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Essay Checker: Free Online Paper Corrector

Your Best Chance for an A+ Essay. Try Our Free Essay Checker Below.

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Why Should You Use a Free Essay Checker?

The simple answer? Good grammar is necessary, but it’s not easy. You've already done countless hours of research to write the essay. You don’t want to spend countless hours correcting it, too.

You'll get a better grade

Good grammar or its absence can determine if you get a good grade or a failing one. Impress your lecturer not just with how grammatically sound your writing is, but how clear it is and how it flows.

You'll save time

Essay writing can be a long and tedious process. ProWritingAid's essay checker saves you the hassle by acting as the first line of defense against pesky grammar issues.

You'll become a better writer

Essay writing is a particular skill and one that becomes better with practice. Every time you run your essay through ProWritingAid’s essay corrector, you get to see what your common mistakes are and how to fix them.

Good Writing = Good Grades

It’s already hard to know what to write in an essay. Don’t let grammar mistakes hinder your writing and prevent you from getting a good grade. ProWritingAid’s essay checker will help you write your best essay yet. Since the checker is powered by AI, using it means that grammar errors don’t stand a chance. Give your professors something to look forward to reading with clear, concise, and professional writing.

How Does ProWritingAid’s Essay Checker Work?

Your goal in essay writing is to convey your message as best as possible. ProWritingAid's essay checker is the first step towards doing this.

Get Rid of Spelling Errors

ProWritingAid’s essay checker will show you what it thinks are spelling errors and present you with possible corrections. If a word is flagged and it’s actually spelt correctly you can always choose to ignore the suggestion.

ProWritingAid product image - spelling mistake student

Fix Grammar Errors

Professors aren’t fans of poor grammar because it interrupts your message and makes your essay hard to understand. ProWritingAid will run a grammar check on your paper to ensure that your message is precise and is being communicated the way you intended.

Get Rid of Punctuation Mistakes

A missing period or comma here and there may not seem that serious, but you’ll lose marks for punctuation errors. Run ProWritingAid’s paper checker to use the correct punctuation marks every time and elevate your writing.

ProWritingAid product image - punctuation student

Improve Readability

Make sure that in the grand scheme your language is not too complicated. The essay checker's built in readability report will show if your essay is easy or hard to read. It specifically zones in on paragraphs that might be difficult to read so you can review them.

What Else Can the Essay Checker Do?

The editing tool analyzes your text and highlights a variety of key writing issues, such as overused words, incohesive sentence structures, punctuation issues, repeated phrases, and inconsistencies.

ProWritingAid illustration- unnecessary word student

You don’t need to drown your essay in words just to meet the word count. ProWritingAid’s essay checker will help to make your words more effective. You'll get to construct your arguments and make sure that every word you use builds towards a meaningful conclusion.

Use more transition words in your essay

Transition words help to organize your ideas by showing the relationship between them. The essay checker has a built in Transition report that highlights and shows the percentage of transitions used in your essay. Use the results to add transitions where necessary.

ProWritingAid product image - student sentence variety

An engaging essay has sentences of varying lengths. Don’t bore your professor with long, rambling sentences. The essay checker will show you where you need to break long sentences into shorter sentences, or add more sentence length variation.

ProWritingAid product image - student passive voice

Generally, in scholarly writing, with its emphasis on precision and clarity, the active voice is preferred. However, the passive voice is acceptable in some instances. When you run your essay through ProWritingAid’s essay checker, you get feedback on whether you 'r e using the passive or active voice to convey your idea.

ProWritingAid illustration - power verb

There are academic specific power verbs like appraise , investigate , debunk , support , etc., that can add more impact to your argument by giving a more positive and confident tone. The essay checker will check your writing for power verbs and notify you if you have less than three throughout your essay.

ProWritingAid product image - repeats

It's easy to get attached to certain phrases and use them as crutches in your essays but this gives the impression of boring and repetitive writing. The essay checker will highlight your repeats and suggest contextually relevant alternatives.

ProWritingAid illustration - learn as you edit

Gain access to in-house blog reports on citations, how to write a thesis statement, how to write a conclusion, and more. Venture into a world of resources specific to your academic needs.

What Kinds of Papers Does ProWritingAid Correct?

No matter what you’re writing, ProWritingAid will adapt and show you where your edits are needed most.

  • Argumentative
  • Descriptive
  • Textual Analysis
  • Lab reports
  • Case studies
  • Literature reviews
  • Presentations
  • Dissertations
  • Research papers

Professors and students love using ProWritingAid

If you're an English teacher, you need to take a look at this tool - it reinforces what you're teaching, highlights strengths and weaknesses, and makes it easier to personalize instruction.

prowritingaid customer

Jennifer Gonzales

Only reason I managed to get an A in all my freshmen composition classes.

ProWritingAid customer

Chris Layton

Great tool for academic work. Easy to use and the reports and summary evaluation of your documents in several categories is very useful. So much more than spelling and grammar!

prowritingaid customer

Debra Callender

Questions & Answers

1. how do i use the essay checker online tool.

You can either copy and paste your essay in the essay checker field or upload your essay from your computer. Your suggestions will show once you enter text. You’ll see a number of possible grammar and spelling issues. Sign up for free to get unlimited suggestions to improve your writing style, grammar, and sentence structure. Avoid unintentional plagiarism with a premium account.

2. Does the essay checker work with British English and American English?

The essay checker works with both British English and American English. Just choose the one you would like to use and your corrections will reflect this.

3. Is using an essay checker cheating?

No. The essay checker won’t ever write the essay for you. It will point out possible edits and advise you on changes you need to make. You have full autonomy and get to decide which changes to accept.

4. Will the essay checker auto-correct my work?

The essay writing power remains in your hands. You choose which suggestions you want to accept and you can ignore those that you don’t think apply.

5. Is there a student discount?

Students who have an eligible student email address can get 20% off ProWritingAid Premium. Email [email protected] from your student email address to access your discount.

6. Does ProWritingAid have a plagiarism checker?

Yes! ProWritingAid’s plagiarism checker will check your work against over a billion web-pages, published works, and academic papers, so you can be sure of its originality. Find out more about pricing for plagiarism checks here .

A good grade is closer than you think

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  • Grammar & Spelling Check
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Grammar Check

Robust grammar checking allows you to find those pesky mistakes and correct them before turning in your paper.

Writing Suggestions

Our proofreading system alerts you to opportunities to improve your writing.

Plagiarism Checking

Find out if your paper contains plagiarized text before your professor does. We compare your text to over 10 billion documents.

Proofread your writing with PaperRater’s free online grammar and plagiarism checkers

Requiring no downloads, the proofreader and plagiarism checker use AI to scan your essays and papers for any errors and assign them an automated score. This will help you correct any grammatical and spelling mistakes, address unintentional instances of plagiarism and earn a higher grade for your work.

Simply copy and paste your writing into the online editor or upload your file and click ‘Get Report’!

Grammar and Writing Resources

Confused about what a subordinate clause is? Or baffled by the difference between traveled and travelled ? Clear your doubts related to grammar, spelling and writing with these detailed articles and explanations:

Which is Correct, ‘Laying’ or ‘Lying’?

What are Participle Phrases and How to Use Them

An Introduction to British Slang Words

‘Ax’ vs. ‘Axe’

Lists of Adjectives Categorized by Types of Nouns

What is the Difference Between ‘Co-Worker’ and ‘Coworker’?

How Do You Spell ‘Separated’?

‘Fliers’ vs. ‘Flyers’

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Immediate Results

You want instant gratification and so do we. Using Artificial Intelligence and Data Science, submissions are analyzed in real-time with results typically appearing 5-15 seconds after submission. PaperRater’s cloud-based software digs deep into the syntax and structure of your text without the need to sign up, login, or download. You won't find another tool offering plagiarism checking, automated proofreading, grammar check, and automated scoring that can analyze your text this quickly.

Grammar Feedback

Is Feedback Missing From Your Feedback Loop?

The best time to receive feedback is before you turn your assignment in. Sometimes valuable feedback comes too late, which is why our automated proofreading tool can be especially helpful -- not just for detecting grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors, but also for giving helpful tips that make you a better writer. Our AI engine, Grendel , works tirelessly providing feedback that you can incorporate into your text before you pass it on for a final grade from a human.

Free and Accessible Checker

We use this word a lot to describe our service. It's fast, free, requires no downloads or signups, and offers state-of-the-art results. Maybe this is why our grammar check tool is used by thousands of students every day in over 140 countries. If you haven't put our service to the test, give it a try now and see what all the buzz is about.

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Free online proofreading and essay editor

A reliable proofreading tool and essay editor for any writer or student, a complete environment.

Typely is more than just a proofreading tool. It's a complete writing environment.

Thousands of checks

More than a thousand checks are being performed and we've only scratched the surface.

Inspired by the greatest writers

Gain access to humanity’s collective understanding about the craft of writing.

A proofreading tool that does not bark at every tree

Typely is precise. Existing tools for proofreading raise so many false alarms that their advice cannot be trusted. Instead, the writer must carefully consider whether to accept or reject each change.

We aim for a tool so precise that it becomes possible to unquestioningly adopt its recommendations and still come out ahead — with stronger, tighter prose. Better to be quiet and authoritative than loud and unreliable.

Relax, focus, write your next masterpiece...

Writing presumes more than simply laying out words on a paper. Typely helps you get in the mood and keeps you focused, immersed and ready to write your story.

Whether you need a distraction-free environment, some chill relaxing sounds or a pomodoro timer to manage your time we got you covered.

Got questions? We have answers.

No. Typely is completely free and we plan on keeping it that way. We are considering some advanced features however that might be available under a premium plan.

The only limit we have applied thus far is on the number of characters you can submit and that is being set at a maximum of 50,000.

In theory yes but that will require a lot of work and professionals dedicated for this job. We are considering a way of letting the community participate somehow.

Typely does not do grammar checking because it's hard and almost impossible to get right. The aim for Typely is to be precise and reliable.

Enterprise Inquiry

Share your requirements with us and our team will respond to you promptly., essay checker, check your essay for grammar & language errors.

Students can write better essays quickly and confidently with Trinka AI—it finds and corrects language and grammar errors in real-time. 

Essay Checker

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Why Choose Trinka's Essay Checker

Trinka's essay checker identifies errors specific to academic writing that other AI grammar checkers may not. Everything from complex grammar errors to scientific style and tone is proofread by Trinka! Trinka's essay checker has learned to provide the most relevant suggestions by analysing published academic papers, articles, and studies across various disciplines.

With Trinka, you will always be able to produce quality academic writing. Trinka's free essay checker can help ensure that your essays are of the highest quality and are edited quickly.

  • Save time with auto edits
  • Professionalize your writing
  • High data security
  • Enjoy it for free

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Key Features of Trinka’s Essay Checker

With Trinka's advanced essay checker, you will be able to correct spelling and grammatical errors in your essay and make it more logical and concise.

Overall Language Enhancement

Polish your writing with Trinka language tips on enhanced vocabulary, tone, syntax, and much more.


Retain Original Formatting

Revise your essay with all changes made in tracks and the original formatting retained.

Plagiarism Check

Maintain originality in your work with iThenticate, the most advanced text similarity detection algorithm that compares your work with the largest paid publication database covering all scientific fields.

Table of Revisions

View a detailed table of revisions categorized by type of language error for a quick understanding of the edits made in your essay.

Style Guide Preferences

Tailor the grammar and word choice of your essay to comply with popular academic style guides (AMA 11th, APA 7th, ACS 2nd, AGU 2017, IEEE).

Works on all Subject Areas

Customize Trinka to provide you with the most relevant suggestions based on your subject area and the topic of your essay.

Check Beyond Grammar and Spelling

Trinka's essay checker goes beyond grammar and spelling to holistically enhance your writing.


Style Guide Preference


Technical Phrasing


Word Choice


Word Count Reduction


Academic Tone


Usage and Style


Unbiased Language


Advanced Grammar


US/UK Style


Vague Language


Sentence Structure


Advanced Spelling


James Smith - testimonial

First, I love Trinka. Congratulations on developing something that extensively aids editing, especially critical grammar conventions and word count reductions.

James Smith

Rosa Diaz Sandoval - testimonial

Writing texts with correct English grammar and style is not an easy task for people who speak other languages. Sometimes you cannot find little mistakes in your document without help and moreover for academic writing. I tried Trinka AI as a tool of automatic correction and was quite glad with the suggested corrections and the feedback. With the feedback you understand why the suggested change must be taken into account.

Rosa Diaz Sandoval

Fouad Khalifa - testimonial

Trinka has a robust proofreading feature that allows me to effortlessly upload entire manuscript documents and receive fully tracked changes in a single step. Moreover, its unique supporting tools such as citation checker and journal finder, significantly enhance the efficiency of my research endeavours.

Fouad Khalifa

Jesse Rumball-Smith - testimonial

I just wanted to say thank you for such a great and free service, all the other grammar checkers and writing assistants I have tried don’t have nearly the depth of features let alone all available on a free subscription. As a student with little income available I am extremely grateful that unlike all others companies you don’t limit features on the free plan. This is a fantastic product and given the income I would definitely upgrade to the premium. I've let all my fellow students know about Trinka as it is seriously a life saver.

Jesse Rumball-Smith

Dr. Farooq Rathore - testimonial

I have mainly used it to improve the language, grammar, and syntax of the scientific manuscripts that I write for national and international biomedical journals. I have found the interface to be user friendly and the procedure itself is efficient and hassle-free. The auto-edit is a great help and the supplementary page with the revision summary is an excellent idea.

Dr. Farooq Rathore

Dr. Nitin Wahi - testimonial

Trinka AI is a great tool to help beginners in research publication. Its grammar editing, online proofreading with file download, citation checker, plagiarism checker, paraphraser, and journal finder provide amazing features at your fingertips. Even the free Trinka Basic plan can be invaluable for researchers in their early stages or at PG levels, helping them improve project reports and papers to meet publication standards. Overall, I'm extremely impressed with Trinka AI, as it stands out among research writing tools. Give it a try and you will love it! Thanks Trinka AI team for this valuable tool.

Dr. Nitin Wahi

Georgieva Milena - testimonial

Trinka.ai is my most favorite choice for grammar and spelling edit. The application works correctly, is fast and tidily! Completely satisfied!

Georgieva Milena

Dinesh Gupta - testimonial

The grammar checking tool exceeds Grammarly! I re-checked some documents that I had checked earlier with Grammarly. I was pleasantly surprised to see such a product from India!

Dinesh Gupta

Aftab Hussain - testimonial

Trinka has awesome features. Advanced level of academic writing checker and suggestion are so original. I would highly recommend to others.

Aftab Hussain

Edith Davies - testimonial

I have tested Trinka and am impressed with its fine capabilities. It did better than the grammar checkers I use. Well done! I have told my colleagues in my research lab to use Trinka. Hope it is widely used in academia.

Edith Davies

Noor Al-rishi - testimonial

Trinka AI's suggested corrections and feedback astounded me. It is simple to use and extremely beneficial

Noor Al-rishi

Nwaji Jude - testimonial

It's been a wonderful experience using Trinka and I almost can't submit any manuscript without re-evaluating with it. In summary, Trinka has been a life-saver.

Stumpf Curtis - testimonial

I enjoy using Trinka as a final spot check for my edited documents. It really helps find the few remaining errors that slip through during primary editing. I really like this platform. The thumbs down button is very useful.

Stumpf Curtis

Dyke Gareth - testimonial

I think Trinka.ai is a very interesting and potentially useful idea, especially for editors/publishers/journals. I found it very useful when I checked my editing work on the platform.

Dyke Gareth

Bhargava Sharma - testimonial

I am happy with the overall performance. I have been using Grammarly for a long while, but when it comes to academic or technical writing, Trinka is definitely a much better option. Academic document settings and auto file edit are my favorite features.

Bhargava Sharma

Ralph Bailey - testimonial

Trinka has become my go-to tool for grammar corrections. The AI-powered corrections and language enhancements made writing a lot more easier. Now I am able to focus more on research than on writing an error-free document.

Ralph Bailey

Thomas Andres - testimonial

The grammar correction and suggestion based on the AMA style guide is really impressive! Trinka is indeed the best grammar correction tool for medical writing.

Thomas Andres

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Trinka puts data safety and privacy at the forefront. All your data is strongly encrypted and securely stored - no one else has access to your data. We offer unique plans that completely eliminate saving any data once you receive writing suggestions.


About Trinka

Trinka uses the latest, state-of-the-art Machine Learning (ML) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) technologies to identify grammar errors and suggest language enhancements. It is trained on millions of well-written papers and articles covering 1300+ subject areas including medicine, life sciences, biology, physical sciences, engineering, humanities, business, and arts to give you the most relevant suggestions.

Trinka is developed by a team of linguists, medical editors, data scientists, and engineers with a deep desire to create a future with barrier-free communication.


Frequently Asked Questions

Yes. Trinka essay checker can be used across all subject areas. It provides contextual suggestions based on the chosen subject area.

There are positives and negatives of using an AI editor. With an AI editor, you have speed, control and the best part—it’s completely free! AI editors support human editors who can organize your writing into a clear, logical, elegant paper. After letting the AI editor edit your paper, if you feel you need a human check, we do have in in-house expert copyeditors who provide assistance with reviewing your final documents.

The Proofread File service gives you the following benefits:

  • The edited file will display all changes in tracks. This means you can review the changes and accept or reject them using Microsoft Word or any other compatible word processor. This file will also include comments and explanations that can help you make your writing clear.
  • You will also receive a detailed report which shows the number of revisions Trinka has made in each language category and an overall writing quality score.

We've tested Trinka's AI essay checker with leading online grammar checkers on five academic domains for accuracy, style guide compliance, conciseness, and contextual spelling check. Trinka stood out remarkably. To learn more, you can refer to our published whitepaper .

Wipe out plagiarism & grammar errors

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Check for unintentional plagiarism

Check your paper for unintentional plagiarism against thousands of sources.

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Strengthen your writing

Give your paper an in-depth check. Receive feedback within 24 hours from writing experts on your paper's main idea, structure, conclusion, and more.

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Find and fix grammar errors

Don't lose points over small mistakes. Our smart proofreader checks for grammar and writing mistakes so that you don't have to.

What students are saying about us

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"Caught comma errors that I actually struggle with even after proofreading myself."

- Natasha J.

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"I find the suggestions to be extremely helpful especially as they can instantly take you to that section in your paper for you to fix any and all issues related to the grammar or spelling error(s)."

- Catherine R.

Write with confidence with...

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Personalized Writing Help When You Need it

Unintentional plagiarism, grammar mistakes, and uncited sources  can turn what you thought was a good paper into a poor one. When you’re writing a paper the last thing you want is for your message to get lost due to incorrect punctuation or confusing sentence structure. You know that the great ideas in your head would make for a standout paper, if only you could get them written clearly on the page. If this struggle sounds familiar, you’re not alone.

Great ideas may be an essential part of high-quality writing, but they’re not the only component. Excellent papers and essays clearly express strong ideas with good grammar, proper punctuation, spot-on spelling, and thorough, careful citations. While this may sound like a lot, your teachers and professors are grading you on your skills as both a writer and a researcher, which means your assignments will require an ethical and attentive approach. Luckily, there is no shortage of available tools to help you along your way.

You could use a plagiarism checker free, though, these tools often lack grammatical support. Given the high stakes and rigorous requirements, the aid of a plagiarism checker without the needed support of a grammar checker could mean the difference between an “A” paper and a “C” or even “D” paper.

Thankfully, the EasyBib Plus plagiarism tool provides all-in-one support to cover all your bases. Our premium essay checker is convenient, easy to use, and includes access to a grammar and spell checker, plus a plagiarism checker. With a single scan, you’ll receive personalized feedback to help identify potentially missing citations and help improve your sentence structure, punctuation, grammar, and more.

Not sure if that noun is spelled correctly, or if the preposition at the end of your sentence is grammatically correct? The EasyBib Plus plagiarism tool is your one-stop shop to help check plagiarism, get grammatical suggestions, correct spelling and punctuation errors, and help create polished papers you can be proud to turn in. And, we haven’t told you the best part yet: you can try our tool free and scan your work for grammar suggestions right now!

Access all the tools today!

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A Grammar Check for Peace of Mind

You know that grammar plays a significant role in your assignments. Not only does it factor into your overall grade, but without clear and precise language, your ideas can lose their impact or might even be misunderstood entirely. Still, with so many different parts of speech and rules to learn and apply, it’s not uncommon to get them mixed up and find yourself questioning your knowledge now and again:

Can you use an adverb to modify a noun? (No. You need an adjective for that.)

Well, can you use it to modify a pronoun ? (Still no.)

What do they modify, then? (Almost everything else. Fun, right?)

Ugh. (That was an interjection .)

Does this have to be so difficult? (Nope!)

Scanning your paper with the EasyBib Plus writing tool delivers more than the basic punctuation and spell check functions that come standard in word processing programs. You’ll receive immediate, targeted feedback that can help improve the sentence structure and style of your writing. Not only can this help ensure that you don’t lose points off your grade for grammatical errors such as mismatched verb tense, but it can also help to clarify your meaning and strengthen your arguments by eliminating confusing punctuation and run-on sentences that confuse readers.

Reviewing your work to correct errors and refine the flow of your writing is a critical part of the revision process for novices and novelists alike. Even the most conscientious of wordsmiths might make mistakes, such as using a conjunctive adverb in place of a coordinating conjunction or pairing a plural determiner with an uncountable word. They likely appreciate a subscription-based or free grammar check as much as a beginning writer. That’s why the EasyBib Plus writing tool is designed for all writers, from students who are still learning the fundamentals to published professionals who get paid by the word.

The EasyBib Plus writing tool provides quick, targeted feedback that you can use to help improve your writing immediately. Also, our free resource library is available 24/7, just like the rest of our tools, to help you brush up on the areas that challenge you the most (Conjunctive what? Uncountable who?) That means you can continue to sharpen your skills and improve your writing over time, which will help make finishing your next project easier.

Ready to give your paper a boost? Sign up for EasyBib Plus or scan a paper right now for a free spell check—it’s easy!Just upload or copy and paste your paper to the online grammar check tool and, in a matter of seconds, you’ll be able to receive up to 5 feedback cards so you can begin polishing your draft.

To learn more about proofreading tools, you can find more info here. Or, for more tips on grammar, punctuation, and style, check out this useful reference .

Why is Grammar So Important, Anyway?

Why is grammar important? As long as others know what you mean, does it really matter if you use proper grammar? These are age-old questions, but the answers remain unchanged. Grammar is important for many reasons:

Communication:  Communication is about more than merely listening and talking. We communicate in myriad ways: with our voices, our mannerisms, our facial expressions, our actions, and frequently, our written words. Written communication is just as important as all the other ways we broadcast our thoughts and feelings. Unlike our other communication methods, though, written communication leaves a record. While most of us relax our style when talking to or texting friends, the fact remains that more formal venues require a more formal tone. Proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation are a necessary element of professional and academic writing, so running your work through a spelling and grammar check before you submit it is an absolute must.

Clarity:  Expressing your thoughts, ideas, and opinions is an uphill battle when you communicate them with less-than-stellar punctuation, spelling, and grammar. A missing or misplaced comma, for example, can entirely change your meaning:

  • Call me Ishmael = My name is Ishmael.
  • Call me, Ishmael = I want Ishmael to call me.

Spelling errors can result in similarly muddled meaning:

  • Her shoes perfectly complemented her dress. = Her shoes and dress go well together.
  • Her shoes perfectly complimented her dress. = Her shoes can both speak and engage in flattery.

Grammar deficiencies such as a dangling modifier yield similarly confusing results:

  • I saw the girl’s purple backpack in the library. = The purple backpack belonging to the girl is in the library; I saw it.
  • I saw the purple girl’s backpack in the library. = You know the girl who mysteriously turned purple? I saw her backpack in the library. This week has not been easy on her.

Credibility: Establishing your credibility is critical whether you’re writing for school or business. Proving that you can reliably communicate using proper grammar is essential to establishing and maintaining the trust of your teachers, professors, readers, customers, and colleagues.

To learn even more about the importance of English grammar in writing, check here .

What Happens After I Upload My Paper?

Once you upload a paper, the EasyBib Plus grammar checker scans your text and highlights grammar issues within your document so you can see it in context. For users running a grammar check and spell check using the grammar check free tool, up to the first 5 issues are shown. For subscription subscribers, all of the areas that require your review will be highlighted once the scan is complete.

No matter which version of the tool you’re using, your feedback will include detailed explanations so you can understand why the text was flagged. Other highlighted areas will include examples of how the issues can be fixed. Some will include a detailed explanation as to why the issue was flagged. This personalized feedback allows you to make an educated decision about whether to edit your text or dismiss the suggestion, so you’re always in control of your final draft.

Subscription users also have the plagiarism checker at their disposal when scanning their papers for style and grammar suggestions. Just as with our other writing tools, when you use the tool to check plagiarism, changes are never made without your review, so you are always in the driver’s seat. You can review each highlighted area as well as the sources of matching text and will always be given a choice to either accept or ignore both citation and grammar suggestions.

Whether you are a student or a professional, the EasyBib Plus tools are powerful allies that can help you improve your paper, establish credibility as a writer, and maintain an ethical writing process.

Try our checker free for 3 days to see what you think*. Trust us; you’ll wonder how you got along so far without it!

*See Terms and Conditions

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Check for Unintentional Plagiarism

Persistent use of the best grammar checker and spell checker you can find will help to shape up the style and substance of your composition. However, to ensure the integrity of your work and root out unintentional instances of academic dishonesty, you’ll also need to incorporate a subscription-based or free plagiarism checker for students.

The ability to scan your paper and check plagiarism and grammar before submitting your work is an invaluable tool for students. It’s so valuable, in fact, that students are not the only ones who consistently use this type of software.

Many teachers and professors use a service to ensure that student papers are original and include properly formatted and sourced citations for all reference materials. For some, this may be a consistent element of their grading process, while others may utilize one only when they feel there is a reason to do so.

What Exactly Does a Plagiarism Checker Do?

If you’ve used an online plagiarism checker before, you may be familiar with the process that these tools employ. For those who have never used one, it can be helpful to understand how these tools work and what you should expect as a result of using one.

The most basic free tools will scan your paper and provide you with a percentage that indicates how much of your work is original. This feature can be useful to a point, as some instructors and institutions set a percentage for the amount of similar text that is considered acceptable. This policy does not mean that they are lenient about academic dishonesty but, instead, that they recognize that similar or even matching word choice is not always an indicator of copying.

However, some schools do not tolerate any form of incremental plagiarism, period. In these institutions, “check paper for plagiarism” is likely a standard action when grading all papers.

With a free plagiarism checker, the percentage of word-for-word plagiarism in your text may be the only feedback you receive. Moreover, some of these providers may wade in unethical waters, and offer essay writing services in conjunction with their checking services. This is why many students and teachers prefer subscription-based checkers that focus on integrity, such as the EasyBib writing tools.

With our premium tools, you get more than just supporting proof that your paper is original and in your own words. Your writing is scanned for potentially matching text and areas that needs your attention is highlighted. We’ll provide you with the source of the matching text so you can review it and decide how to proceed. If you agree that a citation is needed, our citation tools and resources will provide you with the information you need to help format and insert the new sources in your text as well as your works cited page.

How Does the EasyBib Plus Online Plagiarism Checker Work?

The EasyBib Plus writing tool provides an all-in-one spell check, grammar review, and plagiarism checker that not only helps you with the paper you’re writing now but enables you to gain new knowledge and improve your writing for the future, too.

Our essay checker searches online for phrases, sentences, or passages that are similar to those in your paper. If it returns matching text, this may indicate that you have passages that are missing citations.

Just as with many checkers, our tool will tell you how many instances of matching text it finds in your paper. Our plagiarism tool is designed to do more than most free tools, however.

When a portion of your paper is flagged for review, we provide you with the source that it matches. As with our online spell check tool, you have the power to review each area and choose how to proceed. If you decide to cite the flagged text, you can review the suggested source and access our citation tools to help create a proper citation and start building a bibliography for your paper. Or, you may determine that no citation is needed, in which case it’s simple to dismiss the suggestion and continue to the next section.

If you’re unsure about how to proceed, our library of resources can help you learn more and make an educated decision. In this way, you gain more than just the ability to correct your work; over time, you can learn how to avoid plagiarism altogether.

Reasons Your Teacher May Run Your Paper Through a Plagiarism Detector

As stated previously, your teachers and professors grade papers with a fixed process that includes “check paper for plagiarism” as a standard, across-the-board action. Others may check for plagiarism only when they feel there is cause to do so. There are a few red flags that may stand out to them while reviewing a paper that would lead to their running a plagiarism check, including:

Style/Voice:  Most teachers are familiar with the style and voice that you use in your writing. While most will hope that the feedback they provide when grading your work will help you to improve problem areas over time, a paper or essay that has a dramatically different style or voice than the work you’ve previously submitted can be a red flag.

Inconsistency:  Changes in the font, font size, formality, formatting, and more may indicate that portions of a paper have been copied and pasted. If these inconsistent passages are not presented as quotations or don’t include citations, this may further indicate to your teacher that there’s plagiarism in the paper.

Old References:  Part of a well-researched paper is verifying the legitimacy and relevance of your sources. While some older references may be acceptable depending on the topic, if all of your sources are outdated, it may lead your teacher to believe that you’ve recycled your own work or someone else’s.

Looking for a checker to try? With EasyBib Plus you get unlimited checks to give you peace of mind when turning in your papers!

What is Plagiarism?

If you’re looking for a free online plagiarism checker , you’re already aware that it’s not something you want to be found in your papers. However, you may still be wondering: what does plagiarism mean? It’s a reasonable question and one that merits exploring. After all, some of the actions and circumstances that fall within the plagiarism definition come as a surprise to those who only learn that they’ve committed them after it’s too late.

So what is plagiarism? To define plagiarism in the most basic sense, you might say that it is taking someone else’s ideas and words and passing them off as your own.

If your goal is avoiding plagiarism entirely, you’ll need to go beyond the basics to thoroughly define plagiarism, recognize it, and keep clear of it. Some examples of plagiarism that students find surprising include forgotten citations, poor paraphrasing, and re-submitting your own work in whole or in part for more than one assignment. This useful article provides more help in recognizing and understanding the different forms that academic dishonesty can take.

Of course, using your own words and ideas does not count as plagiarism, nor does using common knowledge . Basically, common knowledge is information that is well known by the average person. Examples of common knowledge:

  • there are 12 months in a year
  • the freezing point of Celsius is zero degrees
  • Socrates was a Greek philosopher

So should you only include your original thoughts and common knowledge in your papers? Of course not! Research-based assignments are meant to demonstrate your skills as a researcher, after all, as well as your ability to build upon the work of others to formulate new ideas. To avoid accidentally committing an act that falls within the plagiarism definition when you’re using another person’s words or ideas, though, you need to give them proper credit. This means you’ll need to clearly identify direct quotations or properly paraphrase them when including them in your paper.

Regardless of your approach, you’ll also need to cite your sources according to the style your professor specifies. Generally, you will use MLA format for the arts and humanities and APA format for the sciences, but it’s always best to check with your instructor when you’re unsure.

If you know what style to use but still aren’t sure how to create your citations, don’t fret! Our library of resources includes free guides to help you learn about various styles so you can properly structure and place them. And our premium tools not only help you check grammar, spelling, and originality in your papers, but subscribers also enjoy access to our citation creation tools!

What are the Different Types of Plagiarism?

In addition to the question “what is plagiarism,” you may also be wondering, “why do students plagiarize?” While some students do intentionally plagiarize because they believe they can pass off someone else’s work as their own to avoid spending time on their assignments, many others do so accidentally. They may not understand how broad the plagiarism definition is or they haven’t learned how to research and cite their sources properly. That is why it is vital to recognize plagiarism in all of its forms if you wish to ensure the integrity of your work.

Examples of plagiarism & How to prevent it

Direct plagiarism:

Intentionally copying another person’s work without including a citation that gives credit to the source. When most students are asked to identify potential plagiarism examples and behaviors, this direct and deliberate act is what they think of first.

  • Prevention: If you use an idea or quote from another source, cite it in the text. Make it clear that it was not your own words. 

Incremental plagiarism:

Copying parts of another person’s work, such as phrases, sentences, or paragraphs without crediting the source. When deciding which tools to use to check a paper for plagiarism , instructors often seek out those that will identify incremental forms as well as instances of direct copying and similar phrasing.

  • Prevention : Decide to either directly quote the phrases or sentences you want to use, or write a good paraphrase. In both cases, be sure to add a citation. Using a plagiarism checker could also help you identify problematic passages.


Academic self-plagiarism occurs when a student submits the same paper or parts of a paper for more than one assignment. When your instructors are grading your papers, they’re assessing your research and writing skills in the present. When you submit work that you completed in the past, they are both unable to evaluate your current skills and unaware that you haven’t completed the assignment.

  • Prevention: Write a new paper for each assignment you’re assigned. If you feel strongly that your past work could enhance your new paper, speak to your instructor and ask for permission first.

Misleading citations:

Including a citation for a quote or idea that misrepresents the source material. This can occur if a student does not understand the reference they are citing; if a student includes a citation for a disreputable source; or the source material simply does not align with the idea or argument that the student has attributed to it.

  • Prevention: Carefully review your assignment to understand it. As you research, take the time to evaluate each source notes . Remember, it’s better to have quality citations over an abundance of citations.

Invented sources:

If a reference in a student’s bibliography is found not to exist, it is considered an invented source. This may occur if a student couldn’t find a reputable source to back their argument, or if they needed to include additional references to meet the requirements of the assignment and chose to take an unethical shortcut rather than completing the required amount of research. No matter the reason, this behavior ultimately hurts them in the long run. Not only will they fail to gain the experience they need to conduct research in the future properly, but they’ll also experience significant consequences if they’re caught.

  • Prevention: Set aside time to do proper research so you can find enough sources. Start creating a list of sources as you’re researching and take good notes. This will help you keep track of your sources so none are forgotten. If you do end up forgetting where a quote came from, a paper checker could help you pinpoint the original source. 


Patchwriting is often confused with paraphrasing, but there’s a significant difference. When you paraphrase, you demonstrate that you understand the topic well enough to restate it in your own words. When you patchwrite or spin, it is more akin to a word-swapping game; there’s no need to understand the subject, merely to have access to a thesaurus so you can substitute enough synonyms to mask the source material. This can be intentional, but it may also be a result of having a poor understanding of how to paraphrase.

  • Prevention: Using your own words, write down the key points of the phrase or idea, and put them together in a sentence. Be sure to include a citation as well. 

A good way to test if you’re patchwriting or paraphrasing is to remove your sources from view. If you can write about what you’ve read without looking at the source material, you likely understand it well enough to paraphrase it. If you have to review the source material with each new sentence or consult a thesaurus while writing about it (except when you’re adding direct quotations), you may be spinning your sources instead of paraphrasing them.

Academic Integrity Policies and Statements

If you’re still uncertain about what counts as plagiarism, look for your school’s/ organization’s policies on academic integrity and plagiarism. The policies of academic institutions usually cover what is considered plagiarism, the consequences of committing it, and how to avoid it. One great example is Purdue University’s Academic Integrity statement .

What are the Consequences of Plagiarism?

No matter the setting, plagiarism is not taken lightly, and the consequences can be significant. For a good reason, too! Whether in an academic or professional setting, the plagiarism consequences reflect the seriousness of the act, which is ultimately a form of theft that hurts everyone involved.

Just as with the theft of a tangible object, there can be legal punishments for plagiarism. It is, after all, a form of copyright infringement in many instances. A quick search for plagiarism articles will reveal that professional instances of intellectual theft have resulted in civil lawsuits and can even be criminally prosecuted under rare circumstances. In addition to the possible legal consequences, professionals may lose their jobs or have to start over in a new field after their acts of fraud are uncovered.

As a student, you’re likely to wonder what happens if you plagiarize in college or high school. While there will almost always be consequences for this behavior, there is no one-size-fits-all plagiarism sentence. Depending on the circumstances, academic dishonesty could result in outcomes such as:

  • You might get a zero for the assignment in which the infringement occurred.
  • You may receive a failing grade for the class. If it is a required course, this could leave you without enough credits to move on to the next level until you can repeat it and, in some instances, postpone graduation.
  • You may be expelled from your school or university.

The academic dishonesty may be noted on your transcript, which can lead to you not getting into your preferred college, graduate school, or Ph.D. program in the future.

Nobody wants to be known as a fraud or to have a reputation for dishonesty follow them through their career. And, given the consequences that can extend beyond just their reputation, it’s no wonder that professional and academic writers who wish to avoid them take the time to understand the complete definition of plagiarism and run their work through a plagiarism checker before sending it out into the world.

Even the vigilant can fall prey to inferior tools, unfortunately. Before selecting a plagiarism checker, you should understand how they work and what they can (and cannot) detect.

How We Check for Plagiarism

When exploring how to check for plagiarism, most students and professionals conclude that including a checking tool in their revision process is not only helpful but necessary. When you consider the Herculean task of checking each line of your paper against the text of each of your resources, the benefits of a checker are clear. Moreover, this manual approach would only alert you to matching text in the sources you’re aware of, after all, and leaves the sources you haven’t reviewed untouched.

But, hang on. Why would sources you haven’t reviewed factor into your review? The answer to this lies in the plagiarism definition you learned above. What is plagiarism? It’s presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own, intentionally or otherwise. It is not uncommon to uncover an idea while you’re researching a topic and later misremember it as your own. This might even occur years after you originally came across it.

You might wonder: how can plagiarism be avoided if you have to account for the source of every thought you include in your work? A few exceptions minimize the scope of this. Common knowledge about your topic does not need to be supported by a citation, nor does knowledge that you gained through your personal experience. Using a subscription-based or free plagiarism checker will help you locate any passages that may fall into these categories so you can review them and decide for yourself whether a citation is needed.

EasyBib Plus writing tools provide easy, convenient, and reliable support to help you find potentially missed citations and can help you improve your paper into a high-quality paper with integrity. Simply upload your paper, select the checker, then sit back and relax as the site scans your document. In mere moments, we’ll search the web for passages of similar text and highlight duplicate content for your review.

Regardless of the tools you use to help you revise and polish your work, it’s ultimately your responsibility to ensure that you’re writing and submitting ethical work. That’s why our tools go beyond the basics and require your participation. The tool never automatically makes changes to your paper, but only flags sections that may need your attention and provides you with the matching source so you can to make an educated decision.

If you find that a citation is needed, our citation tools can help you create properly formatted citations and develop a complete bibliography. And, if you review the passage and determine that the match is coincidental, you can dismiss the alert and move on to the next.

Seamless Citation Creation

Professional writers and students alike can find creating citations incredibly confusing. Nevertheless, they are an integral part of a well-written and researched paper and a requirement in almost all academic settings. But, have you ever wondered why they are so important? Citations really do have a purpose—other than driving us crazy— that make it necessary always to cite our sources.

We cite our sources for a few important reasons:

We need to give credit where credit is due. When you use a quote from someone else’s work, you need to give credit for using their words and ideas. Research is often based on the works and ideas of others. However, to include the words and ideas of another without giving them proper credit is to plagiarize, even if the act was unintentional.

In addition, showing that you’ve done proper research by including in text & parenthetical citations and a comprehensive list of sources to back up your arguments gives your work a layer of credibility that can help you earn the trust of your reader or teacher.

Readers can find the sources you used.  When you’re writing high school or undergraduate papers, your only readers may be your instructors and peers. However, including citations at every level of writing helps to ensure that anyone who reads your work can access your sources to check their accuracy, learn more about your topic, and further their own research.

Sources can take your research and learning to the next level, too. When you are conducting research on a topic, checking the works cited or annotated bibliographies prepared by your sources can lead you down new avenues in your research to further develop your ideas and help you write your papers.

Correctly utilizing citations gives strength to your thoughts and opinions. Understanding the value of citations does not, unfortunately, make them any easier to create. We know how confusing it can be, but don’t throw in the towel on learning how to cite websites in MLA , create your APA citation website references, or format your works cited —this is where we come in!

While a free online plagiarism detector may tell you how much of your work is unoriginal and may even identify the passages that meet their plagiarize definition, a premium EasyBib Plus plagiarism checker account also gives you access to our powerful citation resources and generator so you can:

Scan your papers with the plagiarism tool to check for plagiarism-free work before you submit.

Review flagged passages to determine if they meet the plagiarism definition and create unlimited citations in APA format and MLA format for anything fitting the plagiarism meaning. Need more styles ? Check out our regular citation generator for thousands of choices and free resources to help you learn how to create an APA parenthetical citation , APA book citation , APA works cited , and so much more!

Build a full bibliography for your paper right along with your parenthetical or in-text citations, which can save you hours of work along the way compared to manually creating and formatting them.

How Else Do We Help You Improve Your Paper?

The EasyBib Plus plagiarism detector helps you check your content or paper for text that may be missing a citation—which may fall within the definition of plagiarism—to help ensure you don’t accidentally plagiarize. It also includes grammar check and spelling check tools to help identify errors and suggest grammatical tweaks that could help to elevate the level of your writing.

Running a plagiarism check couldn’t be easier! Just upload your paper to the online proofreader, and in a few moments we’ll have your writing and citing suggestions. And, there’s no need to worry about your paper after it’s been scanned.

Run a Grammar and Spell Check for Free!

There’s no denying that your schoolwork can be challenging at times, and your assignments can lead to some late nights even when you’ve started them early. The last thing you want is to submit assignments that don’t reflect your best effort, but it can occasionally be quite the juggling act to get everything done on time.

Why not let our plagiarism checker free up space on your calendar by helping you revise your papers quickly and efficiently? The EasyBib Plus paper checker is your one-stop shop to check for plagiarism, create citations, spot spelling mistakes, and receive feedback on your grammar and style.

When you proofread and do a manual spelling check on work that you’ve written, you’re more likely to overlook mistakes. This is even more likely if you’re pressed for time or trying to complete several different assignments at once. There are tricks to help minimize this, such as reading your work aloud to identify poor grammar or reading each sentence backward to find spelling errors. When time is of the essence, though, these solutions aren’t the most convenient or useful options. That’s why many students seek the assistance of online tools that will run a grammar and plagiarism check on their work.

Are you asking yourself, “ How do I check my grammar online ?” We’ve got the perfect checker for you! Our advanced tools help you find and correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation mistakes. Our targeted feedback and free writing and citing resources help you learn as you go to improve your writing over time.

The best part? You can use our grammar and writing tools any time of the day, any day of the year for! Looking to try it? Just upload or copy and paste your text into our online proofreader for a free grammar check with up to 5 suggestions, or sign up for EasyBib Plus today! EasyBib Plus gives you use of the plagiarism checker and unlimited access to suggestions that can help improve your spelling, sentence structure, punctuation, writing style, and grammar.

Published February 3, 2019. Updated April 9, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Melissa DeVrieze Meyer . Michele is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib. You can find her here on Twitter. Melissa is a professional writer and editor based in New Jersey. She writes for academic brands and independent publishers about writing, grammar, and literature, and creates study and curriculum materials for ESL learners. You can find her on Twitter .

Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.

Fake academic papers are on the rise: why they’re a danger and how to stop them

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Professor of Methodology and Integrity, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

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Lex Bouter is the founding chair of the World Conferences on Research Integrity Foundation and co-chair of the 8th WCRI in Athens, 2-5 June 2024.

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An illustration of a magnifying glass poised over two wooden discs. Fake is written on one; real on the other

In the 1800s, British colonists in India set about trying to reduce the cobra population, which was making life and trade very difficult in Delhi. They began to pay a bounty for dead cobras. The strategy very quickly resulted in the widespread breeding of cobras for cash .

This danger of unintended consequences is sometimes referred to as the “ cobra effect ”. It can also be well summed up by Goodhardt’s Law , named after British economist Charles Goodhart. He stated that, when a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure.

The cobra effect has taken root in the world of research. The “publish or perish” culture, which values publications and citations above all, has resulted in its own myriad of “cobra breeding programmes”. That includes the widespread practice of questionable research practices, like playing up the impact of research findings to make work more attractive to publishers.

It’s also led to the rise of paper mills, criminal organisations that sell academic authorship. A report on the subject describes paper mills as (the)

process by which manufactured manuscripts are submitted to a journal for a fee on behalf of researchers with the purpose of providing an easy publication for them, or to offer authorship for sale.

These fake papers have serious consequences for research and its impact on society. Not all fake papers are retracted. And even those that are often still make their way into systematic literature reviews which are, in turn, used to draw up policy guidelines, clinical guidelines, and funding agendas.

How paper mills work

Paper mills rely on the desperation of researchers — often young, often overworked, often on the peripheries of academia struggling to overcome the high obstacles to entry — to fuel their business model.

They are frighteningly successful. The website of one such company based in Latvia advertises the publication of more than 12,650 articles since its launch in 2012. In an analysis of just two journals jointly conducted by the Committee on Publications Ethics and the International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers, more than half of the 3440 article submissions over a two-year period were found to be fake.

It is estimated that all journals, irrespective of discipline, experience a steeply rising number of fake paper submissions. Currently the rate is about 2%. That may sound small. But, given the large and growing amount of scholarly publications it means that a lot of fake papers are published. Each of these can seriously damage patients, society or nature when applied in practice.

The fight against fake papers

Many individuals and organisations are fighting back against paper mills.

The scientific community is lucky enough to have several “fake paper detectives” who volunteer their time to root out fake papers from the literature. Elizabeth Bik , for instance, is a Dutch microbiologist turned science integrity consultant. She dedicates much of her time to searching the biomedical literature for manipulated photographic images or plagiarised text. There are others doing this work , too.

Organisations such as PubPeer and Retraction Watch also play vital roles in flagging fake papers and pressuring publishers to retract them.

These and other initiatives, like the STM Integrity Hub and United2Act , in which publishers collaborate with other stakeholders, are trying to make a difference.

But this is a deeply ingrained problem. The use of generative artificial intelligence like ChatGPT will help the detectives – but will also likely result in more fake papers which are now more easy to produce and more difficult or even impossible to detect.

Stop paying for dead cobras

They key to changing this culture is a switch in researcher assessment.

Researchers must be acknowledged and rewarded for responsible research practices: a focus on transparency and accountability, high quality teaching, good supervision, and excellent peer review. This will extend the scope of activities that yield “career points” and shift the emphasis of assessment from quantity to quality.

Fortunately, several initiatives and strategies already exist to focus on a balanced set of performance indicators that matter. The San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment , established in 2012, calls on the research community to recognise and reward various research outputs, beyond just publication. The Hong Kong Principles , formulated and endorsed at the 6th World Conference in Research Integrity in 2019, encourage research evaluations that incentivise responsible research practices while minimise perverse incentives that drive practices like purchasing authorship or falsifying data.

These issues, as well as others related to protecting the integrity of research and building trust in it, will also be discussed during the 8th World Conference on Research Integrity in Athens, Greece in June this year.

Practices under the umbrella of “ Open Science ” will be pivotal to making the research process more transparent and researchers more accountable. Open Science is the umbrella term for a movement consisting of initiatives to make scholarly research more transparent and equitable, ranging from open access publication to citizen science.

Open Methods, for example, involves the pre-registration of a study design’s essential features before its start. A registered report containing the introduction and methods section is submitted to a journal before data collection starts. It is subsequently accepted or rejected based on the relevance of the research, as well as the methodology’s strength.

The added benefit of a registered report is that reviewer feedback on the methodology can still change the study methods, as the data collection hasn’t started. Research can then begin without pressure to achieve positive results, removing the incentive to tweak or falsify data.

Peer review

Peer reviewers are an important line of defence against the publication of fatally flawed or fake papers. In this system, quality assurance of a paper is done on a completely voluntary and often anonymous basis by an expert in the relevant field or subject.

However, the person doing the review work receives no credit or reward. It’s crucial that this sort of “invisible” work in academia be recognised, celebrated and included among the criteria for promotion. This can contribute substantially to detecting questionable research practices (or worse) before publication.

It will incentivise good peer review, so fewer suspect articles pass through the process, and it will also open more paths to success in academia – thus breaking up the toxic publish-or-perish culture.

This article is based on a presentation given by the lead author at Stellenbosch University, South Africa on 12 February 2024. Natalie Simon, a communications consultant specialising in research who is part of the communications team for the 8th World Conference on Research Integrity and is also currently completing an MPhil in Science and Technology Studies at Stellenbosch University, co-authored this article.

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  • 04 March 2024
  • Clarification 05 March 2024

Millions of research papers at risk of disappearing from the Internet

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A study identified more than two million articles that did not appear in a major digital archive, despite having an active DOI. Credit: Anna Berkut/Alamy

More than one-quarter of scholarly articles are not being properly archived and preserved, a study of more than seven million digital publications suggests. The findings, published in the Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication on 24 January 1 , indicate that systems to preserve papers online have failed to keep pace with the growth of research output.

“Our entire epistemology of science and research relies on the chain of footnotes,” explains author Martin Eve, a researcher in literature, technology and publishing at Birkbeck, University of London. “If you can’t verify what someone else has said at some other point, you’re just trusting to blind faith for artefacts that you can no longer read yourself.”

Eve, who is also involved in research and development at digital-infrastructure organization Crossref, checked whether 7,438,037 works labelled with digital object identifiers (DOIs) are held in archives. DOIs — which consist of a string of numbers, letters and symbols — are unique fingerprints used to identify and link to specific publications, such as scholarly articles and official reports. Crossref is the largest DOI registration agency, allocating the identifiers to about 20,000 members, including publishers, museums and other institutions.

The sample of DOIs included in the study was made up of a random selection of up to 1,000 registered to each member organization. Twenty-eight per cent of these works — more than two million articles — did not appear in a major digital archive, despite having an active DOI. Only 58% of the DOIs referenced works that had been stored in at least one archive. The other 14% were excluded from the study because they were published too recently, were not journal articles or did not have an identifiable source.

Preservation challenge

Eve notes that the study has limitations: namely that it tracked only articles with DOIs, and that it did not search every digital repository for articles (he did not check whether items with a DOI were stored in institutional repositories, for example).

Nevertheless, preservation specialists have welcomed the analysis. “It’s been hard to know the real extent of the digital preservation challenge faced by e-journals,” says William Kilbride, managing director of the Digital Preservation Coalition, headquartered in York, UK. The coalition publishes a handbook detailing good preservation practice.

“Many people have the blind assumption that if you have a DOI, it’s there forever,” says Mikael Laakso, who studies scholarly publishing at the Hanken School of Economics in Helsinki. “But that doesn’t mean that the link will always work.” In 2021, Laakso and his colleagues reported 2 that more than 170 open-access journals had disappeared from the Internet between 2000 and 2019.

Kate Wittenberg, managing director of the digital archiving service Portico in New York City, warns that small publishers are at higher risk of failing to preserve articles than are large ones. “It costs money to preserve content,” she says, adding that archiving involves infrastructure, technology and expertise that many smaller organizations do not have access to.

Eve’s study suggests some measures that could improve digital preservation, including stronger requirements at DOI registration agencies and better education and awareness of the issue among publishers and researchers.

“Everybody thinks of the immediate gains they might get from having a paper out somewhere, but we really should be thinking about the long-term sustainability of the research ecosystem,” Eve says. “After you’ve been dead for 100 years, are people going to be able to get access to the things you’ve worked on?”

Nature 627 , 256 (2024)

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-024-00616-5

Updates & Corrections

Clarification 05 March 2024 : The headline of this story has been edited to reflect the fact that some of these papers have not entirely disappeared from the Internet. Rather, many papers are still accessible but have not been properly archived.

Eve, M. P. J. Libr. Sch. Commun. 12 , eP16288 (2024).

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Laakso, M., Matthias, L. & Jahn, N. J. Assoc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 72 , 1099–1112 (2021).

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Recruitment of Global Talent at the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOZ, CAS)

The Institute of Zoology (IOZ), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), is seeking global talents around the world.

Beijing, China

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Postdoctoral Fellow-Proteomics/Mass Spectrometry

Location: Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA Department: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Tulane University School of Med...

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Open Faculty Position in Mathematical and Information Security

We are now seeking outstanding candidates in all areas of mathematics and information security.

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CUET UG 2024 Allows Addition Of Two New Test Papers During Correction Period

D uring the correction period, candidates for the CUET UG 2024 will be able to add the two additional test papers, according to the National Testing Agency (NTA). Fashion studies and tourism have recently been introduced as the newest subjects.

The registration period for the Common University Entrance Test - Undergraduate (CUET UG 2024) is now open and will end on March 26.

An official notification notifying the inclusion of the two subjects was released today. The CUET UG 2024 exam will cover 63 subjects in total, including 33 languages, 29 domain-specific, and one general test administered by the NTA.

According to NTA's official notification, the additional subjects were added in response to directives from UGC and CBSE to support skill subjects in accordance with NEP guidelines.

During the application correction period, candidates who have already submitted their online CUET UG 2024 registration form may add these subjects. However, there will be an extra cost (if applicable) for the candidate who chooses more subjects.

“The candidates may note that those who have already submitted their online application form for CUET (UG) – 2024 may also add these subjects during the correction period. However, the candidate for selecting more subjects will pay an additional fee (if applicable),” the NTA stated in a circular.

Registration for CUET UG 2024 opened on February 27 and will run through March 26 at 11:50 p.m. Following this, students will have two days, on March 28 and 29, to edit their application forms. During this time, candidates might update their subjects.

CUET UG 2024 Allows Addition Of Two New Test Papers During Correction Period

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A Theology of the Spirits

Article sidebar.

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Main Article Content

Anthony Reddie has said that while Black Theology has always spent a great deal of time and effort on Jesus, there has been “comparatively little on the Holy Spirit.” Recognizing this reality, one hope of this paper is to invigorate and contribute to a conversation on the Spirit in Black Theology. After a brief examination of the intriguing work of Jawanza Eric Clark, who challenges taken-for-granted views of original sin and Christocentrism, the paper will explore understandings of spirit(s) within select religions of Africa and the African diaspora. The study will build from these pieces with a consideration of possibilities for constructive pneumatologies within contemporary Black Theology. The paper’s interest in the Holy Spirit is concerned primarily with the relationship between divine power and presence and human potential and responsibility, and especially in creative formulations of this dynamic that call for human action toward social justice, wholeness, and positive transformation.

Kurt Buhring

Kurt Buhring is Associate Professor of Religious Studies & Theology at Saint Mary’s College (IN). He is the author of Spirit(s) in Black Religion: Fire on the Inside (Palgrave Macm illan, 2022) and Conceptions of God, Freedom, and Ethics in African American and Jewish Theology (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008). Both of these texts are a part of Palgrave Macmillan’s “Black Religion/Womanist Thought/Social Justice” series.

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2 new papers added to CUET UG 2024 subject list: Check full list

Cuet ug 2024 has added two new papers to its subject list -- fashion studies and tourism subjects, aligning with nep recommendations. candidates can add these subjects during the application correction period..

Listen to Story

2 new papers added to CUET UG 2024 subject list: Check full list

  • NTA adds fashion studies and tourism to CUET UG 2024 subjects
  • Candidates can modify subject choices during application correction
  • CUET UG 2024 registration is ongoing; exams scheduled for May 15-31

The National Testing Agency (NTA) has made a significant addition to the Common University Entrance Test Undergraduate (CUET UG) 2024 by including two new subjects: fashion studies and tourism.

This decision comes in response to directives from the UGC and CBSE to promote skill-oriented subjects in accordance with NEP recommendations.


The complete subject list for CUET UG 2024 now includes a wide range of options spanning languages, sciences, humanities, and vocational studies.

From traditional subjects like English and Mathematics to specialised areas such as Mass Media/Mass Communication and Fine Arts, CUET UG offers a comprehensive selection to cater to diverse interests and career aspirations.

  • Computer Science/Informatics Practices
  • Accountancy/Book Keeping
  • Agriculture
  • Anthropology
  • Biology/Biological Studies/Biotechnology/Biochemistry
  • Business Studies
  • Environmental Studies
  • Economics/Business Economics
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  • Entrepreneurship
  • Fine Arts/Visual Arts(Sculpture/Painting)/ Commercial Art
  • Geography/ Geology
  • Home Science
  • Knowledge Tradition-Practices India
  • Legal Studies
  • Mass Media/Mass Communication
  • Mathematics / Applied Mathematics
  • Performing Arts
  • Physical Education/National Cadet Corps(NCC)/ Yoga
  • Political Science
  • Teaching Aptitude
  • Fashion studies


Candidates who have already registered for CUET UG 2024 can add these new subjects during the application correction period.


Students are advised to stay updated with the latest information on participating universities and offered courses by visiting the NTA websites regularly.

The city slips containing exam dates and venues will be released from April 30 onwards, followed by the issuance of admit cards in the second week of May 2024.


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A Grainy Photo and a Dilemma: How U.K. Papers Are Covering Princess Catherine

In a country where the health struggles of even public figures are generally viewed as out of bounds, journalists are trying to balance the right to privacy with a thirst for royal stories.

  • Share full article

Catherine, Princess of Wales, smiles while facing a small group of people.

By Mark Landler

Reporting from London

After a week of often hysterical speculation about her well-being, there were suddenly two plausible pieces of evidence that Catherine, Princess of Wales, was on the mend : a photo of her in a car driven by her mother and a confirmation by the British Army that she would attend a military ceremony in June.

But as with almost everything surrounding the health of Prince William’s 42-year-old wife in recent weeks, any sense of certainty quickly melted away.

A palace official said on Tuesday that the army had jumped the gun in announcing Catherine’s participation in Trooping the Color, an annual ritual that celebrates the birthday of the sovereign. And while British newspapers reported the existence of paparazzi shots, purportedly of Catherine, that were posted on social media on Monday, none of them published the images.

At the end of another hothouse news cycle, consumers of royal news were back where they started: in the dark about the princess, who had abdominal surgery in January and has not been seen during her lengthy convalescence.

The only certainty in the saga of Catherine is the appearance of her freewheeling, unfiltered uncle, Gary Goldsmith , on a British reality-TV show, “Celebrity Big Brother,” which aired on Monday evening. At any other time, Mr. Goldsmith’s appearance might have been an embarrassment for Catherine, who has tried to cultivate a dignified, disciplined image as a senior member of the royal family.

In the vacuum of news about her, however, experts say Mr. Goldsmith’s reality-TV antics may provide a welcome distraction for Britain’s tabloid papers. Their editors have struggled to balance their zeal for covering the royals — an almost boundless enthusiasm, in the case of a future queen once known as Kate Middleton — with a recognition that even most public figures in Britain are generally entitled to privacy in matters of health.

“The media is, unusually, lagging behind,” said Sarah Sands, a former senior editor at the BBC and former editor of The Sunday Telegraph. “They are left scratching their heads. Did they love her too much and pile too much pressure on her? Is the new role of the media to provide reassurance?

“Coming to the aid of the tabloids is the friendly pantomime figure of Kate’s wicked uncle, Gary Goldsmith,” Ms. Sands continued. Mr. Goldsmith, she said, “is likely to be the only inside commentary we are going to get for the next few weeks.”

If that’s true, it could spare the papers and broadcasters from having to make decisions like the one they faced on Monday, when the American celebrity gossip site TMZ posted what it claimed were the first images of Catherine since before she was hospitalized. The long-lens photos, which are grainy and show a woman in sunglasses who resembles Catherine, were taken near Windsor Castle, according to the site.

The Daily Mail said the pictures were not published in Britain because Kensington Palace, where William and Catherine have their offices, “appealed for her to be able to recuperate in private.” But The Mail went on to speculate that they were taken on Monday morning shortly after Catherine dropped off her children at school, helped by her mother, Carole Middleton.

Chris Ship, the royal editor of ITV News, referred to the images on social media but said, “We are not running them out of respect for her privacy whilst she recovers from her operation on the time scale we were given.”

Kensington Palace has said Catherine will not go back to her royal duties until after Easter. Last week, caught up in a swirl of conjecture and conspiracy theories after William abruptly pulled out of a function, it reiterated that statement and said it would provide only “significant updates.” The princess, an official said, was still doing well.

On Tuesday, the palace refused to comment on the photos, saying it did not want to give TMZ publicity. British newspapers have treated paparazzi photos gingerly since the death of Princess Diana, William’s mother, in a car crash in Paris in 1997, after a high-speed pursuit by photographers.

“The memory for the British press is still sharp,” said Ms. Sands, who was deputy editor of The Daily Telegraph at the time of Diana’s death. “It was full of dry-mouth remorse. Rules on privacy and duty of care changed profoundly.”

British courts have ruled that the right to privacy extends to members of the royal family, and the Editors’ Code of Practice , under which much of the British press operates, protects all individuals against unjustified intrusion into matters of physical and mental health.

Some critics were less generous about the media’s motives, particularly given that the images are easily accessible to anyone with a few swipes on an iPhone.

“What’s fascinating is how the nonsense on social media about Kate gives the papers a chance to write about something that there’s nothing to write about, while being judgmental about what’s out there on the web,” said Peter Hunt, a former royal correspondent for the BBC.

This is the second time in four months that the British media has declined to publish details about the royal family even after they had circulated on social media. In November, papers did not print the names of Catherine and King Charles III after they were identified, in the Dutch edition of a new book, as family members who had allegedly asked about the skin color of the unborn child of Prince Harry and his wife, Meghan.

The floodgates broke only after Piers Morgan, a prominent TV host, disclosed the names on his program. Buckingham Palace said at the time it would contemplate legal action, but it did not act.

The mixed messages over Catherine’s attendance at Trooping the Color may end up being a simple case of bureaucratic bungling. The army said on its website that Catherine, in her capacity as colonel of the Irish guards, would review soldiers who are to parade in the ceremony on June 8.

But a Kensington Palace official said it was the palace’s job to confirm the schedule of the princess, and it has not yet done so. It has also not commented on the decision of Mr. Goldsmith, who is Carole Middleton’s younger brother, to join the cast of “Celebrity Big Brother.”

Mr. Goldsmith, 58, a former technology entrepreneur, pleaded guilty in 2017 to assaulting his wife, Julie-Ann Goldsmith.

In a promotional video for the show, a gleeful Mr. Goldsmith said: “Winding people up is probably my favorite hobby. Every part of me is just riddled with mischief and danger.”

Then he added, “I’m an absolute nightmare to live with. There’s a reason why I’ve had four wives.”

Mark Landler is the London bureau chief of The Times, covering the United Kingdom, as well as American foreign policy in Europe, Asia and the Middle East. He has been a journalist for more than three decades. More about Mark Landler

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Remove a method, edit datasets, active label correction for semantic segmentation with foundation models.

16 Mar 2024  ·  Hoyoung Kim , Sehyun Hwang , Suha Kwak , Jungseul Ok · Edit social preview

Training and validating models for semantic segmentation require datasets with pixel-wise annotations, which are notoriously labor-intensive. Although useful priors such as foundation models or crowdsourced datasets are available, they are error-prone. We hence propose an effective framework of active label correction (ALC) based on a design of correction query to rectify pseudo labels of pixels, which in turn is more annotator-friendly than the standard one inquiring to classify a pixel directly according to our theoretical analysis and user study. Specifically, leveraging foundation models providing useful zero-shot predictions on pseudo labels and superpixels, our method comprises two key techniques: (i) an annotator-friendly design of correction query with the pseudo labels, and (ii) an acquisition function looking ahead label expansions based on the superpixels. Experimental results on PASCAL, Cityscapes, and Kvasir-SEG datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our ALC framework, outperforming prior methods for active semantic segmentation and label correction. Notably, utilizing our method, we obtained a revised dataset of PASCAL by rectifying errors in 2.6 million pixels in PASCAL dataset.

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  21. CUET UG 2024 Allows Addition Of Two New Test Papers During Correction

    D uring the correction period, candidates for the CUET UG 2024 will be able to add the two additional test papers, according to the National Testing Agency (NTA). Fashion studies and tourism have ...

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  24. A Theology of the Spirits

    Anthony Reddie has said that while Black Theology has always spent a great deal of time and effort on Jesus, there has been "comparatively little on the Holy Spirit." Recognizing this reality, one hope of this paper is to invigorate and contribute to a conversation on the Spirit in Black Theology. After a brief examination of the intriguing work of Jawanza Eric Clark, who challenges taken ...

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  28. 2 new papers added to CUET UG 2024 subject list: Check full list

    CUET UG 2024 has added two new papers to its subject list -- fashion studies and tourism subjects, aligning with NEP recommendations. Candidates can add these subjects during the application correction period. Listen to Story NTA adds fashion studies and tourism to CUET UG 2024 subjects Candidates ...

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