Pet Rare Member Phantoms

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Not to be confused with Pet Non Member Phantoms .

Rare Member Pet Phantoms were available on October 26th, 2016, and came out of stores on October 31st, 2016. The Rare Member Phantom starts at a Decent Long Collar. A member phantom's worth is determined by the colors/eyes/features it has.

Note: The color and features will affect the worth and demand of the pet.

NOTE: Member phantoms have lighter colors than non-member phantoms and Non-Rare member phantoms which are sold in the Diamond shop every Halloween. Check if a phantom has a rare tag before trading for it to avoid confusion and a potential loss.

  • 3 Ears/Top Tentacles
  • 4 Legs/Bottom Tentacles
  • 5 Extra Features

MMPhantomChart color

The most common color is black, it usually has the worst demand unless the other pets features are better. Tan, all reds and all oranges have better demand, Secondary doesn’t usually affect worth unless it’s the colors listed. The closer the number is to 1 the more demand and more value the color has.

The colors between 13-20 are known as common colors and have less demand and less value.

The colors between 1-12 are known as uncommon and have more demand and more value.

MMPhantomChart eyes

The rarest eye a phantom can have is the "side eye". The "side eye" is considered uncommon since they’re aren’t many side eyed phantom in the game. This eye starts at 2 black long collars.

The first rarest eye is the "Swirl eye". These eyes start at a 2 Good Longs-Solid.

The second rarest eye is the "Human eye". These eyes start at a decent long

The third rarest eye is the "Happy eye". These eyes start at a Decent long collar

The fourth rarest eye is the "Angry eye". These eyes start at a Decent long collar

The fifth rarest eye is the "Happy eye". These eyes start at a Decent long collar+

The least rare eye is the "Circle eye". These eyes start at a Decent long collar

Ears/Top Tentacles [ ]

Credit to octo for this

The rarest ears a phantom can have is the short "Stubby" ears, in which they start at a Good Long.

The second rarest would be the ears in which the ones on the very top of the head are rather large and the ones following them are tiny. These start at a Decent long +a small add, depending on the jammer.

The ears labeled 3 and 4, are the third and lowest demanded ears respectively. Member Phantoms with these features start at a Good Short Collar.

Legs/Bottom Tentacles [ ]

Credit to octoo

The rarest legs a phantom can have is also the short "stubby" legs. If the stubby ears and the stubby legs are paired together the phantom would start at a Good Long Collar+, yet could potentially go for more if you find the right person. The short "Stubby" legs also start at a Decent long collar

The second rarest legs also happen to be the second shortest out of all the possible legs. Phantoms with these legs start at a Decent Long Collar + a small add.

The legs labeled 3 and 4, are the third and lowest demanded ears respectively. Member Phantoms with these features start at a Decent Long Collar

Extra Features [ ]

Tgrfe

The rarest extra a phantom could possibly have is the "Freckles". The "Freckles" start at a Black Long Collar

The second rarest extra a phantom could is the "glow" extra. This makes the phantom appear as if it's glowing. These phantoms start at a Decent Long Collar + a small add.

The third and fourth features have the third and lowest demand, respectively. Member Phantoms with these features start at a Decent Long Collar.

  • 1 Pet Magenta Seals
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  • 3 Pet Grasshoppers
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Phantom Glove

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Yellowwarningsign

Last Updated 8/10/23

The Phantom Glove is a members-only clothing item. It was released at the Diamond Shop on May 18, 2017, as part of a Wild Weekend sale, and left stores on May 22, 2017. It is unobtainable through adventures.

Demand Among Collectors: Low

Disclaimer: The Animal Jam Item Worth Wiki also has a page on these based on the Aldan System. The worths on this page are what a collector may trade for them.

  • 1 Tree Stump Items

mostexpensivearchive

The 10 Most Expensive Meteorites In The World

Table of Contents

Meteorites are objects that have fallen to Earth from outer space. They can be made of a variety of materials, including rock, metal, and even ice. While most meteorites are relatively inexpensive, some are worth a fortune due to their rarity and scientific value. The most expensive meteorites in the world are highly sought after by collectors, scientists, and museums. These rare and valuable objects offer a glimpse into the early history of our solar system and the mysteries of the universe.

  • Zagami Martian Achondrites Meteorite  –  $315096.32
  • Gibeon Meteorite   –  $ 317,282.00
  • Dar al Gani 1058 Meteorite  –  $318,333.66
  • Chelyabinsk Meteorite  –  $380,617.44

Zagami Martian Meteorite  –  $433747.50

Springwater meteorite  –  $583798.85, conception junction meteorite  –  $820740.88.

  • Willamette  Meteorite-  $966804.08
  • Brenham Meteorite  –  $1018214.40

Fukang Meteorite  –  $1931659.00

Zagami martian achondrites meteorite  –  $315,096.00.

This is currently the 10th most expensive meteorite in the world.  Zagami Martian achondrites are meteorites that originated from the planet Mars. These meteorites are believed to be pieces of the Martian crust that were blasted off the planet by a meteor impact. They are composed of a variety of minerals, including pyroxene, olivine, and plagioclase feldspar.

Zagami Martian achondrites are unique because they contain a variety of different minerals, including ones that are not typically found in other Martian meteorites. They also contain small amounts of water and organic compounds, which has led scientists to believe that they may contain clues about the past habitability of Mars.

These meteorites are relatively rare, with only a few hundred known to exist. They are named after the location where the first sample was found, Zagami, Nigeria.

Gibeon Meteorite  –  $317,282.00

Gibeon Meteorite

This is currently the 9th most expensive meteorite in the world. The Gibeon Meteorite is a meteorite that fell in present-day Namibia in Africa around 4,000 years ago. It is composed primarily of iron and nickel and is known for its unique crystalline structure, which makes it highly prized by collectors and scientists. The meteorite is named after the town of Gibeon in Namibia, where it was first discovered in 1838. It is one of the most well-known meteorites in the world and has been studied extensively for its scientific and historical value.

Dar al Gani 1058 Meteorite  –  $318,333.66

Dar al Gani 1058 Meteorite

This is currently the 8th most expensive meteorite in the world. Dar al Gani 1058 is a meteorite that was found in the Dar al Gani region of Libya in 1998. It is a type of primitive achondrite, which means it is a stony meteorite that does not contain chondrules (small, round particles that form early in the solar system).

Dar al Gani 1058 is made up of about 50% silicate minerals, such as pyroxene and olivine, and 50% metallic minerals, such as iron and nickel. It also contains small amounts of other minerals, including chromite, plagioclase, and orthopyroxene.

Scientists believe that Dar al Gani 1058 formed around 4.5 billion years ago, shortly after the formation of the solar system. It is thought to be a fragment of a larger asteroid that was impacted by another celestial body, causing it to break off and become a meteorite.

Studies of Dar al Gani 1058 have provided valuable insights into the early solar system and the processes that shaped it. It has also helped scientists understand the formation and evolution of asteroids and other small celestial bodies.

The Chelyabinsk Meteorite  –  $380,617.44

The Chelyabinsk Meteorite

This is currently the 7th most expensive meteorite in the world. The Chelyabinsk meteorite was a meteor that exploded over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk on February 15, 2013. It is estimated to have been about 20 meters in diameter and weighed around 10,000 metric tons. The explosion occurred at an altitude of around 30 kilometers and released energy equivalent to 500 kilotons of TNT, or about 30 times the power of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima during World War II.

The explosion caused widespread damage in the city, with more than 1,200 people injured and thousands of buildings damaged. It also caused a bright flash of light and a shock wave that was felt as far as 100 kilometers away. The meteorite was captured on camera by many people in the city, and the footage quickly went viral on the internet.

Scientists later determined that the meteorite was made up of a mixture of rock and iron, and likely originated from the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. It is believed to have been in orbit around the sun for millions of years before it entered the Earth’s atmosphere and exploded. The Chelyabinsk meteorite is considered one of the largest and most well-documented meteorite impacts in modern history.

Zagami Martian Meteorite

This is currently the 6th most expensive meteorite in the world. The Zagami Martian meteorite is a meteorite that was found in Nigeria in 1962 and is believed to have originated from Mars. It is classified as a shergottite, which is a type of meteorite that is thought to be a piece of the Martian crust that was ejected from the planet during a volcanic eruption.

The Zagami meteorite is notable for its high concentration of water and other volatile compounds, as well as for the presence of several minerals that are not commonly found on Earth. It has been studied extensively by scientists to learn more about the geology and history of Mars.

One interesting aspect of the Zagami meteorite is that it appears to have been subjected to high pressures and temperatures during its time on Mars, which suggests that it may have been a part of a deep underground magma chamber. This has led scientists to theorize that Mars may have had a more active geology in the past than it does today.

Overall, the Zagami Martian meteorite is an important piece of evidence in our understanding of the geology and history of Mars and continues to be studied by scientists around the world.

Springwater Meteorite

This is currently the 5th expensive meteorite in the world. The Springwater meteorite is a type of meteorite that fell to Earth in the town of Springwater, Saskatchewan in Canada on December 10, 2008. It is classified as a chondrite, which is a type of meteorite that is made up of small, spherical particles called chondrules. The Springwater meteorite is believed to have originated from the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

The meteorite was discovered by a farmer who saw a bright light in the sky and heard a loud noise. He later found a small, black rock on his property that turned out to be the meteorite. The rock was later sent to the University of Alberta for analysis and was found to be composed of iron, nickel, and other minerals.

The Springwater meteorite is considered to be a rare and valuable find, as it is only the second meteorite to have ever been discovered in Saskatchewan. It is currently on display at the Royal Saskatchewan Museum in Regina.

Conception Junction Meteorite

This is currently the 4th expensive meteorite in the world. The Conception Junction meteorite is a small meteorite that was discovered in Missouri in 1982. It is classified as an H5 ordinary chondrite, which means that it is made up of small, rounded chondrules (rock particles) that are embedded in a fine-grained matrix of other minerals. The meteorite is thought to have formed about 4.5 billion years ago, shortly after the formation of the solar system. It is believed to have come from the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter and was probably ejected from its parent body by a collision or other impact event. The Conception Junction meteorite has been analyzed extensively by scientists, who have used it to study the early history of the solar system and the conditions that existed in the solar nebula (the cloud of gas and dust from which the solar system formed).

Willamette Meteorite –  $966804.08

Willamette Meteorite

This is currently the 3rd expensive meteorite in the world. The Willamette Meteorite is a meteorite that was discovered in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, United States, in 1902. It is believed to have been a part of a larger meteor that broke apart and scattered across the region millions of years ago.

The Willamette Meteorite is considered one of the largest meteorites ever found, weighing in at over 15 tons and measuring over 9 feet tall. It is made up of iron and nickel and is thought to have originated from the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

The Willamette Meteorite is now on display at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, where it attracts thousands of visitors every year. It is considered a significant piece of scientific history and has been studied extensively by researchers to understand more about the origins and evolution of our solar system.

Brenham Meteorite –  $1018214.40

Brenham Meteorite

This is currently the 2nd expensive meteorite in the world. The Brenham Meteorite is a meteorite that was discovered in Brenham, Kansas in 1948. It is classified as a pallasite, a type of meteorite that contains both metallic iron and silicate minerals. The Brenham Meteorite is known for its beautiful and unique crystal structures, which have made it a popular specimen for collectors and researchers. It is estimated to be around 4.6 billion years old, making it one of the oldest known objects in the solar system. The Brenham Meteorite is currently housed at the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it is on display for the public to see.

Fukang Meteorite

This is currently the most expensive meteorite in the world. The Fukang Meteorite is a pallasite meteorite that was found in Fukang, Xinjiang, China in 2000. It is considered one of the most beautiful and valuable meteorites in the world due to its unique crystalline structure and high content of olivine, a rare gemstone. The Fukang Meteorite is believed to be about 4.5 billion years old and is thought to be a remnant of the early solar system. It is often used in jewelry and other decorative items due to its stunning appearance and rarity.

Frequently Asked Questions

How much are meteorites worth.

The value of a meteorite can vary widely based on several factors. These factors include the type of meteorite, its size, weight, rarity, condition, and provenance (its documented history or origin). Here are some key points to consider when determining the value of a meteorite:

  • Type of Meteorite: Different types of meteorites have varying values. Iron meteorites, which contain iron and nickel, are often more valuable than stony meteorites because of their composition and rarity. Within each type, there are subcategories, such as pallasites (stony-iron meteorites), which can also have different values.
  • Size and Weight: Generally, larger and heavier meteorites are worth more. Small fragments or tiny micrometeorites may have limited value, while large specimens can command higher prices.
  • Rarity: Meteorites that are rare, especially those from unique or well-documented events, tend to be more valuable. For example, meteorites from famous falls like the Chelyabinsk meteor in 2013 can be quite valuable due to their historical significance.
  • Condition: The condition of a meteorite matters. Well-preserved, unaltered specimens are generally more valuable than those that have weathered or been damaged.
  • Provenance: A meteorite’s documented history can influence its value. Meteorites with known and interesting stories, such as being part of a famous fall or having an interesting origin, may command higher prices.
  • Market Demand: Market demand and trends can also impact meteorite prices. There may be fluctuations in prices based on collector interest and current events.
  • Scientific Interest: Meteorites are valuable not only to collectors but also to scientists. Those with unique or scientifically important characteristics can have higher values due to their research potential.

To get an accurate estimate of the value of a specific meteorite, it’s advisable to consult with experts, such as meteorite dealers, collectors, or meteoriteists. They can assess the meteorite’s characteristics and provide a more precise valuation. Additionally, it’s important to consider that meteorites should be obtained through reputable sources, as there are cases of fraudulent or mislabeled specimens in the meteorite market.

What do meteorites look like?

Meteorites can come in various shapes, sizes, and appearances depending on their type and composition. The three main types of meteorites are stony meteorites, iron meteorites, and stony-iron meteorites, and they have different visual characteristics:

  • Stony meteorites are composed primarily of rock-like material. They may have a chondritic appearance, which means they contain small, round, and distinct mineral grains. These grains are often visible in the interior and can appear as small, colored spots on the meteorite’s surface.
  • Iron meteorites are composed primarily of iron and nickel. They typically have a metallic appearance with a shiny, silvery, or gray surface. The surface may be rough or pitted, often due to the effects of atmospheric entry.
  • Stony-iron meteorites are a combination of both stony and metallic components. They can have a striking appearance with translucent green or yellowish olivine crystals embedded in a metallic matrix.

Meteorites may be small fragments or much larger, and their surface can show signs of fusion crust, which is a thin layer of dark, smooth material formed during their passage through the Earth’s atmosphere. The fusion crust may partially or entirely cover the meteorite, giving it a characteristic black, brown, or reddish exterior. This crust can be weathered or worn off in older meteorites.

It’s important to note that not all meteorites are visually spectacular. Some can be relatively unremarkable in appearance, and their value often comes from their rarity, scientific significance, or historical context. When meteorites are found, it’s important to handle them carefully to preserve their scientific and collector value, as excessive cleaning or handling can diminish their characteristics. If you suspect you have found a meteorite, it’s best to consult with experts in the field or a local university or museum to verify its authenticity and type.

What are meteorites made of?

Meteorites are made of various types of materials, including rock, iron, and other metals. The exact composition of a meteorite depends on the type of meteorite it is and where it originated. For example, stony meteorites are made up of minerals similar to those found on Earth, such as quartz and feldspar. Iron meteorites are made up of mostly iron and nickel, while stony-iron meteorites are a combination of both rock and metal. Some meteorites also contain small amounts of organic material, such as amino acids or other complex molecules.

How to sell meteorites?

  • Research the market value of the meteorite: Check online marketplaces, such as eBay or Etsy, to see what similar meteorites are selling for. This will give you an idea of the price range you can expect to sell your meteorite for.
  • Determine the type of meteorite: Different types of meteorites have different values, so it’s important to accurately classify your meteorite before selling it. You can consult with a meteorite expert or use online resources to identify the type of meteorite you have.
  • Gather supporting documentation: Potential buyers will want to know the provenance of the meteorite, so it’s important to have documentation that supports the authenticity of your meteorite. This could include a certificate of authenticity, laboratory analysis reports, or a meteorite expert’s opinion.
  • Market the meteorite: There are several ways to market your meteorite for sale. You can create a listing on an online marketplace, such as eBay or Etsy, or you can reach out to collectors or dealers directly through social media or email. It’s also a good idea to take high-quality photographs of the meteorite to showcase its unique features.
  • Negotiate the sale: Once you have interested buyers, you’ll need to negotiate the sale. Be prepared to answer questions about the meteorite’s provenance and value, and be open to negotiating the price based on the demand for the meteorite. It’s important to be fair and transparent during the negotiation process to build trust with potential buyers.

What are meteorites?

Meteorites are pieces of rock or metal that have fallen from outer space and landed on Earth. They are formed when asteroids or comets break apart and the pieces fall towards Earth’s surface. Some meteorites come from the asteroid belt, while others may originate from the outer reaches of the solar system. They are valuable scientific specimens because they can provide information about the conditions and materials that existed in the early solar system.

How to find meteorites?

  • Look for a rocky area or desert where meteorites are more likely to land and not be obscured by vegetation or other materials.
  • Look for a meteorite that is a different color than the surrounding rock. Many meteorites have black, burnt exteriors due to their high-speed entry into the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • Look for magnetic meteorites. Many meteorites contain iron and are attracted to a magnet.
  • Check for regmaglypts, or thumbprint-like indentations, on the surface of the rock. These are caused by the meteorite’s high-speed entry into the atmosphere and are a characteristic of many meteorites.
  • Consider purchasing a metal detector to help locate meteorites.
  • Join a local group or club dedicated to finding meteorites. These groups often have resources and expertise that can help in the search.
  • Be sure to check with local authorities before collecting any meteorites on public land. It is often illegal to remove geological specimens from public lands without permission.

How to identify meteorites?

There are a few ways to identify meteorites:

  • Shape: Meteorites often have a distinctive shape, rounded or oblong appearance and a smooth surface.
  • Weight: Meteorites are denser than most rocks, so they tend to be heavier than other stones of the same size.
  • Fusion crust: Meteorites have a thin, black crust that is formed when the rock passes through the Earth’s atmosphere at high speeds.
  • Composition: Meteorites are made up of different materials than Earth rocks, such as iron, nickel, and rare elements like olivine.
  • Age: Meteorites are much older than most Earth rocks, with some dating back to the formation of the solar system.
  • Location: Meteorites are often found in areas where they have fallen to Earth, such as in deserts or polar regions.
  • Testing: If you are still unsure if a rock is a meteorite, it can be tested in a laboratory using a variety of methods, such as x-ray fluorescence or isotopic analysis.

What is the rarest meteorite?

Determining the “rarest” meteorite can be challenging because rarity can be assessed in various ways, such as based on composition, classification, or scarcity of certain types. However, one meteorite often considered rare and valuable is the Allende meteorite.

The Allende meteorite fell in Mexico in 1969 and is a carbonaceous chondrite. What makes it particularly interesting and rare is its chemical composition, as it contains a high concentration of presolar grains, including some of the oldest materials known in the solar system. These grains are older than the Sun and provide valuable insights into the processes that occurred before our solar system formed.

Keep in mind that rarity in meteorites can be subjective and dependent on specific criteria. There are many different types of meteorites, each with its unique characteristics, and some may be considered rarer based on specific features or scientific interests.

What type of meteorite is worth the most?

The value of a meteorite is influenced by several factors, including its type, size, rarity, condition, and the interest of collectors or researchers. Generally, rare meteorites, that have unique characteristics, or come from well-documented falls are more valuable. Iron meteorites, for example, are often more valuable than stony meteorites due to their relative scarcity and the appeal of their metallic composition.

Within the category of stony meteorites, carbonaceous chondrites, like the Allende meteorite, can be highly valuable because they contain primitive material from the early solar system, including presolar grains that are older than the Sun.

However, it’s important to note that the market for meteorites can be subjective, and the value of a specific meteorite can vary based on factors such as market trends, scientific interest, and collector demand. If you are considering buying or selling a meteorite, it’s advisable to consult with reputable meteorite dealers, auction houses, or experts in the field to get an accurate assessment of its value.

What meteorite is harder than diamond?

Lonsdaleite.

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Worth a visit - Chelyabinsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater

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  • Chelyabinsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater

I am not typically one who enjoys ballet but the ballet in Russia is a matter of national pride and... read more

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I loved the architechture and color of this building. It's easy to find and definitely worth a look.

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Worth a visit

I went twice to the Glinka - to see ballet. Once for a mainstream performance of Sleeping Beauty and once for a mid-day performance aimed at children, which turned out to be Snow White. It was incredibly good value (£* for SB and only £3 for the lunchtime one). The theatre has its own resident Orchestra of a good standard and although Ballet is not really my thing, I enjoyed it and thought it was a good standard.

We saw Giselle by A. Adam in the Chelyabinsk Glinka Theatre and were enchanted with the theatre location in the city centre, the talented dancers and the laid-back audience whose attitude amused us as much as the interiors of the building. A huge inscription over the stage proudly proclaims that the theatre was finished construction in 1954. It boasts other (somewhat dusted over) details typical for that period. No wonder the visitors photographed it inside and out like it was going to burn down the next day. The ushers were also period pieces dating back to the Soviet times although much friendlier than their colleagues in the Ekaterinburg Opera and Ballet Theatre 220 kilometres north who are the epitome of strict discipline enforcement among the audience. We were lucky buying the tickets only a few hours before the weekend performance. It was already too late and the good seats had all been taken, so part of the stage was obstructed for us. We didn't know that we could have bought the tickets on the internet where the theatre sells them from its own website (only in Russian). Should you decide to go, try to select Saturday or Sunday performance when you will have a better chance to see or hear the stars of the Glinka Theatre; weekday performances tend to be less spectacular. And I beg, do not dare to play the white grand piano in the foyer or the usher will shout across the room to keep your paws off the instrument! I am afraid the 10-year-old girl who risked taking a few cords on during our visit it is still having nightmares. Oh, speaking of musical instruments, I nearly forgot, the orchestra was excellent!

Our hosts took us here and even though we didn't understand a word of Russian, it was a great evening. It wasn't that hard to follow the plot and the performance was magical. It doesn't match up to the Bolshoi, but for a Siberian city, they do a great job.

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Reconstructing the Chelyabinsk meteor’s path, with Google Earth, YouTube and high-school math

[March 2: Read the follow-up article, Comparing paths with the pros in Google Earth ]

[March 9: Read the follow-up article,  Three trajectory models of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid compared ]

[April 5: Help scientists to more accurately calculate the trajectory. Visit  www.russianmeteor2013.org to contribute videos or help with the analysis.]

Like many others, I was absolutely astounded by the meteor strike over Chelyabinsk when I woke on Friday morning. One silver lining to our self-surveilling society is that an event of this magnitude is certain to get caught on the myriad of always-on dash- and webcams. I for one could not get enough of the videos.

Might it be possible to use this viral footage with Google Earth to have an initial go at mapping the meteorite’s trajectory? I was pondering this question some 2,500km away from Chelyabinsk when I chanced upon this video:

That place is easy to find — it’s Revolution Square at the absolute center of Chelyabinsk, looking almost directly south. It is also easy to measure — the distance between the two central light poles is 32 meters, as per a quick measurement in Google Earth, while the five lanes of traffic going right to left (west to east) measure 19 meters. From this it is easy to estimate the height of the light poles to be around 12 meters — an estimate corroborated by numerous panoramas in Google Earth showing people next to these lamp posts, giving us added data points.

Using all this information, I was able to do some image analysis in Photoshop on the lengths and angles of the shadows as the meteor streaked across the sky. Here’s an animated gif showing the result of that:

The ensuing grade-school mathematics (SOHCAHTOA!) resulted in three lines of sight at three instants a few seconds apart. (For the sake of the record, I roughly calculated them to be towards 122 degrees at an inclination of 33 degrees at 9:20:28.7, towards 187 degrees at an inclination of 40 degrees at 9:20:32.2, and towards 222 degrees at an inclination of 32 degrees at 9:20:33.4. These times are the video’s own timeline, though they appear to correlate closely with the timelines of other videos.)

This allowed me to draw an inclined plane in Google Earth that should include the meteor’s path, though it does not allow me to know the distance of the meteor from central Chelyabinsk, nor its speed.

meteorgeview

However, we have more clues. We know a fragment of the meteor landed in Lake Chebarkul , roughly 70km WSW of Chelyabinsk. Gratifyingly, the inclined plane generated from the above video intersects with the crash site. Also useful was the estimate by the Russian Academy of Sciences that the meteorite hit the Earth’s atmosphere at around 50,000 km/h, shattering at an altitude of 30-50km. If that was the rough speed of the meteor as it burned up in the video, then the 4.7 seconds between the first and last shadow measurements would have seen it travel 65 km. Fitting a 65km line between these two lines of sight allows us to draw a straight line path for the meteor towards the crash site, with the first measured time yielding a height of 29km, which is the moment the meteor first brightened enough to give a clear shadow.

Download the visualizations for this as a KMZ file to open in Google Earth. Do play with the opacity slider of the overlay to check the alignments yourself — it’s most of the fun.

Screen Shot 2013-02-16 at 16 Feb 02.07.21 CET

How does this data square with the Meteosat 9 image that has being doing the rounds ? At first glance, not well: Overlaying the image in Google Earth and aligning the border with Kazakhstan shows a 240km contrail that appears to end some 75km to the ENE of Chelyabinsk, even though the path when traced on the ground also leads directly to Lake Chebarkul.

At first, I thought the image might have been taken 5 minutes earlier, before the meteor streaked straight across Chelyabinsk proper, because the image’s metadata gives us a time of 3:15:00Z, or UTC, which is 6 hours behind Chelyabinsk time. But no meteor is going to take 5 minutes to traverse 75km, so we’ll just have to live with the time discrepancy. Webcams are not atomic clocks.

Much more interesting is the fact that if you look at the position of Meteosat 9, which is in a geostationary orbit, you see that Chelyabinsk is near the horizon of its view of Earth. This leads to extreme foreshortening in the snapshot of the meteor’s contrail:

Meteor vapour trail, 15th Feb 2013

The version used in the overlay is an enhanced view of this image, taken from the same angle. (The blacked-out upper right-hand corner of the overlay is behind the horizon as seen from Meteosat 9.). If you simulate this view of Chelyabinsk in Google Earth, you see that in fact, the contrail aligns quite nicely over Chelyabinsk considering that it would be 30km high and at such an extreme angle over the horizon. So the 4.7 seconds of maximal brightness (with contrail) do get to happen just south of Chelyabinsk proper, as per the above video, and without contradiction by Meteosat 9.

I feel this post would not be complete without some big caveats: I am not a trained scientist; I don’t know if meteors travel through the atmosphere in straight lines or at constant speeds (I assume they don’t, but that it doesn’t matter for back-of-the-envelope type calculations). Still, it is satisfying to know that with judicious use of Google Earth, YouTube and Photoshop you can get quite far in the meteor simulation game. I can’t wait to see what the professionals come up with.

UPDATE 2013-02-16: Via SebastienP in the comments comes another triangulation, comparing the calculated path from the KMZ file with the view from another dash cam. It holds up pretty well!

stefangeensreconstituti

UPDATE 2013-02-17: In this comment , some smart calculations by Sean Mac are confirmed by a video he’s found showing the contrail crossing almost exactly above the southern suburb of Yemanzhelinsk. I found the exact vantage point of the video he references in Google Earth by connecting this Panoramio photo to this view in the video .

This suggests the meteor’s trajectory towards Earth was higher and steeper along the inclined plane of sight derived from the central Chelyabinsk vantage point than the initial calculation suggested. That’s not surprising, as that calculation was based on an initial estimate of the velocity by the Russian Academy of Sciences, which now appears to have been on the low side.

I’ve now added a second path for the meteor in Google Earth, together with the location of the vantage point in Yemanzhelinsk,  in this KMZ file . Open it as a complement to the first KMZ file to see what I would consider to be an upper bound (green) for the trajectory along the same inclined plane, with a new likeliest path (red).

latestredline

“Looking up” in Google Earth from the vantage point in Yemanzhelinsk (I can because I have a  3D mouse from 3DConnexion ), I get a very similar angle of view of the contrail when framed by the NNW axis of the buildings on that square.

abovehead

A further video showing the perspective from the town of Korkino further north (included in the new KMZ file) shows that the meteor passed a little to the south of there, allowing for a pretty accurate triangulation. (Thanks to Robin Whittle and liilliil  in the comments for the heads up.)

UPDATE 2013-02-22: OK, so this is kind of special: An astrophysics paper has just been submitted to ArXiv.org that models the orbit of the Chelyabinsk meteor, referencing this blog post as a starting point:  A preliminary reconstruction of the orbit of the Chelyabinsk Meteoroid by Jorge I. Zuluagaa and Ignacio Ferrin. Details are here , and here comes the resulting animation:

[April 5: Help scientists to more accurately calculate the trajectory. Visit  www.russianmeteor2013.org  to contribute videos or help with the analysis.]

374 thoughts on “Reconstructing the Chelyabinsk meteor’s path, with Google Earth, YouTube and high-school math”

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Help scientists to more accurately calculate the trajectory. Visit http://www.russianmeteor2013.org/ to contribute videos or help with the analysis.

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Great stuff Stefan! How about finding the exact points on the ground where the CCTV showed shadows of Lenin’s head and other objects? Then you could go to the spots and place a mirror lying on the ground horizontally and a sextant to measure the az/el of the CCTV camera. Repeating this for all shadow objects would get a very accurate Az/el for the meteorite, and repeating it from other CCTV sites (especially ones in other towns) enable 3D triangulation of the trajectory.

That’s a good idea. Regarding the shadows at Revolution Square, I did some calculations to try and ascertain the camera distortion. I did this by comparing the proportions of distances between the lamp posts in google maps and what those proportions should be when allowing for foreshortening off to the left and right of the camera. That is, the foreshortening as you and I would see when viewing from the camera position, not lens distortion.

The distance proportion was greater as viewed from the camera compared with the top-down view, due to foreshortening, as expected but it was further skewed by lens distortion. I found that the 100 degree angle (122 to 222 azimuth) was more like 90 degrees, possibly even less. This decreases the fireball travel by more than 10% because it is the start and end azimuths which are in question. When plotted against the trajectory, this change in azimuth constitutes about a 15 to 20% reduction in bolide travel distance and therefore a commensurate reduction in speed- down to 14 or 15 km per second which is in keeping with what the Russian Academy said.

This would completely change the cosmic approach speed and therefore the orbit calculated by Zuluaga and Ferrin. They openly acknowledge that camera distortion has not been accounted for due to a lack of information on the lenses. It appears they used Revolution Square and one other camera for their most accurate azimuth calcs and a dash cam for the speed calc. This dash cam has tram lines ‘hanging’ upwards and measures the bolide from the periphery of the screen.

I think Stephan’s work is great and I followed it avidly at the time. I just think that camera distortion does need to be addressed and your method would do that. I’m sure there must be an enthusiastic surveying student who could pop down there on his lunch break and give us the results- if only be could be made aware of our needs!

P.S. the Zuluaga and Ferrin paper “additional info” page does show a +\- margin for bolide speed but possibly not based on the camera distortion factor and its only 2 or 3 %.

Thanks Stefan.. I miss-stated a bit ! The az/el of the top of the objects needs measuring, not the camera’s position. Also, a plate of water would be better than a mirror, because the water surface (with no wind) would be exactly level. The sextant is used to measure the angle between the reflected image off the water and the real object. One needs to crouch as close as possible to the plate of water placed at each chosen shadow position to minimise parallax. The halve the angle…it.voila ! The direction could be got by the methods you discussed. If the exact position of shadows is a problem, cover the ground with a grid (as archaeologists do) then retrieve the image which the CCTV takes of this, and overlay.

The vapour trail looks double, and I guess it means the meteorite was not a sphere. It might have had lateral g-forces as on an aircraft at an airshow, where the jet plume (even for a single-engined plane)also tends to be in two plumes sometimes. Googling on the re-entry g-forces of Apollo Moon-Earth gives an idea of deliberate deviations occuring on reentry. Scaking-up to the meteroite’s speed might help the maths.

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Notes on the political, social and scientific impact of networked digital maps and geospatial imagery, with a special focus on Google Earth.

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Phantom Plushie

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Last updated 3/10/19

The Phantom Plushie  can be won from the Rare Claw game. It is harder to win than regular plushies, making them more valuable than most claw-obtained plushies.

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Phantom Toy

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Appearance [ ]

The Phantom Toy appears as a small statuette of a Phantom that is standing upright on a thin, wide platform. The statuette is decorated in various clothing accessories. This item has five different varieties.

Unreleased Variants [ ]

There are six additional color varieties that are part of the game files, but they have never been released and they cannot be obtained by any legitimate means.

History [ ]

The Phantom Toy was initially released on May 1, 2012, in the den item version of Phantom Invasion .

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  1. Battle for the Beacon Items

    Fantasy Last Updated 6/28/19 The Battle for the Beacon Items are purchased at the Earth Crystal Shop in the seasonal adventure, Battle for the Beacon. They can be purchased using Earth Crystals, a currency gained from the adventure.

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  17. Reconstructing the Chelyabinsk meteor's path, with Google Earth

    That place is easy to find — it's Revolution Square at the absolute center of Chelyabinsk, looking almost directly south. It is also easy to measure — the distance between the two central light poles is 32 meters, as per a quick measurement in Google Earth, while the five lanes of traffic going right to left (west to east) measure 19 meters.

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    Last Updated 9/14/23 The Infamous Phantoms Collection was sold at the Diamond Shop from May 25, 2023, to May 29, 2023 as part of a Wild Weekend sale. Contents 1 Imposing Phantom Statue 2 Royal Phantom Statue 3 Stout Phantom Statue 4 Bulky Phantom Statue 5 Tough Phantom Statue 6 Small Phantom Statue 7 Angered Phantom Statue

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