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The Practice Test for Typing and Data Entry

English Typing Test Paragraphs

Stimulate your mind as you test your typing speed with this standard English paragraph typing test. Watch your typing speed and accuracy increase as you learn about a variety of new topics! Over 40 typing test selections available.

If you don't like a test prompt, you can get a different (random) prompt with the "change test" button - or select a specific paragraph to type from the list below. To find out how fast you type, just start typing in the blank textbox on the right of the test prompt. You will see your progress, including errors on the left side as you type. In order to complete the test and save your score, you need to get 100% accuracy. You can fix errors as you go, or correct them at the end with the help of the spell checker.

Personalized Feedback

This feedback graph will follow you from page to page for your typing session. You can see more details by mousing over the graph. The session is reset when the tab on your browser is closed.

Type this... CHANGE TEST

Test begins when you start typing..., check your wpm typing speed here.

To find out how fast you type, just start typing in the blank textbox on the right of the test prompt. You will see your progress, including errors on the left side as you type.

You can fix errors as you go, or correct them at the end with the help of the spell checker. If you need to restart the test, delete the text in the text box. Interactive feedback shows you your current wpm and accuracy.

In order to complete the test and share your results, you need to get 100% accuracy. You can review your progress for this session with the feedback chart. Just hover over a dot to see what your average speed and accruacy are for that key.

Letter Drills

A | b | c | d | e | f | g | h | i | j | k | l | m | n | o | p | q | r | s | t | u | v | w | x | y | z.

Basic Data Entry Test

Select a Specific Typing Test:

Click on a topic to use it as your test prompt. Selections are ranked according to difficulty from '*' (easiest typing tests) to '*****' (most challenging typing tests). For more details, check the difficulty key at the bottom of the page.

Short typing tests for beginners: (1 - 3 minute typing test at < 30 wpm)

  • Virtual Assistant (38.4 words) ****
  • Closed Captions (56.2 words) **
  • Teachers (70.2 words) ****
  • Business Casual (74 words) ***
  • Paralegals (76.4 words) *
  • Web Designers (77 words) ***
  • Medical Transcription (82.6 words) ***
  • Thumbing (83 words) ***
  • Engineers (84.4 words) ****
  • Translation (88 words) ***

Intermediate typing tests: (3-6 minutes at 40 wpm)

  • Proofreaders (90 words) **
  • Typing Styles (91.8 words) ***
  • Typing Speed in WPM (100.4 words) ***
  • Keyboard Shortcuts (104 words) *
  • Buffer Method of Typing (105 words) **
  • Transcription Service (107.4 words) ***
  • Data Entry Clerks (112.4 words) **
  • Hunt and Peck (128.2 words) **
  • Touch Type (132.2 words) **
  • Sales Methodologies (135.4 words) ***
  • Invention of Touch Typing (147.4 words) ***
  • Typing Speed Records (166.8 words) ****
  • Comparing Typing Speed and Methods (169.2 words) ***
  • Pharmacists (172.4 words) ***
  • Editing (175.2 words) ***
  • History of Flight (175.4 words) ****
  • HR Management (177.4 words) ****
  • Transcription Services (187.4 words) ****
  • Motivation (192.4 words) ***
  • Freelancers (194.6 words) ***
  • Average Typing Speeds (195.2 words) ****

Hard typing tests for advanced typists: (over 4 minutes at 60+ wpm)

  • Word Processors (203.8 words) ***
  • Class Reunion Report (211 words) ***
  • Financial Reporting (221.2 words) *****
  • Biking Story (233.6 words) *
  • Event Description (233.8 words) *
  • New York Stock Exchange (234.6 words) **
  • Career Choice Article (236.6 words) *
  • Self Confidence Article (244.8 words) ***
  • FDA Article (246.8 words) ***
  • Competitive Typing (250.4 words) ***
  • Academic Success Article (256.6 words) **
  • Emotions Article (272.8 words) **
  • MBA Article (276 words) ****

If you have a topic that you would like to see added to the list above, please feel free to contact us with your suggestion for a new paragraph typing test.

Typing Test Difficulty Levels

Our typing tests are ranked on level of difficulty. The algorithm to calculate difficulty depends on the average word length and how many special characters like capitals, numbers and symbols are included in the text. Most standard pre-employment typing tests will be in the normal range. You should expect to get higher wpm scores on easier tests and lower wpm scores on the more difficult tests.

  • * Very Easy Typing Test
  • ** Easy Typing Test
  • *** Normal Typing Test
  • **** Difficult Typing Test
  • ***** Very Difficult Typing Test

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Online typing lessons

Click on a typing lesson on the list below. The exercise will begin as soon as you press the first key.

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Some of these exercises are not fully supported by your keyboard layout and may behave differently from what is expected by the exercise description.

First steps lessons ?

First and very easy typing lessons for learning all key positions. Suitable for beginners.

  • Base position dynamic generic 7 signs
  • Home row dynamic generic 9 signs
  • Home row and top row dynamic generic 19 signs
  • Home row and bottom row dynamic generic 16 signs
  • All letters dynamic generic 26 signs
  • All rows dynamic generic 36 signs

Warm-up exercises ?

Easy typing lessons for learning all key positions. Suitable for beginners.

  • Top row dynamic generic 10 signs
  • Bottom row dynamic generic 7 signs
  • Number row dynamic generic 10 signs
  • Home row and number row dynamic generic 19 signs

Learn exercises ?

First easy exercises to learn touch typing step by step.

  • Base position [h4:h7] dynamic generic 2 signs
  • Base position [h4:h7:h3:h8] dynamic generic 4 signs
  • Base position [h4:h7:h3:h8:h2:h9] dynamic generic 6 signs
  • Base position complete dynamic generic 8 signs
  • Base position + [h5:h6] dynamic generic 10 signs
  • Home row dynamic generic 11 signs
  • Home row + [t3:b7] dynamic generic 13 signs
  • Home row + [t3:b7:t8:t4] dynamic generic 15 signs
  • Home row + [t3:b7:t8:t4:t5:t7] dynamic generic 17 signs
  • Home row + [t3:b7:t8:t4:t5:t7:b4:b8] dynamic generic 19 signs
  • Home row + [t3:b7:t8:t4:t5:t7:b4:b8:t9:b6] dynamic generic 21 signs
  • Home row + [t3:b7:t8:t4:t5:t7:b4:b8:t9:b6:t1:t2:t10:b5] dynamic generic 25 signs
  • Home row + [t3:b7:t8:t4:t5:t7:b4:b8:t9:b6:t1:t2:t10:b5:b3:b2:t6] dynamic generic 28 signs

Word exercises ?

Typing lessons with words that reveal more and more letters. Perfect to practice typing step by step.

  • Home row dynamic 12 signs
  • Home row + EN dynamic 12 signs
  • Home row + ENIR dynamic 14 signs
  • Home row + ENIRTU dynamic 18 signs
  • Home row + ENIRTUCM dynamic 18 signs
  • Home row + ENIRTUCMOB dynamic 20 signs
  • Home row + ENIRTUCMOBWYP dynamic 29 signs
  • Home row + ENIRTUCMOBWYPQVXZ dynamic 27 signs

Finger practice ?

Exercises with randomly placed letters. For users who wants to improve their finger skills.

  • Home row and right top row dynamic generic 16 signs
  • Home row and left top row dynamic generic 16 signs
  • Home and top row dynamic generic 21 signs
  • Home row and right bottom row dynamic generic 16 signs
  • Home row and left bottom row dynamic generic 17 signs
  • Home and bottom row dynamic generic 22 signs
  • Home and right number row dynamic generic 17 signs
  • Home and left number row dynamic generic 17 signs
  • Home and number row dynamic generic 23 signs
  • All letters dynamic generic 32 signs
  • All rows dynamic generic 44 signs

Hand practice ?

Easy typing lessons for each hand separately. Suitable for users who wants to train one hand.

  • Left hand - home row dynamic generic 5 signs
  • Left hand - home and top row dynamic generic 10 signs
  • Left hand - home and bottom row dynamic generic 11 signs
  • Left hand - home and number row dynamic generic 11 signs
  • Left hand - all letters dynamic generic 16 signs
  • Left hand - all rows dynamic generic 22 signs
  • Right hand - home row dynamic generic 6 signs
  • Right hand - home and top row dynamic generic 11 signs
  • Right hand - home and bottom row dynamic generic 11 signs
  • Right hand - home and number row dynamic generic 11 signs
  • Right hand - all letters dynamic generic 16 signs
  • Right hand - all rows dynamic generic 21 signs

Practical exercises ?

Practice-oriented typing of the most common english words. Perfect to prepare for real life.

  • Top 25 english words dynamic 18 signs
  • Top 50 english words dynamic 23 signs
  • Top 100 english words dynamic 24 signs
  • Top 200 english words dynamic 26 signs
  • Top 300 english words dynamic 29 signs
  • Top 500 english words dynamic 34 signs
  • Top 1000 english words dynamic 41 signs

Bonus lessons ?

More demanding exercises from all keyboard rows with special characters plus uppercase letters.

  • Phonetic alphabet dynamic 49 signs
  • Lorem ipsum dynamic 28 signs
  • Capitals of Europe dynamic 36 signs
  • Tongue twisters dynamic 29 signs
  • Sayings dynamic 29 signs
  • Written numbers dynamic 20 signs
  • The complete alphabet dynamic 53 signs

Pro version of our typing tutor

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With the new Pro version you have access to more great features that boost your typing practice. See for yourself:

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Create your own typing lessons

As a registered user you can create up to 10 own lessons and thereby practice your keyboarding skills even more targeted.

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More than just simple typing practice

The typing lessons in our typing tutor are not just static texts. They are recombined in each exercise and adapt to your typing habits:

Dynamic typing lessons

All typing lessons marked as dynamic are reassembled each time you start a exercise in our typing tutor . This not only makes the exercises extremely varied, but also ensures that you don't memorize them by repetition.

Intelligent error analysis

Thanks to the intelligent error analysis in our typing tutor words and strings in which you often make mistakes will be repeated more frequently during your practice. This means that your personal weaknesses are trained directly and without any action on your part.

colors for typing with 10 fingers

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Training objective

10 Words / min.

10% Error rate

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At TypingAcademy you can easily learn how to type with ten fingers. Our free online typing tutor helps you to practice touch typing in such a way that you can improve your finger technique noticeably in the long term and type faster and more comfortable. Thanks to the various typing lessons, you can learn how to type like in a course at school or in a coaching. And since our typing tutor runs as a web service directly online in the browser, you can use it on every platform.

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Student Note-Taking: Level Up Your Essay Writing

Follow this real life example of how students can write their essays much easier and faster with Scrintal, a free tool used by top students and visual thinkers.

Become a Visual Thinker

typing essay notes

Introduction | A Student’s Perspective

As an undergraduate student with a minor in the social sciences, I’ve written my fair share of essays. I see the value in outlining, but the way I’ve learned to do it in school forces me to compartmentalize my thoughts into strict categories, and it’s harder to make connections between points without filling up the margins with messy written notes or adding asterisks and typing footnotes. Without these visual reminders, my head is swimming with ideas and it’s difficult to focus on the topic at hand.  

Even in cases where I’m writing an essay about which I’m not bursting with ideas, sitting in front of a blank document with nowhere to start is a daunting feeling that doesn’t inspire creativity or ideation. I’ve often been known to fill up a flashcard full of keywords and phrases that relate to my essay topic and can be referred to while I write.

But there’s a better solution now.

Planning | How To Plan Essay Writing With Scrintal

Before Scrintal, my essay-writing process depended on the length and topic of the paper. I would start with reading the source material, usually consisting of one or many philosophy papers that varied in complexity from op-eds to intricate and meandering textbook chapters. 

Hume and Marx were always easy reads if you could pay attention, and to write a thousand-word paper on them would be a breeze. I would start with a cheeky first sentence and from there I could write in an ordered fashion and edit along the way. A final read-through before submitting and I was done; these essays received good marks, because they started with a single source, relied on a single thesis statement, and referenced materials that were concise, well-organized, and simple to understand. 

Kierkegaard and Heidegger, on the other hand, were more complex. After a lot of Googling questions, skimming Wikipedia, and taking breaks from reading to lean back in my chair and ponder the last sentence, I could grasp the basic concept of a difficult paper. But explaining it in full, much less writing an original paper, was a whole different story. I struggled through these and made it out the other side, but it was inefficient and sometimes uninspired; I would feel like all the ideas I came up with while reading had been lost along the way in my quest to understand the next sentence, and the one after that, and the one after that. 

Scrintal changed that: I’ve written two essays using Scrintal, one being a relatively short paper that required comparing two sources and another ten-pager for which I referenced three lengthy academic articles and one 400-page book.

typing essay notes

For the comparison paper, I wrote notes on Scrintal as I read and highlighted in OneNote, creating connecting cards about similar ideas between the two papers as well as counterarguments. I only had to read each paper one time to articulate my ideas, and I didn’t have to write in the OneNote margins to explain my highlights; I only highlighted so I could remember which sentences to quote. This significantly cut down my ideation time and ensured I didn’t have to reread material, the latter of which always used to make me feel too entrenched in the source to be able to step back and write about it in my own words.

For the second ten-page essay, I read through sources and added cards to denote different ideas, easily connecting them to one other by linking cards. I added quotes directly from sources into my cards and each card represented a different argument in support of my thesis. Because the paper was longer and more complex, I did return to my sources to verify that the points I made were correctly described; but rather than verifying my entire paper sentence by sentence, I was able to parse through cards and make connections as they appeared, ensuring that my spontaneous ideas were not lost along the way. 

Since the writing of these essays, a new Scrintal update also allows the user to link to an online PDF file in their card and open the document in a new window alongside their card, which makes the process of writing while reading even easier. You can also do this with YouTube videos to listen and type at the same time. A great feature to add would be the ability to upload PDFs and other documents as well as videos (like downloadable lecture videos from online classes) with the same results rather than having to link PDFs available from online sources.

You can also now tag cards or change their color, which I would have used to differentiate cards based on whether they represent ideas, arguments, or entire reference summaries. These tools will definitely come into play in my future uses.

typing essay notes

Based on my experience, my favorite Scrintal planning features are as follows:

Flexibility of creating and marking notecards for different essay components

Ability to easily connect ideas between cards in order to remember where they are relevant

Search function, which allows me to clear my desk of cards that are not immediately needed and bring them back as required

Ability to open documents and videos in a separate window within the Scrintal ecosystem to avoid switching between different tabs

Folding and expanding cards to see the big picture of a paper and ensure everything I need to address is included in my ideas

Ideation in essay writing is the most difficult part for me. Once I know what I need to write about, the writing itself is easy; and the flow of writing is much smoother when it’s not interrupted by having to think about where to go next. Instead, my thought process and direction are easily laid out in the connected cards.

Writing | How To Write An Essay Using Scrintal

Before Scrintal, writing was either a putting-to-paper of my stream of consciousness or a laborious and frustrating ordeal, again depending on the length and topic of the essay. But the main function of Scrintal for essays is the planning, and once this is done, writing is as simple as adding more detail and transforming ideas into coherent, meaningful sentences. Even if I don’t know exactly the order in which I want to write a paper when I begin, I can collapse my notes all at once to see all the components of my thesis and decide which naturally comes after the one before. I was even able to copy and paste phrases directly from Scrintal into my essay with few changes; because these ideas were written while I was in the throes of reading, they were my first and best attempts at synthesizing what I had read in my own words and could function as efficient explanatory or introductory phrases in the paper itself. I would not have been able to do this if my ideas were written down after I had finished reading the whole source material, but since I wrote while I read, the ideas were fresh in my mind and well-articulated in my notecard.

typing essay notes

Conclusion | The Future of Essay Writing

My experience with the early rendition of Scrintal improved my ideation, efficiency, and attitude when it came to writing essays. Having seen the new improvements in available tools and user experience, I see this continuing to be the case. Any concerns I had while completing these two essays have since been mostly resolved: namely, I no longer have to switch between tabs to write notes while reading or listening if the PDF or video is available online, nor is it necessary to have all cards in the same color or always view all cards and their content rather than the card titles alone. 

Scrintal could not have come at a better time, because I am currently in the process of writing my undergraduate thesis, an extensive term-long assignment that is largely self-directed and requires diligent documentation of ideas. While my high school education prepared me to write essays with surprise prompts under time constraints, Scrintal allows me to formulate well-researched and thoughtfully planned papers with ease. I can choose when to focus on an idea and when to step back and see the progress of my research. I can decide when to clear my desk and when to bring everything back into the picture. I can easily explore a new idea and the substance behind it, even deleting it or moving the information to an existing card if needed. The team behind this tool values user feedback and has implemented it faster than any other company I have seen; so I have no doubt that any potential improvements will make it to my desk and further enhance my experience. 

The future of my writing is Scrintal, and I’m not going back.

typing essay notes

Isha Trivedi

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  • Improve your typing speed and accuracy in multiple languages
  • Sign in, track your progress, and level up as you learn to type faster and better
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Choose Your Test

Sat / act prep online guides and tips, getting college essay help: important do's and don’ts.

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College Essays


If you grow up to be a professional writer, everything you write will first go through an editor before being published. This is because the process of writing is really a process of re-writing —of rethinking and reexamining your work, usually with the help of someone else. So what does this mean for your student writing? And in particular, what does it mean for very important, but nonprofessional writing like your college essay? Should you ask your parents to look at your essay? Pay for an essay service?

If you are wondering what kind of help you can, and should, get with your personal statement, you've come to the right place! In this article, I'll talk about what kind of writing help is useful, ethical, and even expected for your college admission essay . I'll also point out who would make a good editor, what the differences between editing and proofreading are, what to expect from a good editor, and how to spot and stay away from a bad one.

Table of Contents

What Kind of Help for Your Essay Can You Get?

What's Good Editing?

What should an editor do for you, what kind of editing should you avoid, proofreading, what's good proofreading, what kind of proofreading should you avoid.

What Do Colleges Think Of You Getting Help With Your Essay?

Who Can/Should Help You?

Advice for editors.

Should You Pay Money For Essay Editing?

The Bottom Line

What's next, what kind of help with your essay can you get.

Rather than talking in general terms about "help," let's first clarify the two different ways that someone else can improve your writing . There is editing, which is the more intensive kind of assistance that you can use throughout the whole process. And then there's proofreading, which is the last step of really polishing your final product.

Let me go into some more detail about editing and proofreading, and then explain how good editors and proofreaders can help you."

Editing is helping the author (in this case, you) go from a rough draft to a finished work . Editing is the process of asking questions about what you're saying, how you're saying it, and how you're organizing your ideas. But not all editing is good editing . In fact, it's very easy for an editor to cross the line from supportive to overbearing and over-involved.

Ability to clarify assignments. A good editor is usually a good writer, and certainly has to be a good reader. For example, in this case, a good editor should make sure you understand the actual essay prompt you're supposed to be answering.

Open-endedness. Good editing is all about asking questions about your ideas and work, but without providing answers. It's about letting you stick to your story and message, and doesn't alter your point of view.


Think of an editor as a great travel guide. It can show you the many different places your trip could take you. It should explain any parts of the trip that could derail your trip or confuse the traveler. But it never dictates your path, never forces you to go somewhere you don't want to go, and never ignores your interests so that the trip no longer seems like it's your own. So what should good editors do?

Help Brainstorm Topics

Sometimes it's easier to bounce thoughts off of someone else. This doesn't mean that your editor gets to come up with ideas, but they can certainly respond to the various topic options you've come up with. This way, you're less likely to write about the most boring of your ideas, or to write about something that isn't actually important to you.

If you're wondering how to come up with options for your editor to consider, check out our guide to brainstorming topics for your college essay .

Help Revise Your Drafts

Here, your editor can't upset the delicate balance of not intervening too much or too little. It's tricky, but a great way to think about it is to remember: editing is about asking questions, not giving answers .

Revision questions should point out:

  • Places where more detail or more description would help the reader connect with your essay
  • Places where structure and logic don't flow, losing the reader's attention
  • Places where there aren't transitions between paragraphs, confusing the reader
  • Moments where your narrative or the arguments you're making are unclear

But pointing to potential problems is not the same as actually rewriting—editors let authors fix the problems themselves.

Want to write the perfect college application essay?   We can help.   Your dedicated PrepScholar Admissions counselor will help you craft your perfect college essay, from the ground up. We learn your background and interests, brainstorm essay topics, and walk you through the essay drafting process, step-by-step. At the end, you'll have a unique essay to proudly submit to colleges.   Don't leave your college application to chance. Find out more about PrepScholar Admissions now:

Bad editing is usually very heavy-handed editing. Instead of helping you find your best voice and ideas, a bad editor changes your writing into their own vision.

You may be dealing with a bad editor if they:

  • Add material (examples, descriptions) that doesn't come from you
  • Use a thesaurus to make your college essay sound "more mature"
  • Add meaning or insight to the essay that doesn't come from you
  • Tell you what to say and how to say it
  • Write sentences, phrases, and paragraphs for you
  • Change your voice in the essay so it no longer sounds like it was written by a teenager

Colleges can tell the difference between a 17-year-old's writing and a 50-year-old's writing. Not only that, they have access to your SAT or ACT Writing section, so they can compare your essay to something else you wrote. Writing that's a little more polished is great and expected. But a totally different voice and style will raise questions.

Where's the Line Between Helpful Editing and Unethical Over-Editing?

Sometimes it's hard to tell whether your college essay editor is doing the right thing. Here are some guidelines for staying on the ethical side of the line.

  • An editor should say that the opening paragraph is kind of boring, and explain what exactly is making it drag. But it's overstepping for an editor to tell you exactly how to change it.
  • An editor should point out where your prose is unclear or vague. But it's completely inappropriate for the editor to rewrite that section of your essay.
  • An editor should let you know that a section is light on detail or description. But giving you similes and metaphors to beef up that description is a no-go.


Proofreading (also called copy-editing) is checking for errors in the last draft of a written work. It happens at the end of the process and is meant as the final polishing touch. Proofreading is meticulous and detail-oriented, focusing on small corrections. It sands off all the surface rough spots that could alienate the reader.

Because proofreading is usually concerned with making fixes on the word or sentence level, this is the only process where someone else can actually add to or take away things from your essay . This is because what they are adding or taking away tends to be one or two misplaced letters.

Laser focus. Proofreading is all about the tiny details, so the ability to really concentrate on finding small slip-ups is a must.

Excellent grammar and spelling skills. Proofreaders need to dot every "i" and cross every "t." Good proofreaders should correct spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammar. They should put foreign words in italics and surround quotations with quotation marks. They should check that you used the correct college's name, and that you adhered to any formatting requirements (name and date at the top of the page, uniform font and size, uniform spacing).

Limited interference. A proofreader needs to make sure that you followed any word limits. But if cuts need to be made to shorten the essay, that's your job and not the proofreader's.


A bad proofreader either tries to turn into an editor, or just lacks the skills and knowledge necessary to do the job.

Some signs that you're working with a bad proofreader are:

  • If they suggest making major changes to the final draft of your essay. Proofreading happens when editing is already finished.
  • If they aren't particularly good at spelling, or don't know grammar, or aren't detail-oriented enough to find someone else's small mistakes.
  • If they start swapping out your words for fancier-sounding synonyms, or changing the voice and sound of your essay in other ways. A proofreader is there to check for errors, not to take the 17-year-old out of your writing.


What Do Colleges Think of Your Getting Help With Your Essay?

Admissions officers agree: light editing and proofreading are good—even required ! But they also want to make sure you're the one doing the work on your essay. They want essays with stories, voice, and themes that come from you. They want to see work that reflects your actual writing ability, and that focuses on what you find important.

On the Importance of Editing

Get feedback. Have a fresh pair of eyes give you some feedback. Don't allow someone else to rewrite your essay, but do take advantage of others' edits and opinions when they seem helpful. ( Bates College )

Read your essay aloud to someone. Reading the essay out loud offers a chance to hear how your essay sounds outside your head. This exercise reveals flaws in the essay's flow, highlights grammatical errors and helps you ensure that you are communicating the exact message you intended. ( Dickinson College )

On the Value of Proofreading

Share your essays with at least one or two people who know you well—such as a parent, teacher, counselor, or friend—and ask for feedback. Remember that you ultimately have control over your essays, and your essays should retain your own voice, but others may be able to catch mistakes that you missed and help suggest areas to cut if you are over the word limit. ( Yale University )

Proofread and then ask someone else to proofread for you. Although we want substance, we also want to be able to see that you can write a paper for our professors and avoid careless mistakes that would drive them crazy. ( Oberlin College )

On Watching Out for Too Much Outside Influence

Limit the number of people who review your essay. Too much input usually means your voice is lost in the writing style. ( Carleton College )

Ask for input (but not too much). Your parents, friends, guidance counselors, coaches, and teachers are great people to bounce ideas off of for your essay. They know how unique and spectacular you are, and they can help you decide how to articulate it. Keep in mind, however, that a 45-year-old lawyer writes quite differently from an 18-year-old student, so if your dad ends up writing the bulk of your essay, we're probably going to notice. ( Vanderbilt University )


Now let's talk about some potential people to approach for your college essay editing and proofreading needs. It's best to start close to home and slowly expand outward. Not only are your family and friends more invested in your success than strangers, but they also have a better handle on your interests and personality. This knowledge is key for judging whether your essay is expressing your true self.

Parents or Close Relatives

Your family may be full of potentially excellent editors! Parents are deeply committed to your well-being, and family members know you and your life well enough to offer details or incidents that can be included in your essay. On the other hand, the rewriting process necessarily involves criticism, which is sometimes hard to hear from someone very close to you.

A parent or close family member is a great choice for an editor if you can answer "yes" to the following questions. Is your parent or close relative a good writer or reader? Do you have a relationship where editing your essay won't create conflict? Are you able to constructively listen to criticism and suggestion from the parent?

One suggestion for defusing face-to-face discussions is to try working on the essay over email. Send your parent a draft, have them write you back some comments, and then you can pick which of their suggestions you want to use and which to discard.

Teachers or Tutors

A humanities teacher that you have a good relationship with is a great choice. I am purposefully saying humanities, and not just English, because teachers of Philosophy, History, Anthropology, and any other classes where you do a lot of writing, are all used to reviewing student work.

Moreover, any teacher or tutor that has been working with you for some time, knows you very well and can vet the essay to make sure it "sounds like you."

If your teacher or tutor has some experience with what college essays are supposed to be like, ask them to be your editor. If not, then ask whether they have time to proofread your final draft.

Guidance or College Counselor at Your School

The best thing about asking your counselor to edit your work is that this is their job. This means that they have a very good sense of what colleges are looking for in an application essay.

At the same time, school counselors tend to have relationships with admissions officers in many colleges, which again gives them insight into what works and which college is focused on what aspect of the application.

Unfortunately, in many schools the guidance counselor tends to be way overextended. If your ratio is 300 students to 1 college counselor, you're unlikely to get that person's undivided attention and focus. It is still useful to ask them for general advice about your potential topics, but don't expect them to be able to stay with your essay from first draft to final version.

Friends, Siblings, or Classmates

Although they most likely don't have much experience with what colleges are hoping to see, your peers are excellent sources for checking that your essay is you .

Friends and siblings are perfect for the read-aloud edit. Read your essay to them so they can listen for words and phrases that are stilted, pompous, or phrases that just don't sound like you.

You can even trade essays and give helpful advice on each other's work.


If your editor hasn't worked with college admissions essays very much, no worries! Any astute and attentive reader can still greatly help with your process. But, as in all things, beginners do better with some preparation.

First, your editor should read our advice about how to write a college essay introduction , how to spot and fix a bad college essay , and get a sense of what other students have written by going through some admissions essays that worked .

Then, as they read your essay, they can work through the following series of questions that will help them to guide you.

Introduction Questions

  • Is the first sentence a killer opening line? Why or why not?
  • Does the introduction hook the reader? Does it have a colorful, detailed, and interesting narrative? Or does it propose a compelling or surprising idea?
  • Can you feel the author's voice in the introduction, or is the tone dry, dull, or overly formal? Show the places where the voice comes through.

Essay Body Questions

  • Does the essay have a through-line? Is it built around a central argument, thought, idea, or focus? Can you put this idea into your own words?
  • How is the essay organized? By logical progression? Chronologically? Do you feel order when you read it, or are there moments where you are confused or lose the thread of the essay?
  • Does the essay have both narratives about the author's life and explanations and insight into what these stories reveal about the author's character, personality, goals, or dreams? If not, which is missing?
  • Does the essay flow? Are there smooth transitions/clever links between paragraphs? Between the narrative and moments of insight?

Reader Response Questions

  • Does the writer's personality come through? Do we know what the speaker cares about? Do we get a sense of "who he or she is"?
  • Where did you feel most connected to the essay? Which parts of the essay gave you a "you are there" sensation by invoking your senses? What moments could you picture in your head well?
  • Where are the details and examples vague and not specific enough?
  • Did you get an "a-ha!" feeling anywhere in the essay? Is there a moment of insight that connected all the dots for you? Is there a good reveal or "twist" anywhere in the essay?
  • What are the strengths of this essay? What needs the most improvement?


Should You Pay Money for Essay Editing?

One alternative to asking someone you know to help you with your college essay is the paid editor route. There are two different ways to pay for essay help: a private essay coach or a less personal editing service , like the many proliferating on the internet.

My advice is to think of these options as a last resort rather than your go-to first choice. I'll first go through the reasons why. Then, if you do decide to go with a paid editor, I'll help you decide between a coach and a service.

When to Consider a Paid Editor

In general, I think hiring someone to work on your essay makes a lot of sense if none of the people I discussed above are a possibility for you.

If you can't ask your parents. For example, if your parents aren't good writers, or if English isn't their first language. Or if you think getting your parents to help is going create unnecessary extra conflict in your relationship with them (applying to college is stressful as it is!)

If you can't ask your teacher or tutor. Maybe you don't have a trusted teacher or tutor that has time to look over your essay with focus. Or, for instance, your favorite humanities teacher has very limited experience with college essays and so won't know what admissions officers want to see.

If you can't ask your guidance counselor. This could be because your guidance counselor is way overwhelmed with other students.

If you can't share your essay with those who know you. It might be that your essay is on a very personal topic that you're unwilling to share with parents, teachers, or peers. Just make sure it doesn't fall into one of the bad-idea topics in our article on bad college essays .

If the cost isn't a consideration. Many of these services are quite expensive, and private coaches even more so. If you have finite resources, I'd say that hiring an SAT or ACT tutor (whether it's PrepScholar or someone else) is better way to spend your money . This is because there's no guarantee that a slightly better essay will sufficiently elevate the rest of your application, but a significantly higher SAT score will definitely raise your applicant profile much more.

Should You Hire an Essay Coach?

On the plus side, essay coaches have read dozens or even hundreds of college essays, so they have experience with the format. Also, because you'll be working closely with a specific person, it's more personal than sending your essay to a service, which will know even less about you.

But, on the minus side, you'll still be bouncing ideas off of someone who doesn't know that much about you . In general, if you can adequately get the help from someone you know, there is no advantage to paying someone to help you.

If you do decide to hire a coach, ask your school counselor, or older students that have used the service for recommendations. If you can't afford the coach's fees, ask whether they can work on a sliding scale —many do. And finally, beware those who guarantee admission to your school of choice—essay coaches don't have any special magic that can back up those promises.

Should You Send Your Essay to a Service?

On the plus side, essay editing services provide a similar product to essay coaches, and they cost significantly less . If you have some assurance that you'll be working with a good editor, the lack of face-to-face interaction won't prevent great results.

On the minus side, however, it can be difficult to gauge the quality of the service before working with them . If they are churning through many application essays without getting to know the students they are helping, you could end up with an over-edited essay that sounds just like everyone else's. In the worst case scenario, an unscrupulous service could send you back a plagiarized essay.

Getting recommendations from friends or a school counselor for reputable services is key to avoiding heavy-handed editing that writes essays for you or does too much to change your essay. Including a badly-edited essay like this in your application could cause problems if there are inconsistencies. For example, in interviews it might be clear you didn't write the essay, or the skill of the essay might not be reflected in your schoolwork and test scores.

Should You Buy an Essay Written by Someone Else?

Let me elaborate. There are super sketchy places on the internet where you can simply buy a pre-written essay. Don't do this!

For one thing, you'll be lying on an official, signed document. All college applications make you sign a statement saying something like this:

I certify that all information submitted in the admission process—including the application, the personal essay, any supplements, and any other supporting materials—is my own work, factually true, and honestly presented... I understand that I may be subject to a range of possible disciplinary actions, including admission revocation, expulsion, or revocation of course credit, grades, and degree, should the information I have certified be false. (From the Common Application )

For another thing, if your academic record doesn't match the essay's quality, the admissions officer will start thinking your whole application is riddled with lies.

Admission officers have full access to your writing portion of the SAT or ACT so that they can compare work that was done in proctored conditions with that done at home. They can tell if these were written by different people. Not only that, but there are now a number of search engines that faculty and admission officers can use to see if an essay contains strings of words that have appeared in other essays—you have no guarantee that the essay you bought wasn't also bought by 50 other students.


  • You should get college essay help with both editing and proofreading
  • A good editor will ask questions about your idea, logic, and structure, and will point out places where clarity is needed
  • A good editor will absolutely not answer these questions, give you their own ideas, or write the essay or parts of the essay for you
  • A good proofreader will find typos and check your formatting
  • All of them agree that getting light editing and proofreading is necessary
  • Parents, teachers, guidance or college counselor, and peers or siblings
  • If you can't ask any of those, you can pay for college essay help, but watch out for services or coaches who over-edit you work
  • Don't buy a pre-written essay! Colleges can tell, and it'll make your whole application sound false.

Ready to start working on your essay? Check out our explanation of the point of the personal essay and the role it plays on your applications and then explore our step-by-step guide to writing a great college essay .

Using the Common Application for your college applications? We have an excellent guide to the Common App essay prompts and useful advice on how to pick the Common App prompt that's right for you . Wondering how other people tackled these prompts? Then work through our roundup of over 130 real college essay examples published by colleges .

Stressed about whether to take the SAT again before submitting your application? Let us help you decide how many times to take this test . If you choose to go for it, we have the ultimate guide to studying for the SAT to give you the ins and outs of the best ways to study.

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?   We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download them for free now:

Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education.

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  • Essay Writing



In the simplest terms, an essay is a short piece of writing which is set around a specific topic or subject. The piece of writing will give information surrounding the topic but will also display the opinions and thoughts of the author. Oftentimes, an essay is used in an academic sense by way of examination to determine whether a student has understood their studies and as a way of testing their knowledge on a specific subject. An essay is also used in education as a way of encouraging a student to develop their writing skills.

Moreover; an essay is a focused piece of writing designed to inform or persuade. There are many different types of essays, but they are often defined in four categories: argumentative, expository, narrative, and descriptive essays. Argumentative and expository essays are focused on conveying information and making clear points, while narrative and descriptive essays are about exercising creativity and writing in an interesting way. At the university level, argumentative essays are the most common type. 

Types of Essay Writing

When it comes to writing an essay, there is not simply one type, there are, quite a few types of essay, and each of them has its purpose and function which are as follows:

Narrative Essays

A narrative essay details a story, oftentimes from a particular point of view. When writing a narrative essay, you should include a set of characters, a location, a good plot, and a climax to the story. It is vital that when writing this type of essay you use fine details which will allow the reader to feel the emotion and use their senses but also give the story the chance to make a point. 

Descriptive Essay

A descriptive essay will describe something in great detail. The subject can be anything from people and places to objects and events but the main point is to go into depth. You might describe the item’s color, where it came from, what it looks like, smells like, tastes like, or how it feels. It is very important to allow the reader to sense what you are writing about and allow them to feel some sort of emotion whilst reading. That being said, the information should be concise and easy to understand, the use of imagery is widely used in this style of essay. 

Expository Essay

An expository essay is used as a way to look into a problem and therefore compare it and explore it. For the expository essay, there is a little bit of storytelling involved but this type of essay goes beyond that. The main idea is that it should explain an idea giving information and explanation. Your expository essay should be simple and easy to understand as well as give a variety of viewpoints on the subject that is being discussed. Often this type of essay is used as a way to detail a subject which is usually more difficult for people to understand, clearly and concisely.

Argumentative Essay

When writing an argumentative essay, you will be attempting to convince your reader about an opinion or point of view. The idea is to show the reader whether the topic is true or false along with giving your own opinion. You must use facts and data to back up any claims made within the essay. 

Format of Essay Writing

Now there is no rigid format of an essay. It is a creative process so it should not be confined within boundaries. However, there is a basic structure that is generally followed while writing essays.

This is the first paragraph of your essay. This is where the writer introduces his topic for the very first time. You can give a very brief synopsis of your essay in the introductory paragraph. Generally, it is not very long, about 4-6 lines. 

This is the main crux of your essays. The body is the meat of your essay sandwiched between the introduction and the conclusion. So the most vital content of the essay will be here. This need not be confined to one paragraph. It can extend to two or more paragraphs according to the content.

This is the last paragraph of the essay. Sometimes a conclusion will just mirror the introductory paragraph but make sure the words and syntax are different. A conclusion is also a great place, to sum up, a story or an argument. You can round up your essay by providing some morals or wrapping up a story. Make sure you complete your essays with the conclusion, leave no hanging threads.

Writing Tips

Give your essays an interesting and appropriate title. It will help draw the attention of the reader and pique their curiosity

 Keep it between 300-500 words. This is the ideal length, you can take creative license to increase or decrease it

 Keep your language simple and crisp. Unnecessary complicated and difficult words break the flow of the sentence.

 Do not make grammar mistakes, use correct punctuation and spelling five-paragraph. If this is not done it will distract the reader from the content

  Before beginning the essay, organize your thoughts and plot a rough draft. This way you can ensure the story will flow and not be an unorganized mess.

Understand the Topic Thoroughly-Sometimes we jump to a conclusion just by reading the topic once and later we realize that the topic was different than what we wrote about.  Read the topic as many times as it takes for you to align your opinion and understanding about the topic.

Make Pointers-It is a daunting task to write an essay inflow as sometimes we tend to lose our way of explaining and get off-topic, missing important details. Thinking about all points you want to discuss and then writing them down somewhere helps in covering everything you hoped to convey in your essay.

Develop a Plan and Do The Math-Essays have word limits and you have to plan your content in such a way that it is accurate, well-described, and meets the word limit given. Keep a track of your words while writing so that you always have an idea of how much to write more or less. 

Essays are the most important means of learning the structure of writing and presenting them to the reader.


FAQs on Essay Writing

1. Writing an Essay in a format is important?

Yes, it is important because it makes your content more streamlined and understandable by the reader. A set format gives a reader a clear picture of what you are trying to explain. It also organises your own thoughts while composing an essay as we tend to think and write in a haphazard manner. The format gives a structure to the writeup.

2. How does Essay writing improve our English?

Essay writing is a very important part of your English earning curriculum, as you understand how to describe anything in your words or how to put your point of view without losing its meaning

3.  How do you write a good essay?

Start by writing a thorough plan. Ensure your essay has a clear structure and overall argument. Try to back up each point you make with a quotation. Answer the question in your introduction and conclusion but remember to be creative too.

4.  What is the format of writing an essay?

A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. This basic essay format will help you to write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.

5.  How many paragraphs does an essay have?

The basic format for an essay is known as the five paragraph essay – but an essay may have as many paragraphs as needed. A five-paragraph essay contains five paragraphs. However, the essay itself consists of three sections: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Below we'll explore the basics of writing an essay.

6.  Can you use the word you in an essay?

In academic or college writing, most formal essays and research reports use third-person pronouns and do not use “I” or “you.” An essay is the writer's analysis of a topic.  “You” has no place in an essay since the essay is the writer's thoughts and not the reader's thoughts.

7.  What does bridge mean in an essay?

A bridge sentence is a special kind of topic sentence. In addition to signaling what the new paragraph is about, it shows how that follows from what the old paragraph said. The key to constructing good bridges is briefly pointing back to what you just finished saying.

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Why writing by hand beats typing for thinking and learning

typing essay notes

If you're like many digitally savvy Americans, it has likely been a while since you've spent much time writing by hand.

The laborious process of tracing out our thoughts, letter by letter, on the page is becoming a relic of the past in our screen-dominated world, where text messages and thumb-typed grocery lists have replaced handwritten letters and sticky notes. Electronic keyboards offer obvious efficiency benefits that have undoubtedly boosted our productivity — imagine having to write all your emails longhand.

To keep up, many schools are introducing computers as early as preschool, meaning some kids may learn the basics of typing before writing by hand.

But giving up this slower, more tactile way of expressing ourselves may come at a significant cost, according to a growing body of research that's uncovering the surprising cognitive benefits of taking pen to paper, or even stylus to iPad — for both children and adults.

In kids, studies show that tracing out ABCs, as opposed to typing them, leads to better and longer-lasting recognition and understanding of letters. Writing by hand also improves memory and recall of words, laying down the foundations of literacy and learning. In adults, taking notes by hand during a lecture, instead of typing, can lead to better conceptual understanding of material.

"There's actually some very important things going on during the embodied experience of writing by hand," says Ramesh Balasubramaniam , a neuroscientist at the University of California, Merced. "It has important cognitive benefits."

While those benefits have long been recognized by some (for instance, many authors, including Jennifer Egan and Neil Gaiman , draft their stories by hand to stoke creativity), scientists have only recently started investigating why writing by hand has these effects.

A slew of recent brain imaging research suggests handwriting's power stems from the relative complexity of the process and how it forces different brain systems to work together to reproduce the shapes of letters in our heads onto the page.

Your brain on handwriting

Both handwriting and typing involve moving our hands and fingers to create words on a page. But handwriting, it turns out, requires a lot more fine-tuned coordination between the motor and visual systems. This seems to more deeply engage the brain in ways that support learning.

"Handwriting is probably among the most complex motor skills that the brain is capable of," says Marieke Longcamp , a cognitive neuroscientist at Aix-Marseille Université.

Gripping a pen nimbly enough to write is a complicated task, as it requires your brain to continuously monitor the pressure that each finger exerts on the pen. Then, your motor system has to delicately modify that pressure to re-create each letter of the words in your head on the page.

"Your fingers have to each do something different to produce a recognizable letter," says Sophia Vinci-Booher , an educational neuroscientist at Vanderbilt University. Adding to the complexity, your visual system must continuously process that letter as it's formed. With each stroke, your brain compares the unfolding script with mental models of the letters and words, making adjustments to fingers in real time to create the letters' shapes, says Vinci-Booher.

That's not true for typing.

To type "tap" your fingers don't have to trace out the form of the letters — they just make three relatively simple and uniform movements. In comparison, it takes a lot more brainpower, as well as cross-talk between brain areas, to write than type.

Recent brain imaging studies bolster this idea. A study published in January found that when students write by hand, brain areas involved in motor and visual information processing " sync up " with areas crucial to memory formation, firing at frequencies associated with learning.

"We don't see that [synchronized activity] in typewriting at all," says Audrey van der Meer , a psychologist and study co-author at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. She suggests that writing by hand is a neurobiologically richer process and that this richness may confer some cognitive benefits.

Other experts agree. "There seems to be something fundamental about engaging your body to produce these shapes," says Robert Wiley , a cognitive psychologist at the University of North Carolina, Greensboro. "It lets you make associations between your body and what you're seeing and hearing," he says, which might give the mind more footholds for accessing a given concept or idea.

Those extra footholds are especially important for learning in kids, but they may give adults a leg up too. Wiley and others worry that ditching handwriting for typing could have serious consequences for how we all learn and think.

What might be lost as handwriting wanes

The clearest consequence of screens and keyboards replacing pen and paper might be on kids' ability to learn the building blocks of literacy — letters.

"Letter recognition in early childhood is actually one of the best predictors of later reading and math attainment," says Vinci-Booher. Her work suggests the process of learning to write letters by hand is crucial for learning to read them.

"When kids write letters, they're just messy," she says. As kids practice writing "A," each iteration is different, and that variability helps solidify their conceptual understanding of the letter.

Research suggests kids learn to recognize letters better when seeing variable handwritten examples, compared with uniform typed examples.

This helps develop areas of the brain used during reading in older children and adults, Vinci-Booher found.

"This could be one of the ways that early experiences actually translate to long-term life outcomes," she says. "These visually demanding, fine motor actions bake in neural communication patterns that are really important for learning later on."

Ditching handwriting instruction could mean that those skills don't get developed as well, which could impair kids' ability to learn down the road.

"If young children are not receiving any handwriting training, which is very good brain stimulation, then their brains simply won't reach their full potential," says van der Meer. "It's scary to think of the potential consequences."

Many states are trying to avoid these risks by mandating cursive instruction. This year, California started requiring elementary school students to learn cursive , and similar bills are moving through state legislatures in several states, including Indiana, Kentucky, South Carolina and Wisconsin. (So far, evidence suggests that it's the writing by hand that matters, not whether it's print or cursive.)

Slowing down and processing information

For adults, one of the main benefits of writing by hand is that it simply forces us to slow down.

During a meeting or lecture, it's possible to type what you're hearing verbatim. But often, "you're not actually processing that information — you're just typing in the blind," says van der Meer. "If you take notes by hand, you can't write everything down," she says.

The relative slowness of the medium forces you to process the information, writing key words or phrases and using drawing or arrows to work through ideas, she says. "You make the information your own," she says, which helps it stick in the brain.

Such connections and integration are still possible when typing, but they need to be made more intentionally. And sometimes, efficiency wins out. "When you're writing a long essay, it's obviously much more practical to use a keyboard," says van der Meer.

Still, given our long history of using our hands to mark meaning in the world, some scientists worry about the more diffuse consequences of offloading our thinking to computers.

"We're foisting a lot of our knowledge, extending our cognition, to other devices, so it's only natural that we've started using these other agents to do our writing for us," says Balasubramaniam.

It's possible that this might free up our minds to do other kinds of hard thinking, he says. Or we might be sacrificing a fundamental process that's crucial for the kinds of immersive cognitive experiences that enable us to learn and think at our full potential.

Balasubramaniam stresses, however, that we don't have to ditch digital tools to harness the power of handwriting. So far, research suggests that scribbling with a stylus on a screen activates the same brain pathways as etching ink on paper. It's the movement that counts, he says, not its final form.

Jonathan Lambert is a Washington, D.C.-based freelance journalist who covers science, health and policy.

Copyright 2024 NPR

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The 5 best digital notepads in 2024

Forget about writing down your ideas on sticky notes, paper napkins or scraps of paper -- all of which create clutter and can easily get lost. Now you can create handwritten notes and drawings, organize them in customized virtual notebooks, back up your notes in the cloud and then share them with others -- all with a digital notepad. And you can use these devices to read, annotate and sign PDF files, too. 

The best digital notepads look like tablets, but they have an e-ink display that's easily readable in almost any lighting -- just like the best e-readers . Using a stylus, you handwrite or draw directly on the screen, within the pages of customizable virtual notebooks. Then, in most cases, you can automatically convert your handwritten notes into editable text, or store the notes as you created them. 

Digital notepads give you plenty of virtual paper style options and even let you to choose your simulated writing instruments, such as a ball-point pen, fountain pen, pencil or highlighter. While some of the latest digital notepads can also be used as e-readers or offer basic tablet functionality, their main purpose is to replace a traditional notepad.

Best digital notepad overall : reMarkable 2

Best digital notepad and e-reader combo : amazon kindle scribe.

  • Best compact digital notepad : Moleskine Smart Writing Set

Best digital notepad with a color display : Boox Note Air3 C

Best digital notepad with tablet functions: boox ultra c pro.

Keep in mind, with a specialty app (like Goodnotes 6 or Notability) and an Apple Pencil , any  Apple iPad tablet can be used as a feature-packed, full-color digital notepad, as can any tablet that has a stylus available for it.

Our top picks of the best digital notepads for 2024

Our in-house consumer tech experts have jotted down their research notes and compiled this roundup of the best digital notepads out there. Get ready to handwrite or draw directly on an e-ink display using a pen-shaped stylus. This nicely recreates the experience of handwriting on paper using a traditional pen or pencil. Organize and access all of your notes in one place. And because these devices rely on an e-ink display, battery life is typically up to several weeks, not mere hours, like a traditional tablet.

Remarkable 2

Display size : 10.3 inches | Display type : E-ink | Resolution : 1,872 x 1,404 pixels, 226 DPI |  Color or monochrome display : Monochrome | Internal   storage : 8GB | Expandable : No | Stylus included : Yes | Connectivity : USB Type-C, Wi-Fi | Operating system : Codex | Battery life : Up to 2 weeks

Unlike a traditional tablet that's built for a ton of tasks, or an Amazon Scribe that's for both note-taking and e-reading, the reMarkable 2 is first and foremost a digital notepad. It's designed to replicate writing on paper with a pen.

What we like most about this device is that it's extremely thin and lightweight. The monochrome, e-ink display is also quite readable, with minimal glare. And the rechargeable battery lasts up to two weeks.

As a digital notepad, you can create custom-named notebooks, and each can contain any number of individual pages filled with your handwritten notes. As you're writing, you can opt to leave the content as is, or convert it automatically into editable, typed text. This makes it great for note-taking, managing to-do lists or organizing important information.

Another task the reMarkable 2 handles exceptionally well is PDFs; you can view, annotate, highlight, sign, organize and store them. All content within the reMarkable 2 can be synced with your choice of cloud-based services, including Google Drive, Dropbox, Microsoft OneDrive. 

Beyond PDF files, this note taking tool is compatible with Microsoft Word documents and PowerPoint presentations. It also can serve as an e-reader that accepts ePub files, but that's not the intended purpose of this device. If you're looking for a versatile digital notepad that provides a writing experience that feels like you're using real paper and a pen, reMarkable 2 is a great option.

Amazon Kindle Scribe

Display size : 10.2-inches |  Display type : Paperwhite |  Resolution : 300 ppi |  Color or monochrome display : Monochrome |  Internal   storage : 16GB, 32GB, 64GB |  Expandable : No |  Stylus included : Yes |  Connectivity : USB Type-C, Wi-Fi |  Operating system : Amazon FireOS |  Battery life : Up to 12 weeks

We're huge fans of the Amazon Kindle Scribe, mainly because it can serve as a digital notepad and full-featured e-reader compatible with any Kindle-friendly e-books. The 10.2-inch paperwhite display is very easy to read, and the device's battery lasts up to three months between charges.

For our coverage of the five best e-readers for 2024 , the Scribe was named best e-reader for note taking. Be sure to read our in-depth review of this powerful tool to discover all that it can do.

The Amazon Kindle Scribe also offers yet another cool feature that other Kindles don't. It's a digital notepad. You can handwrite or draw on the display using a stylus. Use the note-taking app to create custom digital notebooks and then fill them with pages containing thoughts or sketches. These notes are stored within the Scribe, but can easily be shared when the device is connected to the internet via Wi-Fi.

As you're reading, you can annotate the content of e-books with handwritten notes, or annotate PDF files. A basic stylus comes with the Scribe and a three-month trial subscription to the Kindle Unlimited service is included, as is a USB Type-C charging cable. 

Best compact digital notepad : Moleskine smart writing set

Moleskine Smart Writing Set

Stylus included : Yes |  Connectivity : Bluetooth |  Battery life : Up to 11 hours | Notebook compatibility : Moleskine Smart Notebooks ( small or large ) | App : Moleskine Notes app (iOS/Android)

Most digital notepads have all of their technology built into the tablet. That's not the case with the Moleskine smart writing set. In this case, there's a lot of tech bundled into a smart pen that works just like a ball-point. In fact, the smart pen also writes on paper.

The pen must be used with one of Moleskine's smart notebooks, which come in two sizes and in either a hardcover or softcover. As you're writing using the Moleskine pen within one of these notebooks, the pen actually records everything you write and draw. Transfer the work wirelessly to a smartphone or tablet and replicate it on the screen of a mobile device.

Using the Moleskine Notes app, your can view your handwritten notes, store them as PDFs, sync them in the cloud or share them with others. Content can be kept in your own handwriting or converted into text that can be edited. And all of your notes can be associated with keywords or tags that make them easier to locate quickly. 

Another useful feature: It can simultaneously record audio from a class or meeting and link those audio files with your handwritten content. This system is ideal for someone who wants to continue writing with a pen on paper, but store and share all of their notes or drawings digitally, too. 

BOOX Tablet Note Air 3 C

Display size : 10.3-inches |  Display type : E-paper |  Resolution : 2,480 x 1,860 pixels, 300 ppi (monochrome); 1,240 x 930 pixels, 150 ppi (color) |  Color or monochrome display : Color |  Internal   storage : 16GB |  Expandable : Yes (microSD card) |  Stylus included : Yes |  Connectivity : USB Type-C, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth |  Operating system : Android 12 |  Battery life : Up to 16 hours

Boox is one of the few companies that offers digital notepads and Android tablets with full-color, e-paper displays. The Boox Note Air3 C has a 10.3-inch color screen. It's primarily designed to be a digital notepad for writing or drawing using different colored virtual inks, or for annotating full-color PDF files. 

As an e-reader it accepts 17 e-book formats. The device itself is a mere 5.8mm thick and it's extremely lightweight. As a note taking tool, it offers a paper-like experience for handwriting ideas and sketches.

Because the device uses an e-ink display, it's battery lasts for many hours. But it lacks a traditional display, so don't expect to work with high-resolution photos or video with the sharpness of a traditional tablet. The colors appear more muted. Resolution improves dramatically when viewing content in monochrome. As you're handwriting, the Note Air3 C can convert your handwriting into editable text. You can also use this device to view, annotate, sign and share PDF files. The handwriting and drawing capabilities are extensive, while the e-reader features are also robust. 

Because this is an Android device, it can be used for basic tasks that a tablet can also handle, like checking email, but this is primarily a digital note-taking tool for notes. Overall, we're very impressed with the note-taking capabilities of the Note Air3 C and recommend it to someone who prefers to handwrite, store and share their notes digitally.

For slightly less money, the Note Air3 ($400) is available with a monochrome screen.  It can handle everything that the Note Air3 C can do, just without the color. If you're going to invest in a Boox digital notepad, however, we suggest going with the full-color version. The use of color gives you more options when handwriting notes, drawing or annotating PDF files. There's even a virtual highlighter that allows you to highlight text in PDF files using the colors of your choice. 

BOOX Tablet Tab Ultra C Pro

Display size : 10.3-inches |  Display type : Kaleido 3 |  Resolution : 2,480 x 1,860 pixels, 300 ppi (monochrome); 1,240 x 930, 150 ppi (color) |  Color or monochrome display : Color |  Internal   storage : 128GB |  Expandable : Yes (microSD card) |  Stylus included : Yes |  Connectivity : USB Type-C, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth |  Operating system : Android 12 |  Battery life : Up to 21 hours | Keyboard : Optional

The Boox Ultra C Pro can do everything that the Boox Note Air3 C can do as a note taking tool, but it also serves as an Android tablet.

It comes with the same collection of preinstalled apps as other Android tablets and allows you to install additional apps from the Google Play Store. The Boox Ultra C Pro has a full-color, e-ink display. This means it can be viewed in any lighting situation with virtually zero glare. 

Be warned: Between the speed of the processor and the sluggishness of the display's refresh rate, the Boox Ultra C Pro is not suitable for video. And while it can display full-color, high-resolution photos, the colors will appear muted and the images will lack detail. But this digital notebook is great for basics like web surfing, email, word processing, spreadsheets or any tasks that don't rely on video or graphics. 

Also on the plus side, the Ultra C Pro comes with a stylus and runs Android 12. It also has a built-in camera, speakers and a microSD memory card slot. It supports 24 digital file formats. A variety of optional cases (that also serve as stands) and a detachable keyboard are sold separately. While not for everyone, the Boox Ultra C Pro is a great option for people who prefer hand-writing over typing, but who want the core features of a tablet in a single, lightweight device.

How to choose a digital notepad

A digital notepad should be as comfortable and intuitive to use as a traditional pad and pen. Here are five things to consider when choosing which digital notepad is best suited to meet your needs:

  • Design : The best digital notepads are compact, thin and lightweight. They rely on an e-ink display that's easy to read in any lighting (including direct sunlight) and they come with a pen-shaped stylus that's as comfortable to use as a pen. You also want the ability to choose a paper style (blank, lined, graph, etc.) and create customize notebooks that can contain any number of individual pages. The operating system should allow you to store your handwritten notes locally, sync them with a cloud account and share them with others via email. 
  • Display : An e-ink display should be glare-free and easy to read in any lighting. The higher the resolution, the better (especially when it comes to full-color e-ink displays). Most displays built into digital notepads have a resolution that's measured in horizontal and vertical pixels, or in pixels per inch.
  • Functionality : Beyond handwriting or drawing on the display, you might want to automatically convert writing into editable text. Other useful functions include the ability to markup, annotate and sign PDF files. Some of the best digital notepads also serve as e-readers, audiobook players and more. Also, while some digital notebooks only sync files with the manufacturer's own cloud-based service, others are compatible with services like Google Drive, Microsoft 365, Dropbox and Evernote.
  • Stylus : All of the digital notepads featured in this roundup come with a pen-shaped stylus. However, in some cases, you can upgrade to a premium stylus for an additional fee. To get the most out of a digital notepad, you want a stylus that feels like a pen in your hand and that replicates the experience of handwriting on paper. If you flip over the stylus, the opposite end should work as a digital eraser (just like a traditional pencil). When using one of the best digital notepads, you can choose your virtual writing instrument. Options typically include a ball point pen, pencil, felt tip market, highlighter and fountain pen. 
  • Battery life : Because these devices rely on e-ink displays, their battery life tends to be much longer than a traditional tablet. In some cases, you can expect to use a digital notepad regularly for up to four weeks before needing to recharge it.

When it comes to keeping up with the latest  technologies , our team of consumer tech experts has you covered with comprehensive product roundups, in-depth product reviews and details about where and how to find the best deals. We cover everything from  laptops  and  action cameras , to the best  TVs ,  smart grills ,  tablets ,  smartwatches  and noise canceling  earbuds  and  headphones .

Jason R. Rich ( ) is an internationally recognized consumer technology expert with more than 30 years' writing experience. He's also an accomplished author and photographer. One of his most recently published books, The Remote Worker's Handbook: How to Effectively Work From Anywhere ($24.99, Entrepreneur Books) is now available from Amazon and wherever books are sold.

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This Mother's Day, share a heartfelt message with these 30 quotes about mothers

typing essay notes

Celebrating mothers and motherhood has been a tradition for centuries, even before Mother's Day was officially created. It dates back to  the ancient Greeks and Romans who held festivals for Rhea and Cybele, the mother goddesses, the History Channel reports. Today, the holiday continues to honor mothers and mother figures.

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Mother's Day, motherhood quotes

  • "I realized when you look at your mother, you are looking at the purest love you will ever know." – Mitch Albom , "For One More Day"
  • "Mama was my greatest teacher, a teacher of compassion, love and fearlessness. If love is sweet as a flower, then my mother is that sweet flower of love." – Stevie Wonder
  • "A mother is your first friend, your best friend, your forever friend." – Amit Kalantri , "Wealth of Words"
  • "Mother's love is peace. It need not be acquired, it need not be deserved." – Erich Fromm
  • "Mother is a verb. It's something you do. Not just who you are." – Cheryl Lacey Donovan , "The Ministry of Motherhood"
  • "Acceptance, tolerance, bravery, compassion. These are the things my mom taught me." – Lady Gaga
  • "A mother's love is patient and forgiving when all others are forsaking, it never fails or falters, even though the heart is breaking." – Helen Rice
  • "A mother's love is more beautiful than any fresh flower." – Debasish Mridha
  • "When your mother asks, 'Do you want a piece of advice?' it's a mere formality. It doesn't matter if you answer yes or no. You're going to get it anyway." – Erma Bombeck
  • "All that I am or ever hope to be, I owe to my angel mother." – President Abraham Lincoln
  • "I wondered if my smile was as big as hers. Maybe as big. But not as beautiful." – Benjamin Alire Sáenz , "Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe"
  • "Sometimes the strength of motherhood is greater than natural laws." – Barbara Kingsolver , "Homeland and Other Stories"
  • "A mother is she who can take the place of all others but whose place no one else can take." – Gaspard Mermillod
  • "I can imagine no heroism greater than motherhood." –   Lance Conrad , "The Price of Creation"
  • "To describe my mother would be to write about a hurricane in its perfect power. Or the climbing, falling colors of a rainbow." – Maya Angelou
  • "A mother's arms are more comforting than anyone else's." – Princess Diana
  • "My mother is my root, my foundation. She planted the seed that I base my life on, and that is the belief that the ability to achieve starts in your mind." – Michael Jordan
  • "There's no way to be a perfect mother and a million ways to be a good one." – Jill Churchill
  • "Being a mother is an attitude, not a biological relation." – Robert A. Heinlein , "Have Space Suit—Will Travel"
  • "Mothers and their children are in a category all their own. There's no bond so strong in the entire world. No love so instantaneous and forgiving." – Gail Tsukiyama , "Dreaming Water"
  • "When you are a mother, you are never really alone in your thoughts. You are connected to your child and to all those who touch your lives. A mother always has to think twice, once for herself and once for her child." – Sophia Loren
  • "Once you’re a mom, you’re always a mom. It’s like riding a bike, you never forget." – Taraji P. Henson
  • "The world, we'd discovered, doesn't love you like your family loves you." – Louis Zamperini
  • "The woman who is my best friend, my teacher, my everything: Mom." – Sandra Vischer , "Unliving the Dream"
  • "Mothers possess a power beyond that of a king on his throne." – Mabel Hale
  • "The influence of a mother in the lives of her children is beyond calculation." – James E. Faust
  • "But behind all your stories is always your mother's story, because hers is where yours begins." – Mitch Albom , "For One More Day"
  • "My mother sacrificed her dreams so I could dream." – Rupi Kaur
  • "Mother's arms are made of tenderness, and sweet sleep blesses the child who lies within." – Victor Hugo
  • "No language can express the power and beauty and heroism of a mother’s love." – Edwin Hubbel Chapin

Looking for inspiration? 50 positive quotes for peak motivation

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USA TODAY is exploring the questions you and others ask every day. From " Who was the oldest Golden Girl? " to " What is the smallest country? " to " What's May's birthstone? " − we're striving to find answers to the most common questions you ask every day. Head to our  Just Curious section  to see what else we can answer.

typing essay notes

A Non-Definitive Guide to Non-Duality

Editor's Note: Hey! Dan here. Generally, at Every we try to stick to writing that's directly written for founders, operators, and investors in tech. We break this rule on two occasions: for pieces that are really good, or really important. This piece ticks both of those boxes for me.

I practice some form of non-dual mindfulness almost every day—and the experiences and techniques that Sasha writes about in this essay are real, reachable, and profound. They're also feasible to practice with just a few minutes a day. They're a key habit that helps me run Every, write weekly, and feel pretty good doing it. I hope it's as helpful for you as it has been for me.

You may have heard about this “non-duality” thing, or “non-dual meditation.” Perhaps you have heard rave reviews of a meditative state sometimes referred to as “non-dual awareness,” or “big mind” or “the natural state.” Maybe in connection with exciting-sounding phrases like “spiritual awakening” or “enlightenment.”

Sometimes, people hype it up in a way that can seem far-fetched. For example, nearly a full half of people who learned how to achieve non-dual awareness through a Sam Harris meditation course said it was the most important skill they’d ever learned in their lives. Presumably, these people have learned some important skills before, like job skills that allow them to feed themselves. So that’s quite an assessment. Also, non-dual teacher Loch Kelly says, “It gave me a way of relieving my underlying suffering and connecting to an inner joy that I didn’t even know existed.”

Okay, what is this thing? How is it done? What is “non-duality”?

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Nazita Lajevardi (from left), Jeffrey Kopstein, and Sabine von Mering.

Nazita Lajevardi (from left), Jeffrey Kopstein, and Sabine von Mering.

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What do anti-Jewish hate, anti-Muslim hate have in common?

Researchers scrutinize various facets of these types of bias, and note sometimes they both reside within the same person.

Christy DeSmith

Harvard Staff Writer

Anti-Jewish hate is often connected to anti-Muslim hate, said political scientist Nazita Lajevardi , and she has the data to prove it.

“Our research … finds that there is a group of people who not only agree that Muslims contribute to all problems in American society, but who also agree that Jews contribute to all problems in American society,” she said.

Lajevardi laid out the evidence during the “Pernicious Prejudice: Scholarly Approaches to Antisemitism and Islamophobia” panel last week at Tsai Auditorium. Part of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences initiative on civil discourse , the conversation featured four experts on these forms of animus. The event was hosted by  Melani Cammett , Clarence Dillon Professor of International Affairs in the Department of Government and director of the  Weatherhead Center for International Affairs , which co-sponsored the event.

Lajevardi, an associate professor at Michigan State University and author of “Outsiders at Home: The Politics of American Islamophobia” (2020), drew from her 2023 paper concerning the shifting patterns of hate speech and hate crimes following the 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, where antisemitic rhetoric was prominently featured.

She and her co-authors analyzed information on hate incidents reported by the FBI, Anti-Defamation League, and Council on American-Islamic Relations. They also drew data from the mainstream social media site Reddit as well as more fringe platforms 4Chan and Gab.

Slurs against Muslims and Arabs decreased both on- and offline starting about one month before the rally, Lajevardi said. “What becomes incredibly important to know is that slurs against Jews increased right after the Unite the Right rally. In fact, slurs against Jews increased to 225 percent of their prior levels on Gab.”

Perhaps most revelatory were the researchers’ one-by-one scrapes of user feeds on the same platform. “What we found here is that people stopped mentioning Muslims and replaced those slurs with mentions toward Jews,” Lajevardi said. “We found a target substitution effect at the individual level.”

Kassra A.R. Oskooii , an associate professor of political science and international relations at the University of Delaware, spoke to the particularities of Islamophobia.

“Our research … finds that attitudes toward Muslims are distinct insofar as they’re closely associated with tropes of terrorism, violence, and existential threat on the one hand — and perceived cultural incompatibility with the American way of life on the other,” he said.

As a result, social scientists have failed to predict political outcomes that curb civil liberties and religious freedoms specifically for Muslim Americans, Oskooii argued.

“We have looked into measures such as passing laws that restrict the number of mosques and Islamic centers, which gained a lot of traction after mobilization against the construction of Park51 Islamic center in lower Manhattan,” Oskooii said. Also cited were restrictions on immigration from Muslim-majority countries under former President Donald Trump and increased surveillance following the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001.

Speaking directly about antisemitism was Jeffrey Kopstein , a political science professor and director of the Center for Jewish Studies at the University of California, Irvine. After a long academic career spent studying past discrimination, he was surprised by the reaction to his move from the University of Toronto to UCI in the mid 2010s.

“People said, ‘You’re crazy. Why are you going? It’s an antisemitic campus,’” he recalled.

That inspired research into contemporary attitudes toward Jews at the school, with Kopstein measuring the prevalence of various antisemitic stereotypes. At the behest of the Anti-Defamation League, the investigation later expanded to include three more UC campuses, with Kopstein collecting data both before and after Hamas’ Oct. 7 terrorist attacks.

The results have yet to be published, but Kopstein previewed key findings. For example, before Oct. 7 about 25 percent of respondents agreed that Jews are more loyal to Israel than the U.S. Thirty-five percent agreed after the attacks.

“The thing about these results is, they’re not out of line with the rest of society,” offered Kopstein, pointing to broader data from the ADL.

Also measured was whether seniors harbored stronger anti-Jewish sentiments than first-years, with Kopstein finding “no change” between the two groups, rebutting conservative claims that colleges and universities push radical ideas that result in discrimination.

“The U.S. doesn’t have a campus problem,” he concluded. “It has an antisemitism problem.”

Sabine von Mering , Brandeis University professor of German and of women’s, gender, and sexuality studies, used her time to call for greater scrutiny of social media sites. Her 2022 book “Antisemitism on Social Media,”  co-edited with the University of Haifa’s Monika Hübscher, is filled with case studies of antisemitic incidents on Facebook, YouTube, and TikTok, highlighting the role of algorithm-driven technology in propagating prejudice.

“One thing I always want to emphasize is that this is happening for profit. The platforms being used in all of these cases are profiting handsomely from the spread of hate,” said von Mering, who also directs Brandeis’ Center for German and European Studies.

A German translation of her book is currently being reworked to incorporate Hamas’ use of social media on Oct. 7, she shared. “These images and videos were seen by millions around the world in real time,” von Mering said. “And again, social media companies were profiting in real time as well as advertisements were being sold.”

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Navel Gazing

John dickerson’s notebooks: remembering early 1990s new york.

Getting used to a new city, work advice, passing on wisdom, and more are explored in this week’s audio essay from John Dickerson.

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Episode Notes

In this week’s essay, John discusses an onboarding memo for his assistant Laura, and recounts his early days living and working in New York City.

Notebook Entries:

Notebook 75

Onboard memo for Laura

Notebook 3, page 44. May 1991

June 17 start job. Good stuff

Notebook 3, page 46. May 1991

Tips on buying renting in NYC

Ask about broker

20s and 30s East side. Murry Hill

Live on no major avenue

Interest bearing account for security deposit

Medeco locks

Notebook 4, page 15

Scared standing on 34th and Broadway

$6 cab fare

Notebook 4, page 42

Getting lost in the village


The Little Brown Book of Anecdotes by Clifton Fadiman

Medeco Locks

“ Here is New York ” by E.B. White

“ Silly Job Interview ” - Monty Python

John Cleese on Creativity in Management

Herbie Hancock: Miles Davis’ Essential Lesson On Mistakes

Want to listen to Navel Gazing uninterrupted? Subscribe to Slate Plus to immediately unlock ad-free listening to Navel Gazing and all your other favorite Slate podcasts. Subscribe now on Apple Podcasts by clicking “Try Free” at the top of our show page. Or, visit to get access wherever you listen.

Podcast production by Cheyna Roth.

Email us at [email protected]

  • New York City

About the Show

Political Gabfest host John Dickerson has been a journalist for more than three decades, reporting about presidential campaigns, political scandals, and the evolving state of our democracy. Along the way, he’s also been recording his observations in notebooks he has carried in his back pocket. He has captured his thoughts about life, parenthood, death, friendship, writing, God, to-do lists, and more. On the Navel Gazing podcast, John Dickerson invites you to join him in figuring out what these 30 years of notebooks mean: sorting out what makes a life—or a day in a life—noteworthy.

John Dickerson is host of CBS News Prime Time With John Dickerson , co-host of the Slate Political Gabfest, host of the Whistlestop podcast, and author of The Hardest Job in the World .

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Announcing Windows 11 Insider Preview Build 26212 (Canary Channel)

  • Amanda Langowski
  • Brandon LeBlanc

Hello Windows Insiders, today we are releasing Windows 11 Insider Preview Build 26212 to the Canary Channel.

Developers, please note that for a short period of time, we will not be releasing an SDK for builds we flight to the Canary Channel.

Changes and Improvements

[windows share].

  • Users will be able to now generate QR codes for URLs and cloud file links through the Windows share window to seamlessly share webpages and files across their devices. To try this out in Microsoft Edge, just click the share button in the Edge toolbar and choose “Windows share options”.

Option to generate a QR code to share a URL through the Windows share window.

  • To prevent accidentally closing the Windows share window, clicking outside the Windows share window will no longer close it. To close the Windows share window, just press the close button at the top right corner.
  • If your Microsoft account uses a Gmail address, you can now send email to yourself from Windows share window and receive it in your Gmail account.

Example Gmail option to email yourself in the Windows share window highlighted in a red box.

[Copilot in Windows*]

  • Over the last few months, we’ve been trying out different experiences for Copilot in Windows (Preview) with Windows Insiders across the Canary, Dev, and Beta Channels. Some of these experiences include the ability for Copilot in Windows to act like a normal application window and the taskbar icon animating to indicate that Copilot can help when you copy text or images. We have decided to pause the rollouts of these experiences to further refine them based on user feedback. Copilot in Windows will continue to work as expected while we continue to evolve new ideas with Windows Insiders.

Fixes for known issues

  • We fixed the issue causing advanced startup options to not work. This also fixes the progress wheel from not showing when booting.
  • We believe we fixed the issue causing Features on Demand (FODs) to not install.
  • We are rolling out a fix for the issue causing Copilot to auto-launch unexpectedly for Windows Insiders in the Canary, Dev, and Beta Channels after restarting their PCs. This issue was unrelated to the auto-launching experience we tried out with Insiders in the Canary and Dev Channels  in early February which we stopped rolling out in March.

[Taskbar & System Tray]

  • Fixed an issue that caused the taskbar to be partially off the screen on secondary monitors.
  • Fixed an issue that caused Narrator to be silent while rearranging your apps on taskbar.

[File Explorer]

  • Fixed an issue which was causing File Explorer to sporadically crash when using path suggestions in the address bar.
  • Fixed an issue which could cause File Explorer to crash sometimes when going from the search box to the body of File Explorer.


  • Fixed a couple DWM crashes, which could cause the screen to appear to flash.
  • Fixed an issue that was causing some people to repeatedly see a message saying live captions were being missed.
  • Fixed an underlying issue which was causing Visual Studio to fail to debug x64 .NET framework console applications (the app would crash in ntdll.dll upon load).

Known issues

  • [IMPORTANT NOTE] We are investigating reports that some Windows Insiders in the Canary and Dev Channels are stuck on Build 26040 or Build 23620. The investigation is ongoing, however if you are impacted by this and really want to get onto the latest build in the Canary or Dev Channel today – you can download the latest ISO here and do a clean install and opt your device back into flighting in the Canary or Dev Channels.

Reminders for Windows Insiders in the Canary Channel

  • The builds we release to the Canary Channel should not be seen as matched to any specific release of Windows and features and experiences included in these builds may never get released as we try out different concepts and get feedback. Features may change over time, be removed, or replaced and never get released beyond Windows Insiders. Some of these features and experiences could show up in future Windows releases when they’re ready .
  • Many features in the Canary Channel are rolled out using Control Feature Rollout technology , starting with a subset of Insiders and ramping up over time as we monitor feedback to see how they land before pushing them out to everyone in this channel.
  • To get off the Canary Channel, a clean install of Windows 11 will be required . As a reminder – Insiders can’t switch to a channel that is receiving builds with lower build numbers without doing a clean installation of Windows 11 due to technical setup requirements.
  • The desktop watermark shown at the lower right corner of the desktop is normal for these pre-release builds.
  • Check out Flight Hub for a complete look at what build is in which Insider channel.
  • Copilot in Windows* in preview is being rolled out gradually to Windows Insiders in select global markets. The initial markets for the Copilot in Windows preview include North America, United Kingdom and parts of Asia and South America. It is our intention to add additional markets over time.

Thanks, Amanda & Brandon


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Stormy Daniels, Who Testified About Sex With Trump, Will Return to Stand

The porn star at the center of the ex-president’s criminal trial, who will testify again on Thursday, spoke under oath about their encounter at a golf tournament in 2006, a meeting that could shape American history.

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Donald Trump in a courtroom hallway, behind a barrier in a navy suit and gold tie.

By Ben Protess ,  Jonah E. Bromwich ,  Maggie Haberman ,  Michael Rothfeld and Jonathan Swan

When Donald J. Trump met Stormy Daniels, their flirtation seemed fleeting: He was a 60-year-old married mogul at the peak of reality television fame, and she was 27, a Louisiana native raised in poverty and headed to porn-film stardom.

But that chance encounter in Lake Tahoe, Nev., some two decades ago is now at the center of the first criminal trial of an American president, an unprecedented case that could shape the 2024 presidential race.

This week, Ms. Daniels has been on the witness stand telling her side of the story, often in explicit detail. She has already faced five hours of questioning, and after the trial’s midweek hiatus, she is expected to return on Thursday to undergo additional cross-examination from Mr. Trump’s legal team.

The charges against Mr. Trump stem from her story of sex with him during that 2006 celebrity golf tournament in Lake Tahoe, a story she was shopping a decade later, in the closing days of the presidential campaign. Mr. Trump’s longtime lawyer and fixer, Michael D. Cohen, paid Ms. Daniels $130,000 in hush money before Election Day, and the former president is accused of falsifying business records to cover up reimbursements for Mr. Cohen.

typing essay notes

The Links Between Trump and 3 Hush-Money Deals

Here’s how key figures involved in making hush-money payoffs on behalf of Donald J. Trump are connected.

On Tuesday, Ms. Daniels’s fast-paced testimony lasted nearly five hours, during which she described an encounter with Mr. Trump, now 77, that he has long denied. Tension gripped the courtroom, her voluble testimony filling a heavy silence. She made jokes; they did not land.

After about a half-hour on the stand, she began to unspool intimate details about Mr. Trump, so much so that the judge balked at some of the testimony. He implied it was gratuitously vulgar, and the defense sought a mistrial.

Ms. Daniels said the future president had invited her to dinner inside his palatial Lake Tahoe hotel suite. He answered the door wearing silk pajamas. When he was rude, she playfully spanked him with a rolled-up magazine. And when she asked about his wife, he told her not to worry, saying that they didn’t even sleep in the same room — prompting Mr. Trump to shake his head in disgust and mutter “bullshit” to his lawyers, loud enough that it drew a private rebuke from the judge, who called it “contemptuous.”

Ms. Daniels then recounted the sex itself in graphic detail. It happened, she said, after she returned from the bathroom and found Mr. Trump in his boxer shorts and T-shirt. She tried to leave and he blocked her path, though not, she said, in a threatening manner. The sex was brief, she said, and although she never said no, there was a “power imbalance.”

“I was staring up at the ceiling, wondering how I got there,” she told the jury, adding that Mr. Trump did not wear a condom.

The testimony was an astonishing moment in American political history and a crowning spectacle in a trial full of them: a porn star, across from a former and potentially future president, telling the world what she was once paid to keep quiet about.

Ms. Daniels, 45, has told her story widely — to prosecutors, reporters, her friends, in a book — but never to jurors, and not with Mr. Trump in the room. Her appearance on the stand appeared to unnerve Mr. Trump as she aired his dirty laundry, under oath, in mortifying detail.

But Ms. Daniels’s story is not just a sordid kiss-and-tell tale; it spotlights what prosecutors say was Mr. Trump’s criminality. He is accused of engineering the false business records scheme to cover up all traces of their tryst: the hush money, the repayment to Mr. Cohen and, yes, the sex.

While the defense cast the testimony as a smear, Ms. Daniels provided prosecutors with some useful details. She established the fundamental story of her encounter with Mr. Trump. And she testified that she would have told the same uncomfortable tale in 2016, had she not taken the hush money from Mr. Trump’s fixer.

typing essay notes

Who Are Key Players in the Trump Manhattan Criminal Trial?

The first criminal trial of former President Donald J. Trump is underway. Take a closer look at central figures related to the case.

But her testimony, at times, seemed problematic for the prosecutors who had called her. Ms. Daniels testified that money was not her motivation, and that she wanted to get her story out. That could draw skepticism from jurors, who have heard that she accepted the $130,000 and, in exchange, did not tell her story for more than a year.

“My motivation wasn’t money,” she said. “It was motivated out of fear, not money.”

The jury also saw the judge, Juan M. Merchan, scold Ms. Daniels at least twice, instructing her to stick to the questions asked of her. At one point, he even issued his own objection, interrupting her testimony as she began to describe the sexual position she and Mr. Trump assumed.

Justice Merchan, generally a stoic presence with a tight grip over his courtroom, showed rare exasperation as the testimony veered in a scurrilous direction and the trial took on a circuslike atmosphere.

He also asked Ms. Daniels to slow down. She was a rapid-fire talker, prone to laughter and lengthy asides.

Outside the jury’s presence, the judge said that “there were some things better left unsaid” in her testimony and suggested that Ms. Daniels might have “credibility issues.”

Yet he rejected the defense’s bid for a mistrial, instead inviting Mr. Trump’s lawyers to mount an aggressive questioning of Ms. Daniels.

“The more times this story has changed, the more fodder for cross-examination,” he said.

Susan Necheles, the Trump lawyer who led the cross-examination, heeded the judge’s advice.

She painted Ms. Daniels as a lying opportunist. She unearthed excerpts from Ms. Daniels’s book to suggest that her story had changed over time. And in a potentially troublesome moment for Ms. Daniels, Ms. Necheles implied that she had fabricated an account of a Trump supporter threatening her and her daughter in a Las Vegas parking lot, a story she did not share with her baby’s father.

“Your daughter’s life was in jeopardy, and you did not tell her father, right?” Ms. Necheles asked, the implication being that the story was phony.

Ms. Daniels was indignant. And during some cross-examination, she parried effectively, performing even better than she did with her answers to prosecutors.

Her testimony brought full circle one of the earliest scandals that loomed over Mr. Trump’s presidency. Ever since The Wall Street Journal broke the news six years ago that Mr. Cohen had paid her to keep quiet, her story has changed the course of American politics and laid the groundwork for the case.

Over the years, Ms. Daniels has leaned into her Trump-adjacent fame. She has sold merchandise, filmed a documentary, sat for high-profile interviews and written a book that was so tell-all it included detailed descriptions of the former president’s genitalia. Mr. Trump has also dished out insults that ridiculed her appearance, calling her “horseface.”

But at other times, Ms. Daniels appeared tortured, detailing the personal toll of outsize exposure. Suddenly, she was not just a porn star but a threat to a man who commands the most fervent political movement in modern American history. She told reporters she was inundated by threats from Trump supporters, many of which were graphic. She feared for her family and has divorced her third husband, the father of her daughter.

“I have been just tormented for the last five years or so,” she said in the opening scene of “Stormy,” a documentary about her life that was released on Peacock. “And here I am, I’m still here.”

Ms. Daniels joined the trial at a pivotal moment. On Monday, prosecutors had asked two veterans of the Trump Organization’s accounting department to show jurors the 34 records they say Mr. Trump falsified to conceal his reimbursement of Mr. Cohen for the hush money. Those include 11 invoices, 11 checks and 12 entries in Mr. Trump’s ledger that portrayed the payments as normal legal expenses.

typing essay notes

The Donald Trump Indictment, Annotated

The indictment unveiled in April 2023 centers on a hush-money deal with a porn star, but a related document alleges a broader scheme to protect Donald J. Trump’s 2016 campaign.

In the weeks ahead, Mr. Cohen is expected to take the stand and connect the dots between the salacious details and the substantive documents. On Tuesday, Ms. Daniels’s testimony took jurors through the smuttier elements of the case.

She began by recounting a difficult childhood in Baton Rouge. Her parents split up when she was young, she said.

She wanted to be a veterinarian and was editor of her high school newspaper. Eventually, she began stripping, she says, because she earned more than she did shoveling manure at a horse stable.

By the time she met Mr. Trump at the golf tournament in 2006, she was a player in porn. She was an actress, and would ultimately find her footing as a director and producer.

Asked to identify Mr. Trump in the courtroom, she called him out as the man in a navy suit jacket. Ms. Daniels, dressed in all black and wearing glasses, reduced the singular former president to just another man in the courtroom.

She spent much of her testimony describing that first encounter in Lake Tahoe. When she met Mr. Trump, she knew he was a golfer and the host of the “The Apprentice,” the reality show that revived Mr. Trump’s celebrity for a new generation. In a memorable line, Ms. Daniels said she also knew that he was “as old or older than my father.”

Later that day, she said, Mr. Trump’s aide approached and invited her to dinner. She says he took her number, but that her initial reaction was “eff no,” abbreviating an expletive.

But her publicist encouraged her: “What could possibly go wrong?”

She then transported jurors inside his hotel room, painting the sprawling suite in minute detail, capturing every aspect down to the color of the tiles.

She said Mr. Trump had taken an interest in her business and asked about unions, residuals and health insurance, as well as about testing for sexually transmitted diseases. “He was very interested in how I segued from becoming just a porn star to writing and directing,” she said.

Ms. Daniels said Mr. Trump told her, “You remind me of my daughter. She is smart and blond and beautiful, and people underestimate her as well.”

She recalled going into the bathroom to do her lipstick, where, she said, she noticed gold tweezers and Old Spice.

Later, they stayed in touch, she said. In 2007, they met at Trump Tower in New York, at a Trump Vodka launch party in Los Angeles and at a Beverly Hills hotel — all interactions that appeared to undercut Mr. Trump’s claims that he barely knew her.

The jury was also shown contact logs from Ms. Daniels’s phone and from Mr. Trump’s assistant’s phone showing that they remained in touch. And when they did talk, she said, Mr. Trump had a nickname for her: “honeybunch.”

They have only spoken through lawyers since then, most notably during the hush-money negotiations. When Ms. Necheles accused Ms. Daniels of using that effort to “extort money from President Trump,” Ms. Daniels objected.

“False,” she said.

“That’s what you did, right?” Ms. Necheles persisted.

“False!” Ms. Daniels shouted.

Reporting was contributed by William K. Rashbaum , Kate Christobek , Jesse McKinley , Wesley Parnell and Matthew Haag .

Ben Protess is an investigative reporter at The Times, writing about public corruption. He has been covering the various criminal investigations into former President Trump and his allies. More about Ben Protess

Jonah E. Bromwich covers criminal justice in New York, with a focus on the Manhattan district attorney’s office and state criminal courts in Manhattan. More about Jonah E. Bromwich

Maggie Haberman is a senior political correspondent reporting on the 2024 presidential campaign, down ballot races across the country and the investigations into former President Donald J. Trump. More about Maggie Haberman

Michael Rothfeld is an investigative reporter in New York, writing in-depth stories focused on the city’s government, business and personalities. More about Michael Rothfeld

Jonathan Swan is a political reporter covering the 2024 presidential election and Donald Trump’s campaign. More about Jonathan Swan

Our Coverage of the Trump Hush-Money Trial

News and Analysis

Ahead of Michael Cohen’s testimony on Monday, Justice Juan M. Merchan told prosecutors to keep Mr. Cohen from speaking about the case .

Several witnesses have mentioned Keith Schiller , Donald Trump’s bodyguard, during their testimony. Where is he?

Custodial witnesses, who have discussed FedEx labels, Sharpies and stapling protocol, have made for little spectacle in the trial. But they’ve provided basic information  about the documents at the heart of the case.

More on Trump’s Legal Troubles

Key Inquiries: Trump faces several investigations  at both the state and the federal levels, into matters related to his business and political careers.

Case Tracker:  Keep track of the developments in the criminal cases  involving the former president.

What if Trump Is Convicted?: Could he go to prison ? And will any of the proceedings hinder Trump’s presidential campaign? Here is what we know , and what we don’t know .

Trump on Trial Newsletter: Sign up here  to get the latest news and analysis  on the cases in New York, Florida, Georgia and Washington, D.C.


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  9. Practice typing by retyping ENTIRE novels

    Typing Practice | Test your typing while reading great books like Alice in Wonderland, 1984, Dracula, and The Art of War — or import your own material! Test your typing online by practicing on your favorite literature. Choose a book below to get started, or subscribe and import your own!

  10. Getting College Essay Help: Important Do's and Don'ts

    Keep in mind, however, that a 45-year-old lawyer writes quite differently from an 18-year-old student, so if your dad ends up writing the bulk of your essay, we're probably going to notice. (Vanderbilt University) So, basically, a big old thumbs up on the whole "get someone to look at your essay" situation, as far as colleges are concerned.

  11. Online Notepad

    Write down quick notes and print a simple text document with Online Notepad editor. It includes spellchecker, word counter, autosave, find and replace etc.

  12. Typing Practice

    Typing Lessons. Take a typing speed test, learn to type faster and with fewer errors with this free online typing tutor. Take a typing test, practice typing lessons, learn to type faster.

  13. Writing vs Typing Debate

    Research published recently in the journal Frontiers in Psychology, echoes previous studies, such as one often-cited 2014 study called " The Pen Is Mightier Than The Keyboard ," which shows that writing notes by hand allowed participants to retain information better than those who typed on a laptop, even if they wrote fewer words overall ...

  14. Essay Writing

    An essay is also used in education as a way of encouraging a student to develop their writing skills. Moreover; an essay is a focused piece of writing designed to inform or persuade. There are many different types of essays, but they are often defined in four categories: argumentative, expository, narrative, and descriptive essays.

  15. Typing Test · Practice Typing

    Practice on any text with this custom typing test. Choose the text you are going to type. Classic Typing Test. Super responsive flash-based typing test with charts and performances tracking. Instant death typing test. A typing test that ends as soon as you make a mistake. In this mode, your score will not be saved.

  16. Welcome to the Purdue Online Writing Lab

    The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects. Teachers and trainers may use this material for in-class and out ...


    Compete against other talented typists around the globe and show where the best typists come from. Each country has its own league and you can advance higher in the rankings by completing races and collecting points. Start the Race! offers a free online Typing Test and exciting typing games and keyboarding practice.

  18. The Four Main Types of Essay

    An essay is a focused piece of writing designed to inform or persuade. There are many different types of essay, but they are often defined in four categories: argumentative, expository, narrative, and descriptive essays. Argumentative and expository essays are focused on conveying information and making clear points, while narrative and ...

  19. Why writing by hand beats typing for thinking and learning

    Writing by hand also improves memory and recall of words, laying down the foundations of literacy and learning. In adults, taking notes by hand during a lecture, instead of typing, can lead to better conceptual understanding of material. "There's actually some very important things going on during the embodied experience of writing by hand ...

  20. Review Essay Assignment Instructions 101-28 (docx)

    Review Essay Assignment Instructions Film Review A review essay presents an opportunity to vividly depict your selected visual medium and assess its effectiveness in achieving its intended purpose. This type of essay allows you to articulate an informed opinion, showcasing your depth of knowledge regarding the subject. To conduct a comprehensive evaluation, it is essential to establish ...

  21. The 5 best digital notepads in 2024 will free you from paper clutter

    Best digital notepad and e-reader combo: Amazon Kindle Scribe. Best compact digital notepad: Moleskine Smart Writing Set. Best digital notepad with a color display: Boox Note Air3 C. Best digital ...

  22. Opinion

    Guest Essay. In 'West Side Story,' My Mother Saw a Latina Who Could Dance Her Way Out of Any Script ... Deborah Paredez is the chair of the writing program at Columbia and the author of the ...

  23. Opinion

    Guest Essay. I Was an Attorney at the D.A.'s Office. This Is What the Trump Case Is Really About. April 29, 2024. ... handwritten notes, bank documents and shell corporations. Documents don't lie.

  24. 30 Mother's Day quotes and greetings to celebrate a mom in your life

    Mother's Day, motherhood quotes. "I realized when you look at your mother, you are looking at the purest love you will ever know." - Mitch Albom , "For One More Day". "Mama was my greatest ...

  25. A Non-Definitive Guide to Non-Duality

    by Sasha Chapin Editor's Note: Hey! Dan here. Generally, at Every we try to stick to writing that's directly written for founders, operators, and investors in tech. We break this rule on two ...

  26. What do anti-Jewish hate, anti-Muslim hate have in common?

    Harvard Staff Writer. May 7, 2024 5 min read. Anti-Jewish hate is often connected to anti-Muslim hate, said political scientist Nazita Lajevardi, and she has the data to prove it. "Our research … finds that there is a group of people who not only agree that Muslims contribute to all problems in American society, but who also agree that Jews ...

  27. Drones Changed This Civil War, and Linked Rebels to the World

    On March 20, Mr. Shan Gyi, the rebel force's star pilot, was flying a drone from a spot on the front line. Suddenly, a much more menacing flying machine — a junta fighter jet — shrieked ...

  28. Audio Essay: John Dickerson explores his early years of living and

    Episode Notes. In this week's essay, John discusses an onboarding memo for his assistant Laura, and recounts his early days living and working in New York City. Notebook Entries: Notebook 75 ...

  29. Announcing Windows 11 Insider Preview Build 26212 (Canary Channel)

    Amanda Langowski. Brandon LeBlanc. May 8, 2024. Hello Windows Insiders, today we are releasing Windows 11 Insider Preview Build 26212 to the Canary Channel. Developers, please note that for a short period of time, we will not be releasing an SDK for builds we flight to the Canary Channel.

  30. Stormy Daniels Testifies About Sex With Trump at Hush-Money Trial

    By Ben Protess , Jonah E. Bromwich , Maggie Haberman , Michael Rothfeld and Jonathan Swan. May 7, 2024. When Donald J. Trump met Stormy Daniels, their flirtation seemed fleeting: He was a 60-year ...