The accuracy of T measurements is in the limits of ±0.2°C for positive values and ±0.3°C for T < 0°C ( Reifer et al. 1971 ). The frequency of measurements was three times per day at 0700, 1300, and 2100 LT (the so-called classical Mannheim hours that were used since the eighteenth century) before 1936; four times per day at 0100, 0700, 1300, and 1900 LT from 1936 to 1965; and eight times per day (every 3 h) from 1966 to the present. All thermometers at any station are tested regularly in accord with the standards of the Russian Hydrometeorological Service; their instrumental correction is usually tested by measurements of the 0°C value (low reference point) in melting snow and other values (±5°, ±10°C, etc.) in some liquids (e.g., in spirits) with the use of a reference platinum thermometer.

The atmospheric humidity, according to classical order, is measured using either an August psychrometer (i.e., simultaneous readings of both dry and wet thermometers in a Stevenson box; Kedrolivansky 1937 ) when T ≥ −10°C or a hair hygrometer in the same box if T < −10°C ( Bespalov 1969 ). Thus, constant instrumentation provides a homogeneous long-term time series. Mean annual temperature and mean relative humidity F are calculated as an average of 12 monthly averaged values of T and F , respectively.

The main part of Moscow (except six protuberances) has a symmetrical ellipsoidal form. It is located on flat terrain that is almost homogeneous with no vast areas of open water. As seen from a satellite image ( Fig. 1 ), the Moscow River, which flows across the city from northwest to southeast, is narrow (its width inside the city is only 120–200 m). Therefore, it does not influence the T spatial field except for microscale thermal effects along its banks. Note also that the Moscow region is a significantly forested zone; forests cover about 40% of the region.

Fig. 1.

Citation: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 56, 10; 10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0383.1

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The urban heat island intensity in Moscow was studied for five separate periods ( Fig. 2 ). Figure 2a shows the following ( Lokoshchenko 2014 ): at the end of the nineteenth century, on an average of 3 yr, the difference between T at Landmark Institute (an almost central station located 3.3 km from the Kremlin center) and Mikhelson Observatory (in the close city outskirts) was equal to 0.9°C, whereas the difference between Landmark Institute and Nikolskoye-Gorushki station in the far rural zone was greater: 1.2°C ( Shechtman 1953 ). Of course, only one rural station is insufficient for the analysis; moreover, this difference may be a bit overestimated because of geographic zonality (this station was located to the north of the city). Nevertheless, we can suppose that the heat island intensity UHII MAX was equal to about 1.0°C at that time. It is evident that this parameter of the UHI intensity is only available from the data of one urban station.

Fig. 2.

Almost 30 years later, six meteorological stations—two urban ones and four close rural ones—operated in this area ( Fig. 2b ). As is seen, the +4°C isotherm is a semicircle and goes around the southern margin of the city during the First World War. In total, 15 meteorological stations including two urban ones operated in the Moscow region at that time (six of them are shown in Fig. 2b ). The mean T in the rural zone outside the city during these two years was in the range from +2.6° to +3.6°C for 13 rural stations at a distance up to ~100 km from the city (some stations are outside the margins of Fig. 2b ). On average, it is equal to +3.2°C both for all of these 13 stations and for four rural stations in the close vicinity of the city (up to 35 km) as Fig. 2b shows. Hence, the UHII MAX value in 1915–16 was equal to 1.2°C according to Eq. (1) . The methodical questions about the real rural air temperature and some details of this analysis are discussed in Lokoshchenko (2014) . In this paper, the UHII MAX for this period was initially supposed to be a bit higher: from 1.2° to 1.4°C, taking into account the value of T = +3.0°C at two stations as probably a real rural background.

Forty years later ( Fig. 2c ), the density of the ground meteorological network was the highest: at least 34 stations were operating in the Moscow region, including 13 stations inside the present-day margins of the city. Note that in the mid-1950s the margins of Moscow were unclear: they were fixed five years later, in August 1960 (an ellipsoid in Fig. 2c ). Nevertheless, probably 10 of these 13 stations were really inside the city in 1954–55, and the other three represented close suburbs at that time. Initially ( Lokoshchenko 2014 ), the measurements of only 8 urban stations and 24 rural ones were analyzed by Shechtman (1971) . Later the author found the archival data of two more special urban stations [Main Aviation Meteorological Station (GAMS) and Phili] that operated in the city at that time but were not included in Shechtman (1971) ; now they have been included in the analysis. The heat island is marked here by two quasi-circle isotherms: +4° and +5°C. The closest station to the city center, Balchug, which is situated only 0.6 km to the south of the Kremlin (1.1 km from the Kremlin center), showed the highest air temperature at that time: +5.35°C. All other urban stations showed a gradual decrease of T from the center to city margins. The mean T inside the city was +4.61°C on the basis of the data from 10 real urban stations and +4.50°C by the data from all 13 stations that were located inside up-to-date margins of the city; previous mean values from 8 old urban stations and 11 new (since 1960) urban stations in Lokoshchenko (2014) were the same, to an accuracy of 0.1°C. In the rural zone of the Moscow region, the mean T at that time was equal to +3.79°C averaged over the data from 24 stations (and +3.74°C; i.e., only a little lower by the data of 21 stations outside modern city margins). Thus, in 1954–55, the traditional UHII MAX intensity value in Moscow (i.e., the difference between Balchug station and all 24 rural stations) was about +1.56°C, whereas the UHII A value (the difference between 10 urban and 24 rural stations) was equal to +0.82°C. With the account of new city margins (13 urban and 21 rural stations), both UHII MAX and UHII A are the same, to an accuracy of 0.1°C: +1.6° and +0.8°C. It should be taken into account that the ground meteorological network in the Moscow region was later reduced, and only 5 urban stations, including Balchug, and 13 rural stations remained in 1991–97 and 2010–14. Thus, for a more correct comparison of different periods, we must use a lower number of stations. The mean T in the urban area in 1954–55 by the data of only the five stations that exist now is nearly the same (+4.48°C), however, and outside the city by the data of 13 stations it is exactly the same (+3.79°C). Hence, recalculated for n = 4 in Eq. (2) and m = 13 in Eqs. (1) and (2) , the UHII MAX value is the same as before (+1.56°C) and the UHII A value is only a little lower (+0.69°C).

The heat island mapping from 1991 to 1997 ( Fig. 2d ) demonstrates two semicircle isotherms: +6°C in the city center and +5°C around the western city margins. The maximum T in the city center (Balchug station) was equal to +6.48°C; the mean T inside the city by the data of five urban stations was +5.69°C, whereas outside the city it was +4.86°C averaged over the data of 13 stations. Note that in Lokoshchenko (2014 ) only 10 of 13 rural stations were used for the analysis of the 1991–97 period; the data rows of three more rural stations (Kashira, Klin, and New-Jerusalem) have breaks: either one or two of seven mean annual T values are absent for that time. Now the author has received restored values of T for all three of these stations for the lost years by comparing them with the closest neighboring stations and using simple correction as the average difference ∆ T between two stations for other years for which mean annual values were available at both places. Note that ∆ T is comparatively stable in time; its standard deviation σ from one year to another for closest stations at distances of 40–50 km on flat terrain (e.g., between Kashira and Kolomna) is only 0.09°C. Therefore, the probable error of the restored value of T on the average of seven years is only about ±0.01°C if one year is missing. So, as a result, these three stations were included in the analysis.

Thus, the UHII MAX intensity value was 1.62°C—that is, only about one-half of a tenth of a degree higher than 40 years ago. The UHII A value also increased only a little since the 1950s: 0.83°C. In fact, it seems to be a surprising result given the continued fast city growth in the second half of the twentieth century. That is why the UHI intensities for these two periods have been precisely analyzed with such a high accuracy of 0.01° Celsius.

In recent years (averaged from 2010 to 2014), as one can see in Fig. 2e , T in Moscow became still higher: +7.8°C at Balchug station and from 6.3° to 6.7°C at the other four urban stations. Thus, one more semicircle isotherm of +7°C appeared in the center of Moscow. On the basis of the same data sampling (5 urban and 13 rural meteorological stations), the values of UHII MAX and UHII A averaged over five recent years are 2.0° and 1.0°C, respectively. So, both parameters demonstrate a new growth after the previous period of their quasi stabilization. The consequent increase of the air temperature in Moscow from one period to another during 128 years is evident in Fig. 2 : T became higher by 0.5°C from 1887–89 to 1915–16, by 1°C from 1915–16 to 1954–55, by 1°C from 1954–55 to 1991–97, and by an additional 1°C from 1991–97 to 2010–14. This increase is the result of both global climate warming and rapid city growth. So, during 128 years, T grew by 4°C in the city center and by nearly 3°C in the rural zone of the Moscow region.

The results of the analysis are presented in Fig. 3a . It demonstrates long-term dynamics of the UHI intensity in Moscow during 128 years, both traditional [Eq. (1) ] and station averaged [Eq. (2) ]. The general growth is evident, but, as is seen, during the second half of the twentieth century both parameters of the UHI intensity changed only a little, whereas earlier and later the intensity growth was fast. In the previous work ( Lokoshchenko 2014 ), the values of UHII MAX and UHII A in 1954–55 and 1991–97 were received as equal. In this work, the author used the same number of stations during both periods for a more correct comparison and, in addition, three more rural stations were considered for the later period—nevertheless, the overall conclusion about quasi stabilization of the UHI has been confirmed. Figure 3b presents mean annual values of both intensity parameters from one year to another for a more detailed analysis of the dynamics (full data from all stations unfortunately are not available from 1966 until 1990). It is evident that one year may be an insufficient period for statistically reliable UHI intensity analysis because the general tendency is masked by local sharp maxima and minima due to specific weather phenomena in some years (mostly because of different durability of anticyclonic conditions that strongly influence intensity values). The standard deviations of mean annual UHII MAX and UHII A values are ~0.2°–0.3° and 0.1°C, respectively. Thus, the same dynamics has been analyzed again with the use of a moving average for a more clear indication of the general tendency. Both UHII MAX and UHII A mean annual values have been averaged for each 5 years with a 1-yr step in time for the 1953–2012 period ( Fig. 3c ). Indeed, as is seen, the estimations of both parameters were nearly the same in the 1950s and 1990s, and a new fast growth of the UHI intensity has started in the mid-2000s (since 2003–05).

Fig. 3.

Let us discuss another interesting phenomenon, the urban dry island. Figure 4 shows long-term variability of both e and F mean annual values for Moscow since 1870 when regular accurate measurements of both parameters started. This time series is combined with the data of three stations: Landmark Institute from 1870 to 1878 (which was the oldest meteorological station in Moscow before its closing in 1932), Mikhelson Observatory from 1879 to 1953 (which is the oldest Moscow station now), and Moscow University Observatory from 1954 to present. Note that monthly averaged values of both parameters were compared for the periods of simultaneous measurements at two stations (in 1879 for Landmark Institute and Mikhelson Observatory and from 1954 to 1970 for Mikhelson Observatory and University Observatory). It was found that the relations between the data in different urban locations are very close, especially for e values: linear correlation coefficient R is equal to 0.974 for relative humidity and even to 0.999 for water vapor pressure in both places ( Vasilenko and Lokoshchenko 2009 ). Therefore, this common row of data may be accepted as homogeneous. For the first time, this long-term dynamics was published by Vasilenko and Lokoshchenko (2009) and Lokoshchenko and Vasilenko (2010) ; in this paper, it is expanded to recent years. As is seen, water vapor pressure does not demonstrate systematic changes during the last 146 years. The linear regression coefficient K is equal to only 0.0015 hPa yr −1 ; thus it is seen that during the last 146 years the average water content in the ground air layer above Moscow increased on average by only a little—0.2 hPa. Such a small difference is evidently negligible and statistically nonsignificant. Of course, the change of e is not linear: for example, since the end of the 1970s, its growth became faster but during the recent years it decelerated again. Note that the dynamics of e inside and outside the city is very similar: for the period from 1966 to 1997 when the growth of e accelerated, the K value was equal to 0.007 hPa yr −1 by the data of Moscow University and was a bit larger, 0.012 hPa yr −1 , in the Moscow region by the average data of four rural stations (Mozhaisk, Pavlovsky Posad, Serpukhov, and Dmitrov).

Fig. 4.

Unlike this parameter, relative humidity F demonstrates a quick and systematic (steady in time) fall with the average rate of K = −0.06% yr −1 during the last 146 years; in other words, it decreased from 81% in the 1870s to nearly 72% in recent years. Inside the city, it is the result of general T increase due to both global warming and the intensification of the Moscow UHI. Outside the city, the long-term fall of F is the result of global warming only. So, it is not a surprise that in the Moscow region its rate of decrease is half as fast as inside the city. For the period from 1951 to 2015 (for which data on F in the Moscow region are available), the linear regression coefficient K of F mean annual values is −0.06% yr −1 at Moscow University and only −0.03% yr −1 in the Moscow region by the average data of the same four rural stations mentioned above.

The dynamics of the main humidity parameters allows one to understand long-term changes of the F spatial field in a big city. Let us discuss the dynamics of the urban dry island in Moscow as was done above for UHI. Note that human-body sensations and human health depend on relative humidity more than on absolute humidity level—thus, dryness is a more important parameter than any other humidity parameter such as water vapor pressure, specific humidity, and so on. The hygiene standard for a human body is the F in the range from 30% to 60% ( Isaev 2001 ).

One of the methodical problems of this study is the change in measurement frequency. As was already mentioned above, the meteorological measurements in the Russian Empire and in the Soviet Union were carried out three times per day before 1936, four times per day from 1936 to 1965, and eight times per day since 1966. The relative humidity data are available in Shechtman (1959 , 1972) as average values at each time of observation. To receive a homogeneous row of data, a special correction was made using hygrograph records (daily hygrograms) at the Moscow University meteorological observatory that indicate the values of F during every hour. A perfect (the most accurate) mean daily value of F 24 as an average of 24 hourly values during a day was compared with an average both of three values F 3 and of four values F 4 according to the time of observations in the past for each day during three years (1981–83). As a result, the correction coefficient between a perfect mean daily value and mean value of three times (0700, 1300, and 2100 LT) is equal to 1.0049 (standard deviation σ = 0.0384; sample size n = 1095). The similar correction between F 24 and F 4 is equal to 0.9997 ( σ = 0.0386; n = 1095). On the basis of these corrections, all mean values of F before 1966 were recalculated by the author to receive a homogeneous data row.

Let us discuss the intensity of the UDI and its centennial dynamics in time. As was the case for the UHI, the analysis is possible only from the moment when two stations, urban and rural, began to operate simultaneously. In the Moscow region, only in 1879 did the second station (Mikhelson Observatory, formerly known as Petrovsko-Razumovskoye and TSKhA) appear; before that, only one station (Landmark Institute) operated in the city. Landmark Institute was located close to the Moscow Kremlin center (see above), and therefore it may be accepted as a central station. The station data on relative humidity F are unfortunately available only since 1891 ( Shechtman 1959 ) and for fewer stations than for T . Unlike air temperature, relative humidity at most stations in the Russian Empire was a seasonal parameter and was as a rule measured only during a warm season—hence, mean annual values are available for only a few of the stations ( Moscow Province Council 1915 ). Figure 5a shows that on average for the 1891–97 period we can compare the data of only two stations: Landmark Institute in the central part of the city and Mikhelson Observatory, which at that time represented close suburbs. None of the remote rural stations in the Moscow region measured F continuously in the 1890s. Averaged over seven years, F was equal to 75.0% at Landmark Institute and 78.9% at Mikhelson Observatory so that UDII MAX = −3.9% according to Eq. (3) . Of course, this value is only approximate because for more correct estimation of this parameter we need data from several rural stations.

Fig. 5.

One-quarter of a century later, during the First World War, the data of five stations in the Moscow region (four of which are presented in Fig. 5b ; one more was too distant from the city) are available. The lowest value of F in average of two years (76.9%) was received just in the city center (at Landmark Institute), whereas the second urban station Mikhelson Observatory (which appeared inside the city already at that time) registered a little higher value: 78.4%. At three rural stations, respective mean F values were 82.1%, 82.0%, and 78.7% (on average: 80.9%). So UDII MAX remained nearly the same as before: −4.0%. Even for such a short period (two years), this estimation seems to be very reliable because in 1915 and in 1916 UDII MAX was equal to −4.2% and −3.8%, respectively; that is, its change from one year to another is small. As one can see in Fig. 5b , the urban dry island is evidently a real geographical phenomenon because F grows both to the south and to the north of the city.

For the period of 1954–55, the data on F are available for 32 of 34 weather stations in the Moscow region [ Shechtman (1972) and additional archival data] except for two rural stations where data are available only on T ( Shechtman 1971 ). As Fig. 5c shows, the new central Balchug station at that time registered the lowest F value averaged over two years: 71.9%. At the same time, other urban stations demonstrated intermediate values from 74% to 76%, whereas at rural stations this parameter was from 77% to 80%. Two of three urban stations closest to Balchug station demonstrate a little higher value (74%), and only at GAMS station, in the close vicinity of the center, F = 76% (it is seen as a bending curve around it in Fig. 5c ). So, a comparatively high value could be the result either of microclimatic specifics of the GAMS location or of wrong instrumental correction to thermometers: either dry thermometer readings were a bit underestimated (it may be as well the cause of similar bending of the +5°C isotherm in Fig. 2c ), or wet thermometer readings were a bit overestimated, or both. Averaged over two years in the mid-twentieth century, the relative humidity inside the city (averaged by the data of 10 urban stations including Balchug marked by gray and black stars in Fig. 5c ) was equal to 74.7%, whereas in the Moscow region outside the city (averaged by the data of 22 rural stations that existed at that time), it was equal to 77.7%. Therefore, UDII MAX = 71.9% − 77.7% = −5.8%; UDII A = 74.7% − 77.7% = −3.0% for n = 9 and m = 22 in Eqs. (3) and (4) . For a more correct comparison with the next two periods, however, we should account for the reduction of the ground network. Therefore, all values were recalculated only for the data of stations that exist now: mean relative humidity was 74.8% in the city by the data of 5 urban stations and 77.9% outside the city by the data of 13 rural stations. Hence, average estimations are close to each other despite different sampling. As a result, both parameters of the UDI intensity are nearly the same as well: UDII MAX = −6.0%; UDII A = −3.1% (for n = 4 and m = 13).

Forty years later, averaged from 1991 to 1997 ( Fig. 5d ), the F value at the central urban Balchug station was equal to 73.0%, the average over all 5 urban stations was 76.0%, and the average of all 13 rural stations was 78.1%. Thus, UDII MAX = −5.1% and UDII A = −2.1%. In reality, UDI is contoured by the 75% isoline and includes only three stations. Besides Balchug, the isoline includes two more stations: University and Nemchinovka (a close rural station that is located only 1 km to the west of the city margin; usually, it demonstrates intermediate position between urban and rural stations), where the F value was only a little higher than at Balchug station: 74%. In the north of the city and in the rural zone, average F values were from 76% to 80%. So, the UDI became weaker than it was in the mid-1950s because the average F in the urban area increased significantly (by 1.2% for the same 5 stations), whereas outside the city, it remained nearly the same (it increased only a bit by the data of the same 13 stations: by 0.2%). As one can see in the 1990s, all urban stations except for University station demonstrate higher relative humidity than was observed 40 years ago.

Averaged over the five years from 2010 to 2014, the F value at Balchug station is the lowest among other stations: 68.0%; the mean F values in urban and rural areas by the data of the same 5 and 13 stations are 73.2% and 76.6%, respectively. Hence, UDII MAX = −8.6% and UDII A = −3.4%; so, UDI recently became much stronger than before. As a result, for the first time, it is marked by two isovapors (lines of the same relative humidity): 70% and 75%. The absence of observations to the south and to the east of the city unfortunately makes it not possible to close the isovapors.

Some details of the above analysis and methodical questions need a brief comment. Note that data rows of both the Landmark Institute and Mikhelson Observatory are complete and continuous in time. Unlike them, at some other stations there were short breaks in observations. For example, at Biryulyovo (southern rural station in Fig. 5b ) and at Ramenskoye forestry (one of two northern rural stations at that time), the data on F during 1915 and 1916 are available for 22 of 24 months, whereas at Sergiyev Posad (another northern station) data were available only for 17 of 24 months. In a similar way, in 1954 and 1955 relative humidity was measured at Central Park of Culture and Recreation (CPKR) urban station during 21 of 24 months and at Kashira rural station during 20 of 24 months. During the period from 1991 to 1997, there were several breaks as well: the data on F at Balchug and Tushino urban stations were respectively received for 83 and 82 of 84 months. Of 84 months, data were received for 83 months at Klin and Kolomna rural stations, 82 months for Kashira and New-Jerusalem, 80 months at Serpukhov, and only 70 months at Klin. In all of these cases, missing values for some months were restored as the most probable values using special correction in comparison with the nearest station. The mean coefficient K between the values of two stations for the same month (when a break at one of them occurred) during several years before and after a break was used (it is important to note that K may be a function of the annual cycle and therefore for the correction we need to use a comparison for the same month). Note that the spatial field of relative humidity is relatively smoothed in conditions of flat relief and in the absence of large areas of open water. The linear correlation coefficient R between mean monthly values of F at several neighboring stations, both in the city and in the rural zone (at distances from 50 to 90 km from each other), for the period of 1990–2000 ranges from 0.92 to 0.96. As is known, the R values of the spatial field of air temperature in the Moscow region at distances up to 100 km are very similar—higher than 0.8 in the warm season and higher than 0.9 in winter ( Rubinstein 1979 ). As a result of the smoothed F field, relations between mean values of F at neighboring weather stations (up to 100 km from each other) are close (as a rule, K is limited to being from 0.95 to 1.05) and steady in time (standard deviation σ K of K values in different years is on average only 0.04). This means that a possible error of the monthly averaged restored value of F taking into account the σ K value and a typical range of this parameter (usually from 70% to 80%; extreme monthly averaged values can range from 55% to 95% depending on a season) is about 2%–3%. Hence, for example, if at any station, 2 of 84 monthly averaged values are unknown, the most probable error of the total F value averaged over seven years there is only 0.05%–0.07% (i.e., very small). Note as well that Tushino urban station (star in the northwestern part of the city in Figs. 5c–e ) was replaced and has operated 6.5 km to the north from its previous location since 1986.

Another specific correction was made for the data of Pogodinka urban station for the period of 1954–55 where, since June of 1955, the measurements of F began to be made only three times per day instead of four times like before—without a nocturnal reading at 0100 LT. For this station, a comparison with nearest neighbor University Observatory station (3.0 km away from Pogodinka station) was carried out for this nocturnal time only. The coefficient between nocturnal values of F at these two stations in 1954 (when measurements were simultaneous at both places) was used for each month since June–December of 1955 to restore missing values at Pogodinka; then mean monthly values F 4 were calculated by three real values and one restored value, and last a correction 0.9997 was used to get accurate daily averaged estimation. Here, the correction was based on simultaneous data during only one year because University Observatory station was founded in 1954 and soon after 1955 Pogodinka station was closed. Thus, the rows of F data are continuous at both stations in 1891–97, at 2 of 5 stations in 1915–16, at 29 of 32 stations in 1954–55, at 10 of 18 stations in 1991–97, and at all 18 stations in 2010–14.

Long-term changes of the UDI intensity are presented in Fig. 6 as was done above in Fig. 3 for the UHI intensity. Similar to Fig. 3 , both UDII MAX and UDII A values for the period 1954–55 are shown here for a reduced number of stations (5 urban and 13 rural) that operate now for a more correct comparison with the two later periods. As is seen, the UDI intensity dynamics is complicated and nonmonotonic. Periods of clear UDI intensification in the beginning of the twentieth century and during the last two decades are separated by the UDII fall—both maximum and average—in the second half of the past century. This result seems unexpected. The question is what happened and why did UDI become weaker in the 1990s than it was before? This fall corresponds to quasi stabilization of the UHI intensity that took place at that time as was shown above. So, why did the UDI intensity not stabilize as well?

Fig. 6.

Its fall was evidently not the result of some local changes in the close vicinity of the central station Balchug because the UDII A value, as is seen, also decreased. True, one of five urban stations was displaced as already mentioned, but four other stations remained where they were in the 1950s. According to additional calculations accounting for only four urban stations without Tushino, UDII A = −3.5% in 1954–55 and UDII A = −3.0% in 1991–97. Thus, it is seen that weakening of the UDI was a real effect and was not the result of the displacement of one station. The method of humidity measurements and even the type of sensors remained everywhere the same because the Soviet meteorological service was classical and conservative. Note as well that this fall was not the result of some changes in the air moisture content because the e data of University Observatory station remained nearly the same: it was on average 7.6 and 7.7 hPa, respectively, for the periods 1954–55 and 1991–97. In addition, the reduction of UDI intensities was not the consequence of a too-short period of only two years of averaging in 1954–55. An additional calculation was made for 7 years from 1954 to 1960, and the mean F value at Balchug station was received as 71.9%; the mean F at urban (5 stations) and rural (13 stations) areas was 74.8% and 78.2% respectively; thus, UDII MAX = −6.3%; UDII A = −3.4%, and therefore averaged over 7 years in the 1950s the UDI was even deeper and, hence, its fall during the next 37 years was even sharper.

The most probable cause of the UDI weakening is the intensive greening of the city. However, park and forest zones inside Moscow did not increase inside new city margins: the total area of all green zones was 68.7 km 2 in 1958, 167.8 km 2 after city extension in 1961 ( Central State Archive of Moscow 1964 ), nearly 66 km 2 in 1978 ( Great Soviet Encyclopedia 1980 ), and 65.6 km 2 in 1995 ( Great Russian Encyclopedia 1998 ). Thus, the reason for the UDI weakening in Moscow from the 1950s to 1990s remains an open question.

Nevertheless, despite a temporary decrease, in general during the whole period of the F measurements, the UDI in Moscow became stronger: from −4% at the end of the nineteenth century to −9% in recent years. It is evident that this effect is an indirect consequence of the UHI intensification because both phenomena are closely connected (the warmer the urban air is, the drier it is). It is interesting to note that, according to Kratzer (1956) , the average intensity of the UDI in German and Austrian cities (apparently the UDII MAX value) was from −4% to −6% in the beginning of the twentieth century. In Parma, Italy, this parameter in the 1970s was equal on average to −5% ( Landsberg 1981 ). In the afternoon in anticyclonic conditions, however, the difference of F between the urban center and the park zone may be much bigger—up to 30% as was observed in Munich ( Kratzer 1956 ).

Note that the level of absolute humidity mostly reflects total water content in different air masses, and so its variability is large scale and the spatial field of e is comparatively smoothed. According to Oke (1978) , the difference between the values of e inside and outside cities is small and changes its sign in the daily cycle. Thus, unlike average dryness, average humidity does not demonstrate time-stable local effects such as an urban island. The urban “humidity island” (i.e., higher values of e inside the city) may exist only late in the evening and at night in anticyclonic conditions because of the absence of dew or at least much weaker dew in the city than in the rural zone ( Chandler 1967 ; Landsberg 1981 ; Oke 1978 ; Kuttler et al. 2007 ). Even if the urban humidity island exists in the afternoon, it is the strongest on average at night—for example, in Chicago ( Ackerman 1987 ).

For the period of 1991–97, the average e is 8.0 hPa in the city (by the data of 5 urban stations) and 7.9 hPa in the rural zone (by the data of 13 rural stations). The standard deviation σ is 0.5 hPa for the sampling of 35 mean annual values of e at urban stations and σ = 0.4 hPa for the sampling of 89 mean annual values at rural stations (two values are absent). Thus, the difference between the city and rural zone (0.1 hPa) averaged over 7 years is not statistically significant.

The dynamics of both urban islands that was discussed above needs explanation. The previous results of the long-term dynamics of the UHI intensity that were analyzed by Lokoshchenko (2013 , 2014) and its quasi stabilization from the mid-1950s ( Fig. 2c ) to the mid-1990s ( Fig. 2d ) were explained in Lokoshchenko (2014) by the probable extensive growth of the city in the second half of the twentieth century. As a result, the heat island intensity asymptotically approaches its upper limit. A similar effect was noted, for example, for London ( Wilby et al. 2011 ) and Madrid, Spain (D. F. Rasilla Alvarez 2013, personal communication).

Later ( Lokoshchenko 2015 ) a new increase of the UHI intensity during the recent two decades ( Fig. 2e ) was observed in new additional data. As was shown above, the UDI intensity, as well as the UHI intensity, was in general increasing. Yet from the 1950s until the 1990s, it even decreased. To explain these changes, it is necessary to take into account the factors that create additional heat and additional dryness in the city. Note that the exact real intensity of urban heat sources, the density of the urban development (the average part of buildings and asphalt pavement in an area unit in the city), and some other physical parameters that directly influence the UHI and UDI intensities are unfortunately unavailable. Some indirect economic and social factors—for example, the density of urban population and energy consumption—are closely connected with the direct physical factors, however. Let us discuss their long-term changes in Moscow.

As the top panel of Fig. 7 shows, the population of the city (filled symbols) demonstrates an almost monotonically increasing function since at least 1886 excepting only two falls during the Russian Civil War in 1917–20 and the Second World War (called the Great Patriotic War in the Soviet Union) in 1941–45. The official statistics of Moscow population are available from the Central State Archive of Moscow (1957 , 1963 , 1964) , Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1980) , Great Russian Encyclopedia (1998) , and others. There is a big gap from 1939 to 1956, however, which was earlier shown by the author ( Lokoshchenko 2015 ). Now, in addition to the official data, the author also used special estimations of Moscow population from 1940 to 1947 made by Gavrilova (2000) and Ulianova (2006) . As is seen, the reduction of the urban population in Moscow was sharp but comparatively short: in 1947, according to Gavrilova (2000) , it already became only a little smaller than before the war. Later, the increase of population took place at nearly the same rate—therefore, this parameter cannot explain the stabilization of the UHI intensity values from the 1950s to 1990s.

Fig. 7.

Indeed, a more important parameter is not the urban population but its density per area unit. The dynamics of the population density in Moscow from 1905 until recent years (open symbols in the top panel of Fig. 7 ) takes into account both population number and urban area (all statistics were received for the beginning of each year). Note that accurate estimation of the urban area is not always possible: sometimes city margins are strictly determined (e.g., since August 1960) but earlier urban area could be estimated only approximately. The author used the values of the urban area from 1905 to 2011 from the data of official statistics including Central State Archive of Moscow (1963) and others. As one can see, the population density function, unlike the population function, is stepwise: gradual increases are followed by sharp falls. Two of three main falls were connected with the rapid reduction of population during the Civil and Great Patriotic Wars (because of both military mobilization and civil population evacuating from the city), whereas the third reduction in the beginning of 1961 is explained by the sharp increase of the city area which, in accord with a Soviet government decision, was suddenly expanded in August of 1960 up to new ellipsoid margins (see Fig. 2c ). At that moment, the territory of Moscow became 2.5 times as large as before (from 356 km 2 before August 1960 to 885 km 2 later). As a result, the population density of the city decreased by nearly a factor of 2, but just after 1961 it began to increase again; in the beginning of the 2010s, it was already almost 11 000 people per square kilometer. In 2011, the Russian government greatly expanded again the area of Moscow to the southwest, but the new official city margins are unrealistic, and the newly urban area, so-called New Moscow, is a phantom because it still remains a typical rural zone. Therefore, we shall discuss below the real urban area, which since 1984 has had the shape of a turtle, that is, an ellipsoid with several outer protuberances ( Figs. 1 and 2d,e ).

As one can see, the urban density from 1961 to recent years has increased at nearly the same rate, and therefore it does not explain the changes of the UHI and UDI intensities. We should, however, take into account the fact that the intensities of both islands, according to Eqs. (1) – (4) , depend mostly on the conditions at the city center rather than those of the whole city because four of five urban weather stations in Moscow (including Balchug, Mikhelson, and University Observatories) are located inside the old urban area from before 1960. A separate analysis of the population density dynamics for the city center is a difficult problem, however, because administrative division of the city changed several times. Before 1992, Moscow was divided into urban districts (7 from 1920 to 1922, 6 from 1922 to 1929, 10 from 1929 to 1936, 23 from 1936 to 1941, 25 from 1941 to 1957, 20 from 1957 to August 1960, 30 from August 1960 to 1969, 32 from 1969 to 1977, and 33 from 1983), whereas in 1992 the administrative network changed and 10 municipal districts, including the central district, were created instead of the former 33 urban districts. The official annual statistics on urban population for some urban districts exist since 1977; for the earlier period, only three estimations are available: the results of population censuses in 1959 and in 1970 (when citizens were asked, among other questions, in which urban district they were living) and, in addition, a special municipal estimation that was made in 1963 ( Central State Archive of Moscow 1963 ). As is seen in the middle panel of Fig. 7 , Moscow center was extremely overpopulated at the end of the 1950s. At that time, most Moscow families consisted of two or even three generations and, as a rule, occupied one room in multiroom shared apartments. Thus, urban population density averaged over seven districts in the central part of Moscow (see the left panel in Fig. 8 ) was almost 32 800 per square kilometer in 1959 (black filled diamonds in the middle panel of Fig. 7 ), that is, just before city area expansion. The serious housing crisis was soon overcome because of mass construction in the new urban area and mass resettlement of Moscow population from the overpopulated center to the new urban periphery. As a result, in 1970, population density in the center reduced to nearly 20 200 per square kilometer on average for three of seven central Moscow regions and then to 15 800 per square kilometer in 1977 and 11 000 per square kilometer in 1992 on average over five of the same seven districts, taking into account changes of their boundaries in time. The boundaries of five central districts whose data are available since 1977 until 1992 and of the new central district since 1992 ( Fig. 8b , right panel) do not coincide with each other; that is why urban population density in 1992 (the only year for which both statistics exist) is a bit different: 11 000 people per square kilometer averaged over seven districts and 10 400 per square kilometer in the new central district (gray filled diamonds in the middle panel of Fig. 7 ). Then urban population density in the city center continued to decrease up to 1997–98, when it reached a minimum (a little less than 10 100 per square kilometer). Thus, the change of urban population density during the last decades had opposite signs in the whole city (gradual growth) and in the center (rapid fall).

Fig. 8.

Since 1999, the population density in the city center began to increase, and in 2015 it was already equal to 11 500 persons per square kilometer. Indeed, at the end of the 1990s, the growth of the city became intensive again because of a mass migration of people to Moscow from other Russian regions and from the former republics of the Soviet Union because living standards and the possibility of finding a job in the capital were much higher than in the rest of the country. As a result, massive or so-called point construction of new high buildings between old houses started in Moscow, including in its center. Indeed, the increase of population density in the city center since 1998 was not so high, but we should take into account two more things. First, the official statistics on population in Moscow (including the city center) were probably underestimated during the recent 25 years because a lot of migrants lived (and are living now) there without any registration. Second, a lot of nonresidential buildings, mostly trade centers, were constructed in Moscow center since the mid-1990s—evidently they strengthen the UHI intensity like dwelling houses. Thus, the extensive growth of the city that took place from 1960 until the mid-1990s was followed by new densification of housing during the recent two decades.

That is not the only reason for the new increase of Moscow UHI and UDI intensities, however. One more important parameter is electric power consumption (PC). Integral annual data of PC in the whole Moscow region, including both the city of Moscow and surrounding rural area, from 1990 to 2015 are plotted in the bottom panel of Fig. 7 . As is seen, after 1991 a sharp fall of power consumption took place as a result of economic crisis and the dissolution of the Soviet Union followed by industrial collapse and mass closing of plants. Since 1998, this parameter began to grow again (one more minimum in 2009 was the result of another economic crisis). Thus, PC in the whole region increased from 62–63 TW h in the mid-1990s to nearly 100 TW h in 2014–15. It is evident that a significant part of energy is emitted as heat into the atmosphere, which leads to additional city warming—both directly (e.g., operation of domestic heaters) and indirectly (e.g., the reduction of infrared effective radiation by plumes from smoke chimneys). Note that we only have general statistics for the whole region, including both the city and its suburbs (an approximate fraction for power consumption only in the city limits is about 0.50–0.55 of the total value for the region). We should acknowledge that the city area (1081 km 2 in the 2000s) is very small relative to Moscow-region area without the city (~47 000 km 2 ). Hence, the increase of PC evidently leads to more intensive warming of the city than its suburbs because the city occupies only 2% of the region area but spends one-half of the total energy. Thus, energy consumption increase since 1998 seems to be an additional cause of the UHI intensification (and, as a result, the UDI intensification, too) in recent times.

The urban dry island is a real physical phenomenon that is closely connected with the urban heat island. As a rule, relative humidity in the city center is lower than in the rural zone outside the city.

The urban heat island intensity in Moscow since the 1880s has increased from 1.0° to 2.0°C. During almost the same time, the absolute value of urban dry island intensity increased (in a negative direction) from −4% to −9%.

The space-averaged urban island intensity seems to be a more reliable and trustworthy parameter than simple traditional estimation of the maximum intensity using only one central urban station. In Moscow, this additional parameter for the UHI increased from 0.7° to 1.0°C during the last 60 years; for the UDI, it is now equal to −3%.

The dynamics of Moscow UHI and UDI intensities during the last 128 years demonstrate an increase in the first half of the twentieth century followed by its quasi stabilization for the UHI (and even a temporary reduction for the UDI) in the second half of the twentieth century because of the extensive growth of the city at that time and then new amplification of both islands during the last two decades. The probable reasons of up-to-date UHI and UDI amplifying are the growth of urban population density, especially in the city center, and, in addition, a rapid increase of power consumption since the end of the 1990s.

Relative humidity F in Moscow decreased significantly during the last 146 years—on average from 81% in the 1870s to 72% in recent years. At the same time, water vapor pressure remains almost the same and does not demonstrate any significant changes in time.

The spatial field of relative humidity is comparatively smoothed; the correlation coefficients between monthly averaged F values at different stations at distances up to 100 km range from 0.92 to 0.96.

Acknowledgments

The author is very grateful to N. A. Tereshonok and N. S. Nikolaev from the central administration of the Russian Hydrometeorological Service, T. M. Rosinskaya—the head of Mikhelson Observatory, I. S. Shcherbakova from Moscow Statistical Service (Mosgorstat), and I. V. Gorodkova and her colleagues from System Operator of Russian Integrated/Unified Power System (IPS/UPS) for the data on measurements that they provided. This work was supported by the Russian Scientific Foundation (Project 16-17-10275).

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  1. an old fashioned bicycle is on display in front of a white backdrop with black and red accents

    1954 schwinn phantom

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  4. 1954 Schwinn Black Phantom Original RARE 24"

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COMMENTS

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  2. 1954 Schwinn Phantom Bicycle

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  3. Schwinn History: 1950 to 1959

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  7. 1954 Schwinn Red Phantom

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  18. Black Skin in the Red Land: African Americans and the Soviet Experiment

    In the early 1930s, the Soviet Union engaged in rapid industrialization and the forced collectivization of agriculture. At the same time, African Americans were experiencing increasing levels of oppression and economic hardship in Depression-era America. The Soviets saw American workers, both black and white, as foreign specialists with an ...

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    Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April [O.S. 3 April] 1894 - 11 September 1971) was the first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and Chairman of the Council of Ministers (premier) from 1958 to 1964. During his rule, Khrushchev stunned the communist world with his denunciation of his predecessor Joseph Stalin's crimes and embarked on a policy of de ...

  20. Rebuilding of Moscow

    Rebuilding of Moscow. The capital city of both the RSFSR and the USSR, Moscow also served under Stalin as a beacon for world socialism. But Moscow was a nearly 800-year old city, with dozens of churches and residential structures dating from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, many narrow twisting lanes, and in a preponderance of wooden ...

  21. Urban Heat Island and Urban Dry Island in Moscow and Their ...

    In a similar way, in 1954 and 1955 relative humidity was measured at Central Park of Culture and Recreation (CPKR) urban station during 21 of 24 months and at Kashira rural station during 20 of 24 months. ... so-called New Moscow, is a phantom because it still remains a typical rural zone. Therefore, we shall discuss below the real urban area ...